SAE EDGE™ Research Reports - SAE Mobilus

SAE EDGE™ Research Reports provide state-of-the-art and state-of-industry examinations of the most significant topics facing the mobility industry today. With a dedicated focus on emerging topics in new mobility, they offer a structured framework and methodical approach for thinking about and working with rapidly shifting technologies.

Items (145)
The integration of software-defined approaches with software-defined battery electric vehicles brings forth challenges related to privacy regulations, such as European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation and Data Act, as well as the California Consumer Privacy Act. Compliance with these regulations poses barriers for foreign brands and startups seeking entry into these markets. Car manufacturers and suppliers, particularly software suppliers, must navigate complex privacy requirements when introducing vehicles to these regions. Privacy for Software-defined Battery Electric Vehicles aims to educate practitioners across different market regions and fields. It seeks to stimulate discussions for improvements in processes and requirements related to privacy aspects regarding these vehicles. The report covers the significance of privacy, potential vulnerabilities and risks, technical challenges, safety risks, management and operational challenges, and the benefits of compliance with
Abdul Hamid, Umar Zakir
What are the differences between the traditional automotive companies and “new mobility” players—and even more importantly, who will win? Those are the questions that this report discusses, taking a particular focus on engineering aspects in the automotive/mobility sector and addressing issues regarding innovation, business, market, and regulation Two Approaches to Mobility Engineering was developed with input from nearly 20 industry experts from new and established companies to gain an overview of the intricacies of newcomers and incumbents, to see where the industry stands, and to provide an outlook on where the sector is headed. It provides recommendations as to what respective players should do to master their future and stay at the forefront of mobility innovation. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Beiker, Sven
Hydrogen has gained global recognition as a crucial energy resource, holding immense potential to offer clean, efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly energy solutions. Through water electrolysis powered by green electricity, the production of decarbonized “green hydrogen” is achievable. Hydrogen technology emerges as a key pathway for realizing the global objective of “carbon neutrality.” Among various water electrolysis technologies, proton exchange membrane water electrolysis (PEMWE) stands out as exceptionally promising. It boasts high energy density, elevated electrolysis efficiency, and the capacity for high output pressure, making it a frontrunner in the quest for sustainable hydrogen production. The Application of Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis delves into the challenges and trends ahead of PEMWE—from fundamental research to practical application—and briefly describes its relative characteristics, key components, and future targets. The cost
Lin, Rui
Sustainability is both an ethical responsibility and business concern for the aerospace industry. Military and commercial avionics developers have pushed toward a common standard for interfaces, computing platforms, and software in hopes of having “reusability” and reducing weight with backplane computing architectures which, in theory, would support commonality across aircraft systems. The integrated modular avionics (IMA) and military Future Airborne Capability Environment (FACE) standards are two such examples. They emerged to support common computing architectures for reuse and sustainability concepts, from the beginning of aircraft development to the sundown or mortality phase. Pitfalls of Designing, Developing, and Maintaining Modular Avionics Systems in the Name of Sustainability looks at technological, organizational, and cultural challenges making reuse and IMA platform models difficult to fully realize their sustainability goals. Additionally, it considers the certification
Reeve, Tammy
Curbs are as key to automated driving system (ADS) navigation, operation, and safety as they are for human driven vehicles. The design, maintenance, and management of curbs and adjacent infrastructure can make the difference in whether ADS vehicles can pick up and deliver passengers and goods safely, efficiently, and effectively. Curbs may also be key to integrating ADS services with other forms of active and human-driven transportation. Benefits from accessibility, reduced emissions, and strong supply chains require that ADS vehicles be able to dock curbside in a manner that does not disrupt traffic or impede safe movement of people walking, biking, or using a mobility device. Automated Vehicles and Infrastructure Enablers: Curbs and Curbside Management addresses considerations regarding the curb with respect to pick up and drops for passengers and freight, as well as managing and designing both sides of the curb with respect to automated vehicles and other types of shared mobility
Coyner, KelleyBittner, Jason
The automobile is undergoing the biggest transformation of its 100-year history. Motivated by consumer desire for automobiles to integrate with their digital life and inspired by new electric vehicles (EVs) that routinely receive over-the-air software updates, traditional automakers are embarking on a journey to re-engineer the vehicle as a platform defined by software. The foundation of the shift is a complete re-design from a mechanical hardware-centric system to a cloud-connected, software-centric ecosystem where each function is executed via a service-oriented architecture. This is the basis of the software-defined vehicle (SDV). The Software-defined Vehicle and its Engineering Evolution: Balancing Issues and Challenges in a New Paradigm of Product Development examines the complex journey ahead for traditional manufacturers as they transition to this new software-defined system. The shift will literally impact every facet of the industry, from organizational culture, tools, and
Goswami, Partha
The adoption of metallic additive manufacturing (AM) for heat exchangers offers significant thermal management benefits that range from optimized heat energy transfer to supporting integrated designs that can reduce weight, size, and component numbers. The benefits offered by utilizing AM for heat exchangers transcend industries and have relevance within the aerospace and automotive industries, where new mobility requirements result in the need for efficient energy systems, increasingly efficient component design, and higher temperatures. Additive Manufacturing of Thermal Management Components in Mobility Applications examines the critical unsettled issues, such as lack of understanding regarding metal AM material performance in high-temperature applications and the absence of significant standardization that goes beyond the material grades, printing process parameters, and characterization processes for performance reliability. The report also delves into design, regulation, and
Phillips, Paul
A suite of recent policy and legislative initiatives are prioritizing a shift towards electrification of the personal-use vehicle fleet. This agenda is intimately tied to another complex issue: the sustainability of the primary transportation funding source (i.e., the gas tax—also known as the motor fuel tax). What makes this particularly hard is that gasoline consumption is only a proxy for “amount of travel.” With diversification in fuel sources and a concerted movement towards non-fossil fuel sources to power vehicles, any specific fuel source would be (at best) a weak or (at worst) grossly inequitable representation for amount of travel. Toward an Integrated Transportation Pricing Approach Using Vehicle-based Technologies will focus on some of the larger questions for an integrated pricing system based on miles driven that are measured directly using vehicle-based or in-vehicle technology communicating directly with infrastructure systems. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM
Sethi, Sonika S.
With the increased use of devices requiring the Internet of Things (IoT) to enable “New Mobility,” the demand for satellite-enabled IoT is growing steadily, owing to the extensive coverage provided by satellites (over existing ground-based infrastructure). Satellite-based IoT provides precise and real-time vehicle location and tracking services, large-scale geographical vehicle and/or infrastructure monitoring, and increased coverage for remote locations where it may not be possible to install ground-based solutions. The Application of Satellite-based Internet of Things for New Mobility discusses satellite-based IoT topics that still need addressing, which can be broadly classifieds into two areas: (1) affordable technology and (2) network connectivity and data management. While recent innovations are driving down the cost of satellite-based IoT, it remains relatively expensive, and widespread adoption is still not as high as terrestrial, ground-based systems. Security concerns over
Phillips, Paul
“New Space" is reshaping the economic landscape of the space industry and has far-reaching implications for technological innovation, business models, and market dynamics. This change, aligned with the digitalization in the world economy, has given rise to innovations in the downstream space segment. This “servitization” of the space industry, essentially, has led to the transition from selling products like satellites or spacecraft, to selling the services these products provide. This also connects to applications of various technologies, like cloud computing, artificial intelligence, and virtualization. Redefining Space Commerce: The Move Toward Servitization discusses the advantages of this shift (e.g., cost reduction, increased access to space for smaller organizations and countries), as well as the challenges, such as maintaining safety and security, establishing standardization and regulation, and managing risks. The implications of this may be far-reaching, affecting not only
Khan, Samir
Automated vehicles, in the form we see today, started off-road. Ideas, technologies, and engineers came from agriculture, aerospace, and other off-road domains. While there are cases when only on-road experience will provide the necessary learning to advance automated driving systems, there is much relevant activity in off-road domains that receives less attention. Implications of Off-road Automation for On-road Automated Driving Systems argues that one way to accelerate on-road ADS development is to look at similar experiences off-road. There are plenty of people who see this connection, but there is no formalized system for exchanging knowledge. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Eley, T.C.King, John LeslieLyytinen, KalleNickerson, Jeffrey
Electrical vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) vehicles for urban air mobility (UAM) are garnering increased attention from both the automotive and aerospace industries, with use cases ranging from individual transportation, public service, cargo delivery, and more. Distributed electric propulsion systems are their main technical feature; they determine vehicle size and propulsion efficiency and provide distributed thrust to achieve attitude control. Considering the intended role of eVTOL vehicles, ducted-fan systems are ideal choice for the propulsor, as the duct provides a physical barrier between the rotating blades and the human, especially during the take-off and landing phases. Key Technology Challenges of Electric Ducted Fan Propulsion Systems for eVTOL introduces the main bottlenecks and key enablers of ducted-fan propulsion systems for eVTOL applications. Based on the introduction and discussion of these important issues, this report will help eVTOL engineers understand the
Qian, YupingZhang, YangjunZHUGE, WEILIN
The agricultural sector is responsible for a large share of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. At the same time, methods such as targeted land use change can reduce emissions from landscape elements and sequester carbon from the atmosphere in the soil. This process, also known as carbon farming, has not been uniformly defined, and faces challenges regarding establishing new requirments for agricultural vehicles and technology, creating profitable business models (that preclude “greenwashing”), and developing governmental frameworks and industry acceptance. Carbon Farming and Its Impact on Agricultural Technology discusses the large development gap for carbon farming methods, especially with regard to agricultural technology. In addition to the new hardware requirements arising from land use change, there is also a need for the further development of software. The establishment of suitable interfaces and solutions that are interoperable with existing technologies is also crucial at this
Lehmann, JohannesDwerlkotte, Nina
The importance of decarbonizing mobility to slow climate change is already a common goal worldwide. However, there is a lack of alignment on which technological routes to take. While the electrification of mobility assumes dominance in some markets, it is essential to consider specificities of each region so that different applications of transport modes can be concretely evaluated. Decarbonization Routes for Global Road Mobility and Regional Challenges discusses regional approaches, such as those from Brazil and India, that can offer more representative participation in global decarbonization processes. These routes leverage these countries’ domestic talent and regional potential instead of simply copying the solutions coming from developed countries. Biofuels, biomass, and green hydrogen can be very effective ways of reducing global warming for these countries and others with similar economic characteristics, bringing more opportunities for market development and competitive
Adas, Camilo Abduch
To many, a digital twin offers “functionality,” or the ability to virtually rerun events that have happened on the real system and the ability to simulate future performance. However, this requires models based on the physics of the system to be built into the digital twin, links to data from sensors on the real live system, and sophisticated algorithms incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). All of this can be used for integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) decisions, such as determining future failure, root cause analysis, and optimized energy performance. All of these can be used to make decisions to optimize the operation of an aircraft—these may even extend into safety-based decisions. The Adoption of Digital Twins in Integrated Vehicle Health Management, however, still has a range of unsettled topics that cover technological reliability, data security and ownership, user presentation and interfaces, as well as certification of the digital twin’s
Phillips, Paul
Like the shift from horse drawn carriages to cars, the emergence of delivery robots marks a shift from driverless vehicles to automated logistics vehicles where form follows function. On paper, the business cases are compelling and the use cases seemingly unbounded. Vehicles may be conventional in the form of trucks and industrial equipment of all types, or as purpose-built vehicles on with widely varying cargo capacities. Proof of concepts and pilots are moving forward on roadways, sidewalks, and doorsteps, as well as in low altitude airways, ports, and even inside of buildings. Automated Vehicles and Infrastructure Enablers: Logistics and Delivery addresses the current state of the industry, benefits of ADVs, challenges, and expanding use. It also touches on opportunities to design, modify, and expand infrastructure—both digital and physical—to supports safe and equitable usage. The report draws on experience and research on these topics in North America, the United Kingdom, the
Coyner, KelleyBittner, Jason
Now that metal additive manufacturing (MAM), also known as “metal 3D printing,” has seen its first successful implementations across the mobility industry, the question is whether it will continue to grow beyond these initial applications or remain a niche manufacturing process. Moving to broader applications will require overcoming several barriers, namely cost and rate, size, and criticality limitations. Recent progress in MAM indicates that these barriers are beginning to come down, pointing to continued growth in applications for MAM through the end of the decade and beyond. Metal Additive Manufacturing in the Mobility Industry: Looking into 2033 discusses the obstacles to future MAM growth, how they can be conquered, and what its role in the mobility industry will look like in 2033. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Slattery, KevinCoyne, Jennifer
Recycling of advanced composites made from carbon fibers in epoxy resins is essential for two primary reasons. First, the energy necessary to produce carbon fibers is very high and therefore reusing these fibers could greatly reduce the lifecycle energy of components which use them. Second, if the material is allowed to break down in the environment, it will contribute to the growing presence of microplastics and other synthetic pollutants. Recyclability and Embodied Energy of Advanced Polymer Matrix Composites discusses current recycling and disposal methods—which typically do not aim for full circularity, but rather successive downcycling—and addresses the major challenge of aligning fibers into unidirectional tows of real value in high-performance composites. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Muelaner, Jody Emlyn
This report delves into the field of multi-agent collaborative perception (MCP) for autonomous driving: an area that remains unresolved. Current single-agent perception systems suffer from limitations, such as occlusion and sparse sensor observation at a far distance. Multi-agent Collaborative Perception for Autonomous Driving: Unsettled Aspects addresses three unsettled topics that demand immediate attention: Establishing normative communication protocols to facilitate seamless information sharing among vehicles Defining collaboration strategies, including identifying specific collaboration projects, partners, and content, as well as establishing the integration mechanism Collecting sufficient data for MCP model training, including capturing diverse modal data and labeling various downstream tasks as accurately as possible Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Chen, Guang
Thousands die or are injured each year in automobile crashes. Reducing the number of these tragedies requires reframing our approach to vehicle- and human-based transportation mobility and depends on whether the mobility industry and individual human drivers take a more aggressive approach to saving lives and preventing injuries. Bringing automated driving systems technologies into the advanced driver assist systems (ADAS) and connected vehicle space will help humans drive more safely and better prepare us for automated vehicles (AVs). Reducing Human Driver Error and Setting Realistic Expectations with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems discusses the recent Partnership for Analytics Research in Traffic Safety report which shows that ADAS can indeed work. The path forward requires combining ADAS and ADS implementation with infrastructure engineering, law enforcement, education, emergency response, and public policy, with the goal of reaching zero deaths and serious injuries. It also
Chalmers, Seth
While being the first to fly, the Wright Brothers were also the first and last complete “one stop shop” of aviation: the only case in human flight in which the same individuals personally carried out the research, development, testing, manufacturing, operation, maintenance, air control, flight simulation, training, setup, operation, and more. Since then, these facets gradually fragmented and drifted away from the aircraft. This report discusses the phenomenon of aircraft operation’s “fading humans,” including the development of flight instruments to support it, its growing automation, the emerging artificial intelligence paradigm, and the lurking cyber threats that all over the place. Controlling Aircraft – From Humans to Autonomous Systems: The Fading Humans examines the “fading” process itself, including its safety aspects, current mitigation efforts, ongoing research, and the unsettled topics that still remain. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
David, Aharon
Drop-in replacement biofuels and electrofuels can provide net-zero CO2 emissions with dramatic reductions in contrail formation. Biofuels must transition to second-generation cellulosic feedstocks while improving land and soil management. Electrofuels, or "e-fuels,” require aggressive cost reduction in hydrogen production, carbon capture, and fuel synthesis. Hydrogen has great potential for energy efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions reduction; however, its low density (even in liquid form) combined with it’s extremely low boiling temperature mean that bulky spherical tanks will consume considerable fuselage volume. Still, emerging direct-kerosene fuel cells may ultimately provide a superior zero-emission, energy-dense solution. Decarbonized Power Options for Civil Aviation discusses the current challenges with these power options and explores the economic incentives and levers vital to decarbonization. Until common and enforceable global carbon pricing arrives, targeted national
Muelaner, Jody E.
Do connected vehicle (CV) technologies encourage or dampen progress toward widespread deployment of automated vehicles? Would digital infrastructure components be a better investment for safety, mobility, and the environment? Can CVs, coupled with smart infrastructure, provide an effective pathway to further automation? Highly automated vehicles are being developed (albeit slower than predicted) alongside varied, disruptive connected vehicle technology. Automated Vehicles and Infrastructure Enablers: Connectivity looks at the status of CV technology, examines the concerns of automated driving system (ADS) developers and infrastructure owners and operators (IOOs) in relying on connected infrastructure, and assesses lessons learned from the growth of CV applications and improved vehicle-based technology. IOOs and ADS developers agree that cost, communications, interoperability, cybersecurity, operation, maintenance, and other issues undercut efforts to deploy a comprehensive connected
Coyner, KelleyBittner, Jason
Success in metal additive manufacturing (AM) relies on the optimization of a large set of process parameters to achieve materials whose properties and performance meet design and safety requirements. Despite continuous improvements in the process over the years, the quality of AM parts remains a major concern for manufacturers. Today, researchers are starting to move from discrete geometry-dependent build parameters to continuously variable or dynamically changing parameters that are geometry- and scan-path aware. This approach has become known as “feedforward control.” Process Control for Defect Mitigation in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing discusses the origins of feedforward control, its early implementations in AM, the current state of the art, and a path forward to its broader adoption. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
King, Wayne
Recently, there has been a slight increase in interest in the use of responder-to-vehicle (R2V) technology for emergency vehicles, such as ambulances, fire trucks, and police cars. R2V technology allows for the exchange of information between different types of responder vehicles, including connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). It can be used in collision avoidance or emergency situations involving CAV responder vehicles. The benefits of R2V are not limited to fully autonomous vehicles (e.g., SAE Level 4), but can also be used in Level 2 CAV scenarios. However, despite the potential benefits of R2V, discussions on this topic are still limited. Responder-to-Vehicle Technologies for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles aims to provide an overview of R2V technology and its applications for CAV systems, particularly in the context of collision avoidance features. The responder vehicles in question can be autonomous or non-autonomous. It is hoped that it will provide valuable information
Abdul Hamid, Umar Zakir
There is an urgent need to decarbonize various industry sectors, including transportation; however, this is difficult to achieve when relying solely on today’s lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology. A lack of sufficient supply of critical materials—including lithium, nickel, and cobalt—is a major driving force behind research, development, and commercialization of new battery chemistries that can support this energy transition. Many emerging chemistries do not face the same supply, safety, and often durability challenges associated with Li-ion technology, yet these solutions are still very immature and require significant development effort to be commercialized. Emerging Automotive Battery Chemistries: Hedging Market identifies and evaluates various chemistries suitable for deployment in the automotive industry and describes advantages, disadvantages, and development challenges for each identified technology. Additionally, it outlines development timelines, contending that, to
Kolodziejczyk, Bart
In relative terms, graphene has the highest level of heat and electrical conductivity, protects against ultraviolet rays, and is the strongest material ever measured. These properties have made graphene an attractive potential material for a variety of applications, particularly for transportation-related uses, and especially for automotive engineering. The goal of drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions has prioritized the electrification of transportation, the decarbonization of industry, and the development of products that require less energy to make, last longer, and are fully recyclable. The Role of Graphene in Achieving e-Mobility in Automotive Applications reviews the current state of graphene-related automotive applications, it also identifies the technological challenges facing engineers that look to benefit from graphene’s attractive properties. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Barkan, Terrance
Most heavy trucks should be fully electric, using a combination of batteries and catenary electrification, but heavy trucks requiring very long unsupported range will need chemical fuels. At the scale of heavy trucks, compressed hydrogen can match the specific energy of diesel, but its energy density is five times lower, limiting range to around 2,000 km. Scaling green hydrogen production and addressing leakage must be priorities. Hydrogen-derived electrofuels—or “e-fuels”—have the potential to scale, and while the economic comparison currently has unknowns, clean air considerations have gained new importance Decarbonized Power Options for Long-haul Commercial Vehicles discusses these energy sources as well as the caveats related to bioenergy usage, and reasons to prefer ethanol or methanol to diesel-type fuels. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Muelaner, Jody Emlyn
As metal additive manufacturing (MAM), also known as "metal 3D printing,” moves from prototype to low-rate and high-rate production for increasingly critical applications for more industries, many product teams are tasked with determining design properties for the first time in many years. Not only is it necessary to determine basic material properties, but it is also necessary to accommodate new geometries and design concepts as well. While some of the methods and approaches are common to other product forms, others are unique to MAM. Determining Design Properties for Metal Additive Manufacturing in the Mobility Industry covers the challenges in determining design properties and provides a comparison with existing technologies, along with an example and recommendations for future work. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Slattery, Kevin
This follow-up report to the inaugural SAE EDGE Research Report on “Unsettled Topics Concerning Sensors for Automated Road Vehicles” reviews the progress made in automated vehicle (AV) sensors over the past four to five years. Additionally, it addresses persistent disagreement and confusion regarding certain terms for describing sensors, the different strengths and shortcomings of particular sensors, and procedures regarding how to specify and evaluate them. Next-gen Automated Road Vehicle Sensors summarizes current trends and debates (e.g., sensor fusion, embedded AI, simulation) as well as future directions and needs. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Beiker, Sven
Power options for off-road vehicles differ substantially from other commercial vehicles. Battery electrification is suitable for urban construction and light agriculture, but remote mining, forestry, and road building operations will require alternative fuels. Decarbonized Power Options for Non-road Mobile Machinery discusses these domains as well as the potential benefits and challenges of implementing fuels and energy sources such as bioenergy, e-fuels, and alcohol, as well as hydrogen, hydrocarbon, and direct methanol fuel cells. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Muelaner, Jody Emlyn
Highly automated vehicles are being developed alongside a variety of novel, disruptive technologies and a global focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. ADS can reduce emissions and improve fuel efficiency for vehicles powered by traditional internal combustion engines. Electric motors can further raise the bar for both those areas, especially if the power used to charge an electric vehicle is generated from renewable sources. However, implementing electrified AVs requires a viable charging infrastructure. Automated Vehicles and Infrastructure Enablers: Electrification covers issues concerning infrastructure and the electrification of all forms of vehicles: heavy-duty vehicles like trucks and buses, light-duty vehicles like cars and vans, micro-mobility, and new form factors. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Coyner, KelleyBittner, Jason
Advanced two-dimensional (2D) materials discovered in the last two decades are now being produced at scale and are contributing to a wide range of performance enhancements in engineering applications. The most well-known of these novel materials is graphene, a nearly transparent nanomaterial comprising a single layer of bonded carbon atoms. In relative terms, it has the highest level of heat and electrical conductivity, protects against ultraviolet rays, and is strongest material ever measured. These properties have made graphene an attractive potential material for a variety of applications, particularly for transportation related uses, and especially for aerospace engineering. The Role of Graphene in Achieving e-Mobility in Aerospace Applications reviews the current state of graphene-related aerospace applications and identifies the technological challenges facing engineers that look to benefit from graphene’s attractive properties. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research
Barkan, Terrance
The battery electric vehicle (EV) industry has experienced considerable growth over the last few years, demonstrating a clear acceleration in adoption and deployment. However, there are still many questions concerning what will happen to batteries as they reach their end of life (EOL), as batteries that have “aged out” can either be reused, recycled, or go to a landfill. Final Disposition of Electric Vehicle Batteries addresses some unsettled issues around lithium-ion battery reuse and recycling. Insufficient investment and regulations are a current barrier to a robust reuse system, and safety concerns potentially hinder adoption. Despite the benefits of battery recycling, there are also many challenges when considering their transportation and disassembly. These challenges will need to be addressed as the industry sees an influx of EV batteries reaching their EOL within the next 10 years. Click here to access the full SAE EDGETM Research Report portfolio
Bush, JuliaSouweidane, Naseeb
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