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Fossil fuel usage causes environmental pollution, and fuel depletion, further affecting a country’s economy. Biofuels and diesel-blended fuels are practical alternatives to sustain fossil fuels. This experimental study analyses lemongrass oil’s performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics after blending with diesel. Lemongrass oil is mixed with diesel at 10 (B10), 15 (B15), and 25% (B25) and evaluated using a 5.20 kW direct injection diesel engine. B10 brake thermal efficiency is 36.47%, which is higher than other blends. The B10 displays an 8.73% decrease in brake-specific fuel consumption compared to diesel. An increase in exhaust gas temperature for B10 than diesel is 4.5%. It indicates that higher lemongrass oil blends decrease exhaust gas temperature. The decrease in average carbon monoxide emissions in B10 to diesel is 22.19%. The decrease in hydrocarbon emissions for B10 to diesel is 7.14%. Biodiesel with lemongrass oil increases nitrogen oxide (NOx) because of
Swami Punniakodi, Banumathi MunuswamyArumugam, ChelliahSuyambazhahan, SivalingamSenthil, RamalingamBalasubramanian, DhineshPapla Venugopal, InbanaathanNguyen, Van NhanhCao, Dao Nam
This article considers the application of a robust control technique for vehicle steer-by-wire (VSbW) system subjected to variations in parameters based on adaptive integral sliding mode control (AISMC). The AISMC has been designed to control the VSbW system to cope with the uncertainties in system parameters. The proposed adaptive control scheme provides the solution for perturbation boundedness, as there is no need to have a prior knowledge of perturbation bound in the uncertainty. In addition, the proposed adaptive control design can avoid overestimation of sliding gain under unknown prior knowledge of perturbations. Moreover, the inclusion of integral sliding mode control (ISMC) leads to elimination of the reaching phase in trajectory solution of controlled system. Computer simulations have been used to verify the effectiveness of proposed AISMC to show the superiority of the proposed control technique; in this regard, a comparison between AISMC and other control methods from the
Abbas, Saad JabbarHusain, Suha S.Al-Wais, SabaHumaidi, Amjad Jaleel
The following terminology has been generated by the ATA/IATA/SAE Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC) and provides terminology for design, fabrication, and repair of composite and bonded metal structures
AMS CACRC Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee
Air spring systems are challenging to mathematically model due to the complexity of their nonlinear dynamic characteristics. Numerous air spring mechanical and thermodynamic models have been proposed, but this study focused on the development and analysis of a new thermodynamic air spring model under a polytropic thermodynamic process that could accurately represent the force output in a multibody dynamics (MBD) virtual suspension subsystem. This model considered function inputs of sprung mass, un-sprung mass, and design height to efficiently generate updated air spring properties for new vehicle configurations, specifically for a self-propelled sprayer application. After this model was validated against physical ground-truth sensor data, it was utilized in a sensitivity study to experimentally test an alternative air spring component and to understand the resulting performance effect on an operator comfort key performance indicator
Adams, Bailey
In the realm of transportation science, the advent of deep learning has propelled advancements in predicting longitudinal driving behavior. This study explores the application of deep neural network architectures, specifically long–short-term memory (LSTM) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs), recognized for their effectiveness in handling sequential data. Using a 3-s temporal window that includes past vehicle progress, speed, and acceleration, the proposed model, a hybrid LSTM–CNN architecture, predicts the vehicle’s speed and progress for the next 6 s. The approach achieves state-of-the-art performance, particularly within a 4 s horizon, but remains competitive even for longer-term predictions. This is achieved despite the simplicity of its input space, which does not include information about vehicles other than the target vehicle. As a result, while its performance may decrease slightly for longer-term predictions due to the lack of environmental information, it still offers
Lucente, GiovanniMaarssoe, Mikkel SkovKahl, IrisSchindler, Julian
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of wire
AMS F Corrosion and Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
To provide specifications for lighting and marking of industrial wheeled equipment whenever such equipment is operated or traveling on a highway
OPTC3, Lighting and Sound Committee
This specification covers a corrosion- and heat-resistant steel in the form of seamless tubing
AMS F Corrosion and Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars and forgings 1.50 inches or less in diameter or least distance between parallel sides (thickness
AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance for the design of flanges on temperature sensors intended for use in gas turbine engines. Three figures detail the configuration of standard size flange mounts with bolt holes, slotted flanges, and miniaturized flanges for small probes
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines the nomenclature of temperature measuring devices. General temperature measurement related terms are defined first, followed by nomenclature specifice to temperature measuring devices, particularly thermocouples
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is a general overview of typical airborne engine vibration monitoring (EVM) systems applicable to fixed or rotary wing aircraft applications, with an emphasis on system design considerations. It describes EVM systems currently in use and future trends in EVM development. The broader scope of Health and Usage Monitoring Systems, (HUMS) is covered in SAE documents AS5391, AS5392, AS5393, AS5394, AS5395, AIR4174. This ARP also contains the essential elements of AS8054 which remain relevant and which have not been incorporated into Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) specifications
E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
The NVH performance of electric vehicles is a key indicator of vehicle quality, being the structure-borne transmission predominating at low frequencies. Many issues are typically generated by high vibrations, transmitted through different paths, and then radiated acoustically into the cabin. A combined analysis, with both finite-element and multi-body models, enables to predict the interior vehicle noise and vibration earlier in the development phases, to reduce the development time and moreover to optimize components with an increased efficiency level. In the present work, a simulation of a Hyundai electric vehicle has been performed in IDIADA VPG with a full vehicle Multi-Body (MBD) model, integrated by vibration calculations with a Finite Elements (FE) model in MSC. Nastran to analyze the comfort. Firstly, a full vehicle MBD model has been developed in MSC. ADAMS-Car including representative flexible bodies (generated from FE part models). The usage of a physical tire model and
Tonelli, RiccardoBuckert, SebastianPatrucco, AndreaBragado Perez, BeatrizGutierrez, JavierSanchez, Angel
Within homogenization techniques, an equivalent properties strategy can be utilized to equivalently represent complex structures into simple ones. This work aims to highlight the limitations of three strategies using a single layer flat panel to represent the vibro-acoustics of flat multilayered structures. The presented limitations provide insight into the potential applicability of this strategy in complex heterogeneous structures. Equivalent material properties and equivalent stiffness coefficients are obtained from the dispersion curves of the reference structures and thereafter utilized to build an equivalent simple structure. To demonstrate the accuracy and limitations of the homogenization strategies, three carefully selected flat multilayered structures are presented. The particular effects of asymmetry, orthotropy, soft core and high damping (structural loss factor, η > 0.5) in multilayered structures are addressed. A wave and forced analysis is performed utilizing the General
Tuozzo, Diego MartinAtalla, Noureddine
With the electrification of the automotive industry, electric motors have emerged as pivotal components. A profound understanding of their vibrational behaviour stands as a cornerstone for guaranteeing not only the optimal performance and reliability of vehicles in terms of noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH), but also the overall driving experience. The use of conventional finite element analysis (FEA) techniques for identification of the natural frequencies characteristics of electric motors often imposes significant computational loads, particularly when accurate material and geometrical properties and wider frequency ranges are considered. On the other hand, traditional reduced order vibroacoustic methodologies utilising simplified 2D representations, introduce several assumptions regarding boundary conditions and properties, leading to sacrifices in the accuracy of the results. To address these limitations, this study presents a novel electric motor modal analysis approach by
Andreou, PanagiotisTheodossiades, StephanosHajjaj, Amal Z.Mohammadpour, MahdiRicardo Souza, Marcos
Squeak and rattle (SAR) noise audible inside a passenger car causes the product quality perceived by the customer to deteriorate. The consequences are high warranty costs and a loss in brand reputation for the vehicle manufacturer in the long run. Therefore, SAR noise must be prevented. This research shows the application and experimental validation of a novel method to predict SAR noise on an actual vehicle interior component. The method is based on non-linear theories in the frequency domain. It uses the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) in combination with the Alternating Frequency/Time Domain Method (AFT) to solve the governing dynamic equations. The simulation approach is part of a process for SAR noise prediction in vehicle interior development presented herein. In the first step, a state-of-the-art linear frequency-domain simulation estimates an empirical risk index for SAR noise emission. Critical spots prone to SAR noise generation are located and ranked. In the second step, the
Rauter, AndreasUtzig, LukasWeisheit, KonradMarburg, Steffen
This research aims to develop an inverse controller to track target vibration signals for the application to car subsystem evaluations. In recent times, perceptive assessments of car vibration have been technically significant, particularly parts interacting with passengers in the car such as steering wheels and seats. Conventional vibration test methods make it hard to track the target vibration signals in an accurate manner without compensating for the influence of the transfer function. Hence, this paper researched the vibration tracking system based on inverse system identification and digital signal processing technologies. Specifically, the controller employed a semi-active algorithm referring to both the offline modeling of the inverse system and the adaptive control. The semi-active controller could reconstruct the target vibration signal in a more efficient and safer way. The proposed methodology was first confirmed through computation simulations using Simulink. The
Jung, GyuYeolLee, Sang KwonAn, KanghyunJang, SunyoungShin, TaejinKwak, WooseongKim, Howuk
Electric vehicles offer cleaner transportation with lower emissions, thus their increased popularity. Although, electric powertrains contribute to quieter vehicles, the shift from internal combustion engines to electric powertrains presents new Noise, Vibration, and Harshness challenges. Unlike traditional engines, electric powertrains produce distinctive tonal noise, notably from motor whistles and gear whine. These tonal components have frequency content, sometimes above 10 kHz. Furthermore, the housing of the powertrain is the interface between the excitation from the driveline via the bearings and the radiated noise (NVH). Acoustic features of the radiated noise can be predicted by utilising the transmitted forces from the bearings. Due to tonal components at higher frequencies and dense modal content, full flexible multibody dynamics simulations are computationally expensive. Based on previously developed metrics for sound quality, a methodology is proposed with the requirements
Ricardo Souza, MarcosOffner, GuenterMohammadpour, MahdiAndreou, PanagiotisTheodossiades, Stephanos
Let’s start with the uncomfortable truth, climate change is happening, and the automotive industrial network is one of the main industries contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. SKF is an energy intensive business – directly using energy, mainly in the form of electricity and gas, in its operations around the world. In addition, SKF utilizes materials, predominantly steel, and services which can be energy and carbon intensive – such as transports and raw material in production and processing. The combined impact of these direct and indirect energy uses (scope 1, 2 and 3 upstream) generates an excess of over two million metric tons of CO2e per year. This figure would however be significantly higher were it not for the actions SKF has taken to reduce both energy and carbon intensity. In 2000, we were one of the first companies to start to report and set climate targets. Acting on energy and material efficiency improvements and by switching to renewable energy, SKF is targeting
Sguotti, LauraLeprotti, ArturoFerrero, AlessandroD'Aleo, MicheleBerglund, Mats
In 2023, the European Union set more ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from passenger cars: the new fleet-wide average targets became 93.6 g/km for 2025, 49.5 g/km in 2030, going to 0 in 2035. One year away from the 2025 target, this study evaluates what contribution to CO2 reduction was achieved from new conventional vehicles and how to interpret forecasts for future efficiency gains. The European Commission’s vehicle efficiency cost-curves suggest that optimal technology adoption can guarantee up to 50% CO2 reduction by 2025 for conventional vehicles. Official registration data between 2013 and 2022, however, reveal only an average 14% increase in fuel efficiency in standard combustion vehicles, although reaching almost 23% for standard hybrids. The smallest gap between certified emissions and best-case scenarios is of 14 g/km, suggesting that some manufacturers’ declared values are approaching the optimum. Yet, the majority of vehicles do not appear to fully
Komnos, DimitriosNur, JamilTansini, AlessandroKtistakis, Markos AlexandrosSuarez, JaimeKrause, JetteFontaras, Georgios