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There have been numerous studies on stable platooning, but almost all of them have been on the longitudinal stability problem, wherein, without sufficient longitudinal stability, traffic congestion might occur more frequently than in traffic consisting of manually driven vehicles. Failure to solve this problem would reduce the value of autonomous driving. Recently, some researchers have begun to tackle the lateral stability problem, anticipating shortened intervehicle distances in the future. Here, the intervehicle distance in a platoon should be shortened to improve transportation efficiency. However, if an obstacle to be avoided exists, the following vehicles might have difficulty finding it quickly enough if the preceding vehicle occludes it from their sensors. Also, longer platoons improve transportation efficiency because the number of gaps between platoons is reduced. Hence, in this study, the lateral stability of platoons consisting of autonomous vehicles was analyzed for not
Kurishige, Masahiko
The shape and energy distribution characteristics of exhaust pulse of an asymmetric twin-scroll turbocharged engine have a significant impact on the matching between asymmetric twin-scroll turbines and engines, as well as the matching between asymmetric twin scrolls and turbine wheels. In this article, the exhaust pulse characteristics of an asymmetric twin-scroll turbocharged engine was studied. Experiments were conducted on a turbine test rig and an engine performance stand to determine the operation rules of exhaust pulse strength, turbine flow parameters, turbine isentropic energy, and turbine efficiency. The results showed that the exhaust pulse strength at the inlets of both the small and large scrolls continuously decreased with the increase of engine speed. And the flow parameters at the inlets of the small and large scrolls exhibited a “ring” or “butterfly” shape with the change of expansion ratio depending on the pressure deviation of the extreme points at the troughs on both
Wu, LiangqinJin, JianjiaoWang, JieZhang, Chenyun
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides guidance on using environmental, electrochemical, and electrical resistance measurements to monitor environment spectra and corrosivity of service environments, focusing on parameters of interest, existing measurement platforms, deployment requirements, and data processing techniques. The sensors and monitoring systems provide discrete time-based records of (1) environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, and contaminants; (2) measures of alloy corrosion of the sensor; and (3) protective coating performance of the sensor. These systems provide measurements of environmental parameters, sensor material corrosion rate, and sensor coating condition for use in assessing the risk of atmospheric corrosion of a structure. Time-based records of environment spectra and corrosivity can help determine the likelihood of corrosion to assess the risk of corrosion damage of the host structure for managed assets and aid in establishing
HM-1 Integrated Vehicle Health Management Committee
This SAE Standard describes a reference system architecture based on LTE-V2X technology defined in the set of ETSI standards based on 3GPP Release 14. It also describes cross-cutting features unique to LTE-V2X PC5 sidelink (mode 4) that can be used by current and future application standards. The audience for this document includes the developers of applications and application specifications, as well as those interested in LTE-V2X system architecture, testing, and certification
C-V2X Technical Committee
This research systematically explores the significant impact of geometrical dimensions within fused deposition modeling (FDM), with a focus on the influence of raster angle and interior fill percentage. Through meticulous experimentation and the application of response surface modeling (RSM), the influence on critical parameters such as weight, length, width at ends, width at neck, thickness, maximum load, and elongation at tensile strength is thoroughly analyzed. The study, supported by ANOVA, highlights the notable effects of raster angle and interior fill percentage, particularly on width at ends, width at neck, and thickness. During the optimization phase, specific parameters—precisely, a raster angle of 31.68 and an interior fill percentage of 27.15—are identified, resulting in an exceptional desirability score of 0.504. These insights, substantiated by robust statistical data, fill a critical gap in the understanding of 3D-printed parts, offering practical recommendations for
Moradi, MahmoudRezayat, MohammadMeiabadi, SalehFakhir, A. RasoulShamsborhan, MahmoudCasalino, GiuseppeKaramimoghadam, Mojtaba
This specification covers the requirements for producing a zinc phosphate coating on ferrous alloys and the properties of the coating
AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
This specification covers aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of round, seamless tubing
AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
This specification covers a premium aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of bars, forgings, mechanical tubing, and forging stock
AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is playing a key role in decarbonization of the global energy landscape. Its large-scale continuous use in the space industry provides a foundation for transitioning state-of-the-art capabilities to other sectors. Key advancements in materials, cryogenics, and system optimization are being applied to reduce costs and increase performance for various mobile and stationary use cases. However, some unsettled topics remain to be addressed related to production, liquefaction, storage, distribution, safety, and economics. The optimal solutions to these unsettled topics will vary depending on the region, industry sector, and application. Decarbonizing Mobility with Liquid Hydrogen provides a brief and balanced assessment of the relevant technologies, established practices, system operations, emerging trends, strategic considerations, and economic drivers. Addressing these unsettled topics is tied to the evolving economic strategies of governmental policies, public and
Moran, Matthew
Minimizing vibration transmitted from the exhaust system to the vehicle’s passenger compartment is the primary goal of this article. With the introduction of regulatory norms on NVH behavior and emissions targets, it has become necessary to address these issues scientifically. Stringent emissions regulations increased the complexity of the exhaust system resulting in increased size and weight. Exhaust system vibration attenuation is essential not only from the vehicle NVH aspects but also for the optimized functionality of the subsystems installed on it. Based on earlier studies, this work adopts a more thorough strategy to reduce vehicle vibration caused by the exhaust system by adjusting it to actual operating conditions. To achieve this, a complete vehicle model of 22 DOF is considered, which consists of a powertrain, exhaust system, chassis frame, and suspension system. A method for evaluating static and dynamic vibration response is proposed. Through the use of the vehicle’s rigid
Sarna, Amit KumarSingh, JitenderKumar, NavinSharma, Vikas
The usage of the inerter and its studies has greatly developed in recent years as it offers better performance compared to passive systems and has lower cost and power consumption than active and semi-active systems. This article focuses on studying a half-vehicle model to obtain the optimal layout of the mechatronic inerter, spring, and damper suspension system (ISD) for comfort enhancement with the aid of the structure-immittance approach, ensuring structural simplicity. The mechatronic inerter, which consists of a single capacitance, resistance, and inductance, is added to a half-vehicle model composed of an inerter, spring, and damper. All possible layouts are studied to achieve the optimal design layout. Evaluation criteria such as the performance index, system peak-to-peak value, and settling time are utilized to assess body acceleration, thereby improving passenger comfort. Furthermore, the system’s impact on dynamic tire load and suspension working space under diverse road
Kolta, Michael M.H.Mansour, Nader A.Lashin, ManarSoliman, Aref M.A.
To identify the influences of various built environment factors on ridership at urban rail transit stations, a case study was conducted on the Changsha Metro. First, spatial and temporal distributions of the station-level AM peak and PM peak boarding ridership are analyzed. The Moran’s I test indicates that both of them show significant spatial correlations. Then, the pedestrian catchment area of each metro station is delineated using the Thiessen polygon method with an 800-m radius. The built environment factors within each pedestrian catchment area, involving population and employment, land use, accessibility, and station attributes, are collected. Finally, the mixed geographically weighted regression models are constructed to quantitatively identify the effects of these built environment factors on the AM and PM peak ridership, respectively. The estimation results indicate that population density and employment density have significant but opposite influences on the AM and PM peak
Su, MeilingLiu, LingChen, XiyangLong, RongxianLiu, Chenhui
This article aims to address the challenge of recognizing driving styles, a task that has become increasingly complex due to the high dimensionality of driving data. To tackle this problem, a novel method for driver style clustering, which leverages the principal component analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction and an improved GA-K-means algorithm for clustering, is proposed. In order to distill low-dimensional features from the original dataset, PCA algorithm is employed for feature extraction and dimensionality reduction. Subsequently, an enhanced GA-K-means algorithm is utilized to cluster the extracted driving features. The incorporation of the genetic algorithm circumvents the issue of the model falling into local optima, thereby facilitating effective driver style recognition. The clustering results are evaluated using the silhouette coefficient, Calinski–Harabasz (CH) index, and GAP value, demonstrating that this method yields more stable classification results compared to
Chen, YinghaoWu, GuangqiangWu, JianWang, Hao
Despite their many similarities, natural fibers have superior mechanical properties to synthetic fibers, including higher ultimate strength, greater elongation, resistance to ethering, biodegradability, lightweight, and fewer toxications. The mechanical characteristics of several matrices reinforced with synthetic and hemp fibers were examined in the current paper. We made the various hemp composites using vinyl ester, cellulose acetate (CA), treated CA, and GFRP (glass fiber-reinforced polymer) with CA. Composites were examined for mechanical characteristics such as tensile, flexural, impact, and hardness. Composites have a density of 1.19 g/cm3. Hemp with vinyl ester has higher tensile strength and flexural properties than other composites, but in impact, GFRP with CA has more impact strength of nearly 400 J/m, so for making eco-friendly biocomposite for lightweight structural applications
Vinoth Kumar, K.Karthick, K.Balasubramanian, M.Chidhamparam, R.S.Jones, S.
This SAE Standard specifies requirements and design guidelines for electrical wiring systems of less than 50 V and cable diameters from 0.35 to 19 mm2 used on off-road, self-propelled earthmoving machines as defined in SAE J1116 and agricultural tractors as defined in ASAE S390
CTTC C2, Electrical Components and Systems
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) provide an effective solution for enhancing traffic safety. In the last few years, there have been significant efforts and progress in the development of AVs. However, the public acceptance has not fully kept up with technological advancements. Public acceptance can restrict the growth of AVs. This study focuses on investigating the acceptance and takeover behavior of drivers when interacting with AVs of different styles in various scenarios. Manual and autonomous driving experiments were designed based on the driving simulation platform. To avoid subjective bias, principal component analysis (PCA) and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) were used to classify driving styles. A total of 34 young participants (male-dominated) were recruited for this study. And they were classified into three driving styles (aggressive, moderate, and conservative). And AV styles were designed into three corresponding categories according to the different driving behavior
Li, GuanyuYu, WenlinChen, XizhengWang, WuhongGuo, HongweiJiang, Xiaobei