Journal Articles - SAE Mobilus

SAE journals provide rigorously peer-reviewed, archival research by subject matter experts--basic and applied research that is valuable to both academia and industry.

Items (10,703)
Low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is of interest for its potential to help control autoignition in advanced compression ignition (ACI) engines and mitigate knock in spark ignition (SI) engines. Previous studies have identified and investigated LTHR in both ACI and SI engines before the main high-temperature heat release (HTHR) event and, more recently, LTHR in isolation has been demonstrated in SI engines by appropriately curating the in-cylinder thermal state during compression and disabling the spark discharge. Ethanol is an increasingly common component of market fuel blends, owing to its renewable sources. In this work, the effect of adding ethanol to iso-octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) blends on their LTHR behavior is demonstrated. Tests were run on a motored single-cylinder engine elevated inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted to realize LTHR from blends of iso-octane and ethanol without entering the HTHR regime. The blends were tested with inlet temperatures of 40
White, Samuel PhilipBajwa, Abdullah UmairLeach, Felix
The transportation sector’s growing focus on addressing environmental and sustainable energy concerns has led to a pursuit of the decarbonization path. In this context, hydrogen emerges as a promising zero-carbon fuel. The ability of hydrogen fuel to provide reliable performance while reducing environmental impact makes it crucial in the quest for net zero targets. This study compares gasoline and hydrogen combustion in a single-cylinder boosted direct injection (DI) spark ignition engine under various operating conditions. Initially, the engine was run over a wide range of lambda values to determine the optimal operating point for hydrogen and demonstrate lean hydrogen combustion’s benefits over gasoline combustion. Furthermore, a load sweep test was conducted at 2000 rpm, and the performance and emission results were compared between gasoline and optimized hydrogen combustion. An in-depth analysis was conducted by varying fuel injection time and pressure. This enabled us to explore
Mohamed, MohamedBiswal, AbinashWang, XinyanZhao, HuaHarrington, AnthonyHall, Jonathan
This article introduces an innovative method for predicting tire–road interaction forces by exclusively utilizing longitudinal and lateral acceleration measurements. Given that sensors directly measuring these forces are either expensive or challenging to implement in a vehicle, this approach fills a crucial gap by leveraging readily available sensor data. Through the application of a multi-output neural network architecture, the study focuses on simultaneously predicting the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical interaction forces exerted by the rear wheels, specifically those involved in traction. Experimental validation demonstrates the efficacy of the methodology in accurately forecasting tire–road interaction forces. Additionally, a thorough analysis of the input–output relationships elucidates the intricate dynamics characterizing tire–road interactions. This research underscores the potential of neural network models to enhance predictive capabilities in vehicle dynamics, offering
Marotta, RaffaeleStrano,  SalvatoreTerzo, MarioTordela, Ciro
Transient temperature analysis is involved in the thermal simulation of the heat treatment process, in which the hot metal temperature changes with respect to time from an initial state to the final state. The critical part of the simulation is to determine the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) between the hot part and the quenching medium or quenchant. In liquid quenching, the heat transfer between the hot metal part and water becomes complicated and it is difficult to determine HTC. In the current experimentation a medium carbon steel EN 9 rod with a diameter of 50 mm and length 100 mm was quenched in water and ethylene glycol mixture with different concentrations. A part model was created; meshed and actual boundary conditions were applied to conduct computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. In order to validate CFD analysis the experimental trials were conducted. Experimental results showed a reduced cooling rate for the specimen, and also a reduction in heat-carrying capacity of
Mutalikdesai, SachinShinde, TarangNanwatkar, Ravikant
With population aging and life expectancy increasing, elderly drivers have been increasing quickly in the United States and the heterogeneity among them with age is also increasingly non-ignorable. Based on traffic crash data of Pennsylvania from 2011 to 2019, this study was designed to identify this heterogeneity by quantifying the relationship between age and crash characteristics using linear regression. It is found that for elderly driver-involved crashes, the proportion leading to casualties significantly increases with age. Meanwhile, the proportions at night, on rainy days, on snowy days, and involving driving under the influence (DUI) decrease linearly with age, implying that elderly drivers tend to avoid traveling in risky scenarios. Regarding collision types, elderly driver-involved crashes are mainly composed of angle, rear-end, and hit-fixed-object collisions, proportions of which increase linearly, decrease linearly, and keep consistent with age, respectively. The increase
Zhang, ZihaoLiu, Chenhui
The development of electric commercial vehicles brought up novel challenges in the design of efficient and reliable air brake systems. The compressor is one of the critical components of the air brake system and is responsible for supplying pressurized air to the brake system. In this study, we aimed to gather essential information regarding the pressure and flow rate requirements for the compressor in the air brake system of electric commercial vehicles. We extensively analyzed the existing air brake systems utilized in conventional commercial vehicles. We examined the performance characteristics of reciprocating compressors traditionally employed in these systems. Recognizing the need for novel compressor designs tailored to electric commercial vehicles, we focused on identifying the specifics such as efficiency, performance characteristics, reliability, and cost of the compressor. Our study utilized theoretical calculations to ascertain the optimal pressure and flow rate parameters
Dhere, SiddhantGupta, SuryakantKumar, G. C. MohanReddy, Vamsikrishna
In this article, we investigated the effects of material parameters on the clinching joint geometry using finite element model (FEM) simulation and machine learning-based metamodels. The FEM described in this study was first developed to reproduce the shape of clinching joints between two AA5052 aluminum alloy sheets. Neural network metamodels were then used to investigate the relation between material parameters and joint geometry as predicted by FEM. By interpreting the data-driven metamodels using explainable machine learning techniques, the effects of the hard-to-measure material parameters during the clinching are studied. It is demonstrated that the friction between the two metal sheets and the flow stress of the material at high (up to 100%) plastic strain are the most influential factors on the interlock and the neck thickness of the clinching joints. However, their dependence on the material parameters is found to be opposite. First, while the friction between the two metal
Nguyen, Duc VinhTran, Van-XuanLin, Pai-ChenNguyen, Minh ChienWu, Yan-Jiu
The escalating demand for more efficient and sustainable working machines has pushed manufacturers toward adopting electric hybrid technology. Electric powertrains promise significant fuel savings, which are highly dependent on the nature of the duty cycle of the machine. In this study, experimental data measured from a wheel loader in a short-loading Y-cycle is used to exercise a developed mathematical model of a series electric hybrid wheel loader. The efficiency and energy consumption of the studied architecture are analyzed and compared to the consumption of the measured conventional machine that uses a diesel engine and a hydrostatic transmission. The results show at least 30% reduction in fuel consumption by using the proposed series electric hybrid powertrain, the diesel engine rotational speed is steady, and the transient loads are mitigated by the electric powertrain. The model also shows that 20% of drive energy could be regenerated through braking using the drive electric
Allam, MohamedFernandez, OrlandoLinjama, Matti
Reinforcement learning (RL) is a computational approach to understanding and automating goal-directed learning and decision-making. The difference from other computational approaches is the emphasis on learning by an agent from direct interaction with its environment to achieve long-term goals [1]. In this work, the RL algorithm was implemented using Python. This then enables the RL algorithm to make decisions to optimize the output from the system and provide real-time adaptation to changes and their retention for future usage. A diesel engine is a complex system where a RL algorithm can address the NOx–soot emissions trade-off by controlling fuel injection quantity and timing. This study used RL to optimize the fuel injection timing to get a better NO–soot trade-off for a common rail diesel engine. The diesel engine utilizes a pilot–main and a pilot–main–post-fuel injection strategy. Change of fuel injection quantity was not attempted in this study as the main objective was to
Vaze, AbhijeetMehta, Pramod S.Krishnasamy, Anand
This article presents the design and the analysis of a control logic capable of optimizing vehicle’s energy consumption during a braking maneuver. The idea arose with the purpose of enhancing regeneration and health management in electric vehicles with electro-actuated brakes. Regenerative braking improves energy efficiency and allows a considerable reduction in secondary emissions, but its efficiency is strongly dependent on the state of charge (SoC) of the battery. In the analyzed case, a vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors (one for each wheel), four electro-actuated brakes, and a battery was considered. The proposed control system can manage and optimize electrical and energy exchanges between the driveline’s components according to the working conditions, monitoring parameters such as SoC of the battery, brake temperature, battery temperature, motor temperature, and acts to optimize the total energy consumption. The solution devised allows first to maximize the effects of
Tempone, Giuseppe Piode Carvalho Pinheiro, HenriqueImberti, GiovanniCarello, Massimiliana
This research looks into how abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) can be used on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials, specifically how the kerf characteristics change with respect to change in process parameters. We carefully looked into four important process parameters: stand-off distance (SOD), water pressure (WP), traverse rate (TR), and abrasive mass flow rate (AMFR). The results showed that as SOD goes up, the kerf taper angle goes up because of jet dispersion, but as WP goes up, the angle goes down because jet kinetic energy goes up. The TR was directly related to the kerf taper angle, but it made the process less stable. The kerf drop angle was not greatly changed by AMFR. When it came to kerf top width, SOD made it wider, WP made it narrower, TR made it narrower, and AMFR made it a little wider. When the settings (SOD: 1 mm, WP: 210 MPa, TR: 150 mm/min, AMFR: 200 g/min) were optimized, the kerf taper angle and kerf top width were lowered. This improved the accuracy
Chandgude, AbhimanyuBarve, Shivprakash B.
This article presents a strategy for the virtual calibration of a large-scale model representing a self-piercing rivet (SPR) connection. The connection is formed between a stack of three AA6016-T4 aluminum sheets and one SPR. The calibration process involves material characterization, a detailed riveting process simulation, virtual joint unit tests, and the final large-scale model calibration. The virtual tests were simulated by detailed solid element FE models of the joint unit. These detailed models were validated using experimental tests, namely peeling, single-lap joint, and cross-tests. The virtual parameter calibration was compared to the experimental calibration and finally applied to component test simulations. The article contains both experiments and numerical models to characterize the mechanical behavior of the SPR connection under large deformation and failure
André, VictorCostas, MiguelLangseth, MagnusMorin, David
Measurements of air–fuel ratio (AFR) and λ (AFRactual/AFRstoich) are crucial for understanding internal combustion engine (ICE) performance. However, current λ sensors suffer from long light-off times (on the order of seconds following a cold start) and limited time resolution. In this study, a four-color mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) sensor was developed to provide 5 kHz measurements of temperature, CO, CO2, and NO in engine-out exhaust. This LAS sensor was then combined with 1 kHz hydrocarbon (HC) measurements from a flame ionization detector (FID), and the Spindt exhaust gas analysis method to provide 1 kHz measurements of λ. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time-resolved measurement of λ during engine cold starts using the full Spindt method. Three tests with various engine AFR calibrations were conducted and analyzed: (1) 10% lean, (2) stoichiometric, and (3) 10% rich. The measurements were acquired in the exhaust of a light-duty truck with an 8
Stiborek, Joshua W.Kempema, Nathan J.Schwartz, Charles J.Szente, Joseph J.Loos, Michael J.Goldenstein, Christopher S.
A vehicle’s heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system plays a dual role in passenger thermal comfort and safety. The functional aspects of safety include the front windshield demist and deicing feature of the system. The thin-film mist is a result of condensation of water vapor on the inner side of the windshield, which occurs at low ambient temperatures or high humidity. This mist deposition depends on the air saturation pressure at the front windshield. Indian regulation AIS-084 defines the experimental setup for testing, which encompasses both the mist deposition and its subsequent demist process. This regulation mandates testing, which occurs at a later stage of product development. This performance validation can be performed using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach. Current work summarizes the simulation process for both the mist deposition and the subsequent demisting phenomenon. The complexity of the flow physics is captured via the transient
Nomani, MustafaBiswas, KundanKandekar,  AmbadasTadigadapa, Suresh
In this article, the effects of mixture dilution using EGR or excessive air on adiabatic flame temperature, laminar flame speed, and minimum ignition energy are studied to illustrate the fundamental benefits of lean combustion. An ignition system developing a new active pre-chamber (APC) design was assessed, aimed at improving the indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) of a 1.5 L four-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The engine combustion process was simulated with the SAGE detailed chemistry model within the CONVERGE CFD tool, assuming the primary reference fuel (PRF) to be a volumetric mixture of 93% iso-octane and 7% n-heptane. The effects of design parameters, such as APC volume, nozzle diameter, and nozzle orientations, on ITE were studied. It was found that the ignition jet velocity from the pre-chamber to the main chamber had a significant impact on the boundary heat losses and combustion phasing. The simulation showed that, under 16.46 compression ratio (CR) and
Peethambaram, Mohan RajZhou, QuanbaoWaters, BenjaminPendlebury, KenFu, HuiyuHaines, AndrewHale, DavidHu, TiegangZhang, JiaxiangWu, XuesongZhang, Xiaoyu
This study focused on the synthesis and characterization of monodisperse spherical TiO2 nanoparticles doped on the surface with Se (IV) in order to increase the mechanical properties of the bonded joint reinforcing. Work will begin with the synthesis of monodisperse quasi-spherical TiO2 nanoparticles with a modal diameter of less than 20 nm, using the sol-gel technique. Se (IV) selenium surface doping changed the specimen’s chemistry and physics. Different initial concentrations of the doping element will be tested. Next, a physicochemical characterization of the different solid systems will be carried out in order to determine the effect of the doping element on the properties of titanium dioxide. Their morphology and size will be studied through transmission electron microscope observations; volume chemical composition by X-ray diffraction analysis, EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray), and XRF (X-ray fluorescence). The careful selection of 4% and 6% concentrations produced the optimum
Hadjez, FayssalMaouche, HichemBoumediri, HaithemChorfi, SofianeBoukelia, Taqiy Eddine
AISI H13 hot work tool steel is commonly used for applications such as hot forging and hot extrusion in mechanical working operations that face thermal and mechanical stress fluctuations, leading to premature failures. Cryogenic treatment was applied for AISI H13 steel to improve the surface hardness and thereby fatigue resistance. This work involves failure analysis of H13 steel specimens subjected to cryogenic treatment and gas nitriding. The specimens were heated to 1020°C, oil quenched followed by double tempering at 550°C for 2 h, and subsequently, deep cryogenically treated at −185°C in the cryochamber. Gas nitriding was carried out for 24 h at 500°C for 200 μm case depth in NH3 surroundings. The specimens were subjected to rotating bending fatigue at constant amplitude loading at room temperature. Measurement of surface roughness, hardness, and microstructural analysis indicated improved fatigue life for cryogenically treated specimens as compared to gas nitride, which could be
Shinde, TarangMutalikdesai, SachinJomde, AmitShamkuwar, Sonal
This study aims to explore the wear characteristics of fused deposition modeling (FDM) printed automotive parts and techniques to improve wear performance. The surface roughness of the parts printed from this widely used additive manufacturing technology requires more attention to reduce surface roughness further and subsequently the mechanical strength of the printed geometries. The main aspect of this study is to examine the effect of process parameters and annealing on the surface roughness and the wear rate of FDM printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) parts to diminish the issue mentioned above. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) G99 specified test specimens were fabricated for the investigations. The parameters considered in this study were nozzle temperature, infill density, printing velocity, and top/bottom pattern. The hybrid tool, i.e., GA–ANN (genetic algorithm–artificial neural network) has been opted to train, predict, and optimize the surface
Narang, RajanKaushik, AshishDhingra, Ashwani KumarChhabra, Deepak
In today’s landscape, environmental protection and nature conservation have become paramount across industries, spurring the ever-increasing aspect of decarbonization. Regulatory measures in transportation have shifted focus away from combustion engines, making way for electric mobility, particularly in smaller engines. However, larger applications like ships and stationary power generation face limitations, not enabling an analogous shift to electrification. Instead, the emphasis shifted to zero-carbon fuel alternatives such as hydrogen and ammonia. In addition to minimal carbon-containing emissions due to incineration of lubricating oil, hydrogen combustion with air results in nitrogen oxide emissions, still necessitating quantification for engine operation compliance with legal regulations. A commonly used multicomponent exhaust gas analyzer on FTIR principle can suffer from higher volumetric water shares in the exhaust gas of the hydrogen engine, influencing the emission analysis
Armbruster, FelinaKraus, ChristophPrager, MaximilianHärtl, MartinJaensch , Malte
Biogas (60% methane–40% CO2 approximately) can be used in the reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) mode along with a high-reactivity fuel (HRF). In this work dimethyl ether (DME) that can also be produced from renewable sources was used as the HRF as a move toward sustainable power generation. The two-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine modified to work in the DME–biogas RCCI (DMB-RCCI) mode was studied under different proportions of methane (45–95%) in biogas since the quality of this fuel can vary depending on the feedstock and production method. Only a narrow range of biogas to DME ratios could be tolerated in this mode at each output without misfire or knock. Detailed experiments were conducted at brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) of 3 and 5 bar at a speed of 1500 rpm and comparisons were made with the diesel–biogas dual-fuel and diesel–biogas RCCI modes under similar methane flow rates while the proportion of CO2 was varied. The DMB-RCCI mode exhibited superior
Gopa Kumar, S.Mohan, AneeshRamesh, A.
This article focuses on the development of an active braking control system tailored for electric vehicles. The essence of this system lies in its ability to regulate the slip coefficient to optimize traction during braking, thereby maximizing energy recuperation. In the context of the simulation on enhancing regenerative energy capture in electric vehicles, the use of integral sliding mode control (ISMC) as an alternative for regulating braking performance can be understood through a comparison of two key output variables in braking control systems: wheel deceleration and wheel slip. Traditionally, wheel deceleration has been a controlled variable in braking systems, and it is still utilized in some anti-lock braking systems (ABS). It can be easily measured using a basic wheel encoder. However, the dynamic performance of wheel deceleration control may suffer when there are rapid changes in the road surface. On the contrary, regulating wheel slip offers high robustness from a dynamic
Direm, ChaimaHartani, Kada
Automotive subframe is a critical chassis component as it connects with the suspension, drive units, and vehicle body. All the vibration from the uneven road profile and drive units are passed through the subframe to the vehicle body. OEMs usually have specific component-level drive point dynamic stiffness (DPDS) requirements for subframe suppliers to achieve their full vehicle NVH goals. Traditionally, the DPDS improvement for subframes welded with multiple stamping pieces is done by thickness and shape optimization. The thickness optimization usually ends up with a huge mass penalty since the stamping panel thickness has to be changed uniformly not locally. Structure shape and section changes normally only work for small improvements due to the layout limitations. Tuned rubber mass damper (TRMD) has been widely used in the automotive industry to improve the vehicle NVH performance thanks to the minimum mass it adds to the original structure. Therefore, this article establishes a
Gao, JianghuaZhang, XinYu, Xiao
Fossil fuel reserves are swiftly depleting when consumer demand for these fuels continues to rise. In order to meet the demand and diminish the pollution derived through conventional fuels, it is crucial to employ cleaner fuels made from substitutes such as waste biomass. Also, converting waste biomass to fuel can lower usage of landfills. There are many biomass resources that are suitable for fuel production, out of which groundnut is also a potential feedstock. Groundnut shell biomass was chosen for this study, as it is a waste leftover during shelling of groundnuts for various commercial applications. The procured groundnut shells were converted to oil using pyrolysis process and was distilled. Both the pyrolysis oil and the distilled oil were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared instrument wherein the presence of functional groups such as alcohols, amines, and carboxylic acids were identified. Further analysis of the distilled oil using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
Chelladorai, PrabhuBalakrishnan, Navaneetha KrishnanKeerthiga, G.Singhvi, SambhavAtekov, Parahat
This study demonstrates the defossilized operation of a heavy-duty port-fuel-injected dual-fuel engine and highlights its potential benefits with minimal retrofitting effort. The investigation focuses on the optical characterization of the in-cylinder processes, ranging from mixture formation, ignition, and combustion, on a fully optically accessible single-cylinder research engine. The article revisits selected operating conditions in a thermodynamic configuration combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. One approach is to quickly diminish fossil fuel use by retrofitting present engines with decarbonized or defossilized alternatives. As both fuels are oxygenated, a considerable change in the overall ignition limits, air–fuel equivalence ratio, burning rate, and resistance against undesired pre-ignition or knocking is expected, with dire need of characterization. Two simultaneous high-speed recording channels granted cycle-resolved access to the natural flame luminosity
Mühlthaler, Markus SebastianHärtl, MartinJaensch, Malte
Using ammonia as a carbon-free fuel is a promising way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the maritime sector. Due to the challenging fuel properties, like high autoignition temperature, high latent heat of vaporization, and low laminar flame speeds, a dual-fuel combustion process is the most promising way to use ammonia as a fuel in medium-speed engines. Currently, many experimental investigations regarding premixed and diffusive combustion are carried out. A numerical approach has been employed to simulate the complex dual-fuel combustion process to better understand the influences on the diffusive combustion of ammonia ignited by a diesel pilot. The simulation results are validated based on optical investigations conducted in a rapid compression–expansion machine (RCEM). The present work compares a tabulated chemistry simulation approach to complex chemistry-based simulations. The investigations evaluate the accuracy of both modeling approaches and point out the limitations and
Krnac, DominikManickam, BhuvaneswaranHoland, PeterPathak, UtkarshScharl, ValentinSattelmayer, Thomas
A detailed investigation was carried out on the performance, combustion, and emissions of a single-cylinder direct injection hydrogen spark ignition (SI) engine with either a side-mounted direct injection (SDI) or a centrally installed direct injection (CDI) injector. The first part of the study analyzed the performance and emissions characteristics of CDI and SDI engine operations with different injection timings and pressures. This was followed by comparing the engine’s performance and emissions of the CDI and SDI operations at different engine speeds and relative air-to-fuel ratios (lambda) with the optimized injection pressure and timings. Furthermore, the performance and emission attributes of the hydrogen engine with the CDI and SDI setups were conducted at a fixed λ value of 2.75 across a broad spectrum of engine loads. The study’s main outcome demonstrates that both direct injection systems produced near-zero CO2, CO, and HC emissions. Stable engine operations could be achieved
Mohamed, MohamedMirshahi, MiladJiang, ChangzhaoZhao, HuaHarrington, AnthonyHall, Jonathan
The objectives of this study were to provide insights on how injury risk is influenced by occupant demographics such as sex, age, and size; and to quantify differences within the context of commonly-occurring real-world crashes. The analyses were confined to either single-event collisions or collisions that were judged to be well-defined based on the absence of any significant secondary impacts. These analyses, including both logistic regression and descriptive statistics, were conducted using the Crash Investigation Sampling System for calendar years 2017 to 2021. In the case of occupant sex, the findings agree with those of many recent investigations that have attempted to quantify the circumstances in which females show elevated rates of injury relative to their male counterparts given the same level bodily insult. This study, like others, provides evidence of certain female-specific injuries. The most problematic of these are AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ upper-extremity and lower-extremity
Dalmotas, DainiusChouinard, AlineComeau, Jean-LouisGerman, AlanRobbins, GlennPrasad, Priya
Understanding left-turn vehicle-pedestrian accident mechanisms is critical for developing accident-prevention systems. This study aims to clarify the features of driver behavior focusing on drivers’ gaze, vehicle speed, and time to collision (TTC) during left turns at intersections on left-hand traffic roads. Herein, experiments with a sedan and light-duty truck (< 7.5 tons GVW) are conducted under four conditions: no pedestrian dummy (No-P), near-side pedestrian dummy (Near-P), far-side pedestrian dummy (Far-P) and near-and-far side pedestrian dummies (NF-P). For NF-P, sedans have a significantly shorter gaze time for left-side mirrors compared with light-duty trucks. The light-duty truck’s average speed at the initial line to the intersection (L1) and pedestrian crossing line (L0) is significantly lower than the sedan’s under No-P, Near-P, and NF-P conditions, without any significant difference between any two conditions. The TTC for sedans is significantly shorter than that for
Matsui, YasuhiroNarita, MasashiOikawa, Shoko
The goal of this study was to gather and compare kinematic response and injury data on both female and male whole-body Post-mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) responses to Underbody Blast (UBB) loading. Midsized males (50th percentile, MM) have historically been most used in biomechanical testing and were the focus of the Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) program, thus this population subgroup was selected to be the baseline for female comparison. Both small female (5th percentile, SF) and large female (75th percentile, LF) PMHS were included in the test series to attempt to discern whether differences between male and female responses were predominantly driven by sex or size. Eleven tests, using 20 whole-body PMHS, were conducted by the research team. Preparation of the rig and execution of the tests took place at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG) in Aberdeen, MD. Two PMHS were used in each test. The Accelerative Loading Fixture (ALF) version 2, located at APG’s Bear Point range
Pietsch, HollieCristino, DanielleDanelson, KerryBolte, JohnMason, MatthewKemper, AndrewCavanaugh, JohnHardy, Warren
Frontal-crash sled tests were conducted to assess submarining protection and abdominal injury risk for midsized male occupants in the rear seat of modern vehicles. Twelve sled tests were conducted in four rear-seat vehicle-bucks with twelve post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Select kinematic responses and submarining incidence were compared to previously observed performance of the Hybrid III 50th-percentile male and THOR-50M ATDs (Anthropomorphic Test Devices) in matched sled tests conducted as part of a previous study. Abdominal pressure was measured in the PMHS near each ASIS (Anterior Superior Iliac Spine), in the inferior vena cava, and in the abdominal aorta. Damage to the abdomen, pelvis, and lumbar spine of the PMHS was also identified. In total, five PMHS underwent submarining. Four PMHS, none of which submarined, sustained pelvis fractures and represented the heaviest of the PMHS tested. Submarining of the PMHS occurred in two out of four vehicles. In the matched tests, the
Guettler, Allison J.Bianco, Samuel T.Albert, Devon L.Boyle, David M.Kemper, Andrew R.Hardy, Warren N.
THOR-AV 5F, a modified THOR-5F dummy, was designed to represent both upright and reclined occupants in vehicle crashworthiness studies. The dummy was evaluated in four test conditions: a) 25° seatback, 15 km/h, b) 25° seatback, 32 km/h, c) 45° seatback, 15 km/h, d) 45° seatback, 32 km/h. The dummy’s biomechanical responses were compared against those of postmortem human subjects (PMHS) tested in the same test conditions. The latest National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) BioRank method was used to provide a biofidelity ranking score (BRS) for each data channel in the tests to assess the dummy’s biofidelity objectively. The evaluation was categorized into two groups: restraint system and dummy. In the four test conditions, the restraint system showed good biofidelity with BRS scores of 1.49, 1.47, 1.15, and 1.79, respectively. The THOR-AV 5F demonstrated excellent biofidelity in three test conditions: 25° seatback, 15 km/h (BRS = 0.76); 25° seatback, 32 km/h (BRS = 0.89
Wang, Z. JerryHumm, JohnHauschild, Hans W.
In recent years, the use of cutting fluids has become crucial in hard metal machining. Traditional non-biodegradable cutting fluids have long dominated various industries for machining. This research presents an innovative approach by suggesting a sustainable alternative: a cutting fluid made from a blend of glycerol (GOL) and distilled water (DW). We conducted a thorough investigation, creating 11 different GOL and DW mixtures in 10% weight increments. These mixtures were rigorously tested through 176 experiments with varying loads and rotational speeds. Using Design-Expert software (DES), we identified the optimal composition to be 70% GOL and 30% DW, with the lowest coefficient of friction (CFN). Building on this promising fluid, we explored further improvements by adding three nanoscale additives: Nano-graphite (GHT), zinc oxide (ZnO), and reduced graphene oxide (RGRO) at different weight percentages (0.06%, 0.08%, 0.1%, and 0.3%). Comparative tests using a four-ball wear tester
Ganesh, S.Sethuramalingam, Prabhu
Taking the semi-active suspension system as the research object, the forward model and inverse model of a continuous damping control (CDC) damper are established based on the characteristic test of the CDC damper. A multi-mode semi-active suspension controller is designed to meet the diverse requirements of vehicle performance under different road conditions. The controller parameters of each mode are determined using a genetic algorithm. In order to achieve automatic switching of the controller modes under different road conditions, a method is proposed to identify the road roughness based on the sprung mass acceleration. The average of the ratio between the squared sprung mass acceleration and the vehicle speed within a specific time window is taken as the identification indicator for road roughness. Simulation results show that the proposed road roughness identification method can accurately identify smooth roads (Class A–B), slightly rough roads (Class C), and severely rough roads
Feng, JieyinYin, ZhihongXia, ZhaoWang, WeiweiShangguan, Wen-BinRakheja, Subhash
With the rapid growth of automobile ownership, traffic congestion has become a major concern at intersections. In order to alleviate the blockage of intersection traffic flow caused by signals, reduce the length of vehicle congestion and waiting time, and for improving the intersection access efficiency, therefore, this article proposes a vehicle speed guidance strategy based on the intersection signal change by combining the vehicle–road cooperative technology. The randomness of vehicle traveling speed in the road is being considered. According to the vehicle traveling speed, a speed guidance model is established under different conditions. Finally, the effectiveness of the speed guidance strategy in this article is verified through experimental simulation, and the benefits of the intersection with intelligent control and traditional control are compared, and the experimental results show that the intelligent control method in this article can effectively reduce vehicle congestion and
Li, WenliLi, AnRen, YongpengWang, Kan
Various feedstocks can be employed for biodiesel production, leading to considerable variation in composition and engine fuel characteristics. Using biodiesels originating from diverse feedstocks introduces notable variations in engine characteristics. Therefore, it is imperative to scrutinize the composition and properties of biodiesel before deployment in engines, a task facilitated by predictive models. Additionally, the international commercialization of biodiesel fuel is contingent upon stringent regulations. The traditional experimental measurement of biodiesel properties is laborious and expensive, necessitating skilled personnel. Predictive models offer an alternative approach by estimating biodiesel properties without depending on experimental measurements. This research is centered on building models that correlate mid-infrared spectra of biodiesel and critical fuel properties, encompassing kinematic viscosity, cetane number, and calorific value. The novelty of this
Bukkarapu, Kiran RajKrishnasamy, Anand
In order to efficiently predict and investigate a vehicle’s vertical dynamics, it is necessary to consider the suspension component properties holistically. Although the effects of suspension stiffness and damping characteristics on vertical dynamics are widely understood, the impact of suspension friction in various driving scenarios has rarely been studied in both simulation and road tests for several decades. The present study addresses this issue by performing driving tests using a special device that allows a modification of the shock absorber or damper friction, and thus the suspension friction to be modified independently of other suspension parameters. Initially, its correct functioning is verified on a shock absorber test rig. A calibration and application routine is established in order to assign definite additional friction forces at high reproducibility levels. The device is equipped in a medium-class passenger vehicle, which is driven on various irregular road sections as
Deubel, ClemensSchneider, Scott JarodProkop, Günther
For taking counter measures in advance to prevent accidental risks, it is of significance to explore the causes and evolutionary mechanism of ship collisions. This article collects 70 ship collision accidents in Zhejiang coastal waters, where 60 cases are used for modeling while 10 cases are used for verification (testing). By analyzing influencing factors (IFs) and causal chains of accidents, a Bayesian network (BN) model with 19 causal nodes and 1 consequential node is constructed. Parameters of the BN model, namely the conditional probability tables (CPTs), are determined by mathematical statistics methods and Bayesian formulas. Regarding each testing case, the BN model’s prediction on probability of occurrence is above 80% (approaching 100% indicates the certainty of occurrence), which verifies the availability of the model. Causal analysis based on the backward reasoning process shows that H (Human error) is the main IF resulting in ship collisions. The causal chain that maximizes
Tian, YanfeiQiao, HuiHua, LinAi, Wanzheng
A new revolution has taken place in the automobile industry in recent years, intelligent and connected vehicle (ICV) [1] has achieved a higher market share in recent years and relevant technologies have been quickly developed and widely accepted, so the auto industry needs to make regulations for automated driving system (ADS) on ICVs, mainly to assure the safety of ICV. To meet the requirements above, the definition of operational design domain (ODD) [2, 3] was put forward by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) a few years ago. ODD defines necessary external environment conditions for the ADS to operate, but the internal status of the vehicle is also a key part of judging whether ADS can operate safely. Based on that, we propose a novel definition named operational design condition (ODC), which can supersede ODD to play a bigger role in improving regulations and standards, and promoting vehicle safety and technological
Sun, HangWu, JiajieZhang, MiaoZhang, Hang
Driving schedule of every vehicle involves transient operation in the form of changing engine speed and load conditions, which are relatively unchanged during steady-state conditions. As well, the results from transient conditions are more likely to reflect the reality. So, the current research article is focused on analyzing the biofuel-like lemon peel oil (LPO) behavior under real-world transient conditions with fuel injection parameter MAP developed from steady-state experiments. At first, engine parameters and response MAPs are developed by using a response surface methodology (RSM)-based multi-objective optimization technique. Then, the vehicle model has been developed by incorporating real-world transient operating conditions. Finally, the developed injection parameters and response MAPs are embedded in the vehicle model to analyze the biofuel behavior under transient operating conditions. The results obtained for diesel-fueled light commercial vehicle (LCV) have shown better
Saiteja, PajarlaAshok, B.
Compared to other age groups, older adults are at more significant risk of hip fracture when they fall. In addition to the higher risk of falls for the elderly, fear of falls can reduce this population’s outdoor activity. Various preventive solutions have been proposed to reduce the risk of hip fractures ranging from wearable hip protectors to indoor flooring systems. A previously developed rubberized asphalt mixture demonstrated the potential to reduce the risk of head injury. In the current study, the capability of the rubberized asphalt sample was evaluated for the risk of hip fracture for an average elderly male and an average elderly female. A previously developed human body model was positioned in a fall configuration that would give the highest impact forces toward regular asphalt. Three different rubber contents with 14, 28, 33 weight percent (% wt.) were implemented as the ground alongside one regular non-rubberized (0%) asphalt mixture, one baseline, and one extra-compliant
Sahandifar, PooyaWallqvist, VivecaKleiven, Svein
Increasing engine efficiency is essential to reducing emissions, which is a priority for automakers. Unconventional modes such as boosted and highly dilute operation have the potential to increase engine efficiency but suffer from stability concerns and cyclic variability. To aid engineers in designing ignition systems that reduce cyclic variability in such engine operation modes, reliable and accurate spark-ignition models are necessary. In this article, a Lagrangian–Eulerian spark-ignition (LESI) model is used to simulate electrical discharge, spark channel elongation, and ignition in inert or reacting crossflow within a combustion vessel, at different pressures, flow speeds, and dilution rates. First the model formulation is briefly revisited. Then, the experimental and simulations setups are presented. The results showcase the model’s ability to predict the secondary circuit voltage, current, and power signals, in addition to the spark channel elongation, for the inert cases, or
Kazmouz, Samuel J.Scarcelli, RiccardoBresler, Matthew
The initial cost of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) is higher than internal combustion engine-powered vehicles (ICEVs) due to expensive batteries. Various factors affect the total cost of ownership of a vehicle. In India, consumers are concerned with a vehicle’s initial purchase cost and prefer owning an economical vehicle. The higher cost and shorter range of BEVs compared to ICEVs severely limit their penetration in the Indian market. However, government subsidies and incentives support BEVs. The total cost of ownership assessment is used to evaluate the entire cost of a vehicle to find the most economical option among different powertrains. This study compares 2W (two-wheeler) and 4W (four-wheeler) BEV’s cost vis-à-vis equivalent ICEVs in Delhi and Mumbai. The cost analysis assesses the current and future government policies to promote BEVs. Two assumed policies were applied to estimate future scenarios. Annual distance traveled, battery replacement assumptions, and fuel
Kumar, DeepakF. N. Abdul-Manan, AmirKalghatgi, GautamAgarwal, Avinash Kumar
With the rapid development and the growing deployment of autonomous ground vehicles (AGVs) worldwide, there is an increasing need to design reliable, efficient, robust, and scalable motion-planning algorithms. These algorithms are crucial for fulfilling the desired goals of safety, comfort, efficiency, and accessibility. To design optimal motion-planning algorithms, it is beneficial to explore existing techniques and make improvements by addressing the limitations of associated techniques, utilizing hybrid algorithms, or developing novel strategies. This article categorizes and overviews numerous motion-planning algorithms for AGVs, shedding light on their strengths and weaknesses for a comprehensive understanding. For various applications of AGVs, such as urban and off-road autonomous driving, the features of driving conditions and vehicle kinodynamics are outlined, and sample-tailored motion-planning algorithms built upon relevant canonical techniques are briefly introduced. As a
Gautam, AjiteshHe, YupingLin, Xianke
In 2018, the state explicitly proposed to “promote the cancellation of expressway toll stations at provincial boundaries.” Electronic toll collection has become the main toll collection method on expressways. With the construction of ETC toll lanes, the proportion of ETC vehicles in the expressway traffic flow is increasing, and the rapid processing of vehicle special situations is facing challenges. At present, various provinces have adopted various methods to improve the traffic efficiency and transaction success rate of ETC from the issuance link, customer service link, and lane transaction link. According to statistical data, the average transaction success rate of ETC lane is not higher than 99% at present. As of October 2021, the number of ETC users nationwide has reached 256 million, and there are an average of 40 million ETC transactions per day across the network, that is, about 400,000 special cases need to be processed. How to efficiently deal with special vehicles in the
Guo, XiaohuiGuo, FengbinZhang, MengweiZheng, FengfeiLiu, Chunya
This article presents a technical study on the integration of hybrid renewable energy sources (RES) with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology, aiming to enhance energy efficiency, grid stability, and mitigating power imbalances. The growing adoption of RES and electric vehicles (EV) necessitates innovative solutions to mitigate intermittency and optimize resource utilization. The study’s primary objective is to design and analyze a hybrid distribution generation system encompassing solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power stations, along with a conventional diesel generator, connected to the utility grid. A V2G system is strategically embedded within the microgrid to facilitate bidirectional power exchange between EV and the grid. Methodologically, MATLAB/Simulink® 2021a is employed to simulate the system’s performance over one day. This research addresses a critical research gap in comprehensively evaluating the synergy between hybrid RES and V2G technology within a microgrid context. The
Al-Shetwi, Ali Q.
A multiple output dynamically adjustable capacity system (MODACS) is developed to provide multiple voltage output levels while supporting varying power loads by switching multiple battery strings between serial and parallel connections. Each module of the system can service either a low voltage bus by placing its strings in parallel or a high voltage bus with its strings in series. Since MODACS contains several such modules, it can produce multiple voltages simultaneously. By switching which strings and modules service the different output rails and by varying the connection strategy over time, the system can balance the states of charge (SOC) of the strings and modules. A model predictive control (MPC) algorithm is formulated to accomplish this balancing. MODACS operates in various power modes, each of which imposes unique constraints on switching between configurations. Those constraints are mathematically formalized so that MPC can be applied to minimize predicted SOC differences
Kang, Jun-MoRich, Dave
With the continuous progress of society, people have higher and higher requirements for the quality of life. Energy is an important substance base for human existence and development. In the construction industry, construction project construction period cost control has become particularly important. The existing engineering projects have not significantly optimized the quality of construction period cost, leading to waste of resources. Therefore, it is particularly important to establish an efficient, reasonable, and perfect system to ensure the scientific use of construction project construction period cost. The Internet of things (IoT) technology was applied to engineering projects to study the fuzzy balance optimization of construction period, cost and quality of engineering projects, and analyze the connotation and influencing factors of engineering quality and the construction project target system under the concept of sustainable development, and through the balance analysis of
Feng, XieHu, PanChen, Sibao
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