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General Industry (2) Spotlight on Design (2)

Power Quality Test Data Analysis for Aircraft Sub-system

  • UTC Aerospace Systems - SHOBHA RAMANJANI
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1924
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft sub-system development involves various combinations of testing and qualification activities to realize a flight worthy system. The sub-system needs to be verified for massive number of customer requirements. Power quality (PQ) testing is also an important testing activity carried out as a part of environmental qualification test. It is intended to verify the functionality of sub-system with various power disturbances, to determine the ability of a sub-system to withstand power quality disturbances. The sub-system being designed should be reliable enough to handle power quality anomalies. Power quality test generates enormous amount of test result data for analysis with millions of data samples depending on the test, and can be identified as Big Data. The engineer needs to analyze each set of test data as a part of post processing to ensure the power disturbances during testing are as per the standard requirements and functional performance of the sub-system is met. Manually analyzing the test data with classical methods and generating the report requires more time and effort, as it needs analysis of millions of test data samples, also leading to possibility of errors. Hence it is required to have automated methods to perform unsupervised data mining in faster way and generate the post processed report as required by end user. This paper presents the testing of aircraft sub-system, for power quality with various power input disturbances involved, mainly focusing on test data analysis techniques using script based analysis tools. Also it discusses on the utilization of options available in various tools for automation of test data analysis and presentation.

Practical Design Space Exploration for Synthesis of Heterogeneous System-of-Systems

  • United Technologies Research Center - Jeffrey R. Peters, Ebad Jahangir, Amit Surana, Zohaib Mian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1964
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Continued advances in both sensory and unmanned technology, combined with the ever-increasing utilization of autonomous platforms, has created a need for practical design space exploration tools to aid in the synthesis of effective System-of-Systems (SoS) for use within complex, advanced teaming scenarios. This work describes a modular, flexible, and extensible framework, referred to as the Technology and Teaming Evaluation (TATE) framework, for straightforward identification of high-quality SoS, which may include manned and unmanned systems with varying degrees of autonomy, through quantitative evaluation of system-level and SoS-level attributes against a set of user-defined reference tasks. More specifically, TATE combines a top-down (goal-driven) approach, which systematically decomposes mission-level goals into a set of relevant technology and teaming options, with a bottom-up (technology-driven) approach that compares and selects effective components and configurations for individual systems, as well as the overall teaming configuration. This approach serves as an extension to existing, similar design space exploration tools that typically only focus on individual systems and do not readily scale to SoS. A detailed example is provided that illustrates the use of the TATE framework for synthesis of an Unmanned Aerial System team for use within a realistic manned-unmanned teaming mission.

Power Quality Test Data Analysis for Aircraft Sub-System

  • UTC Aerospace Systems - Shobha Ramanjani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1932
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft sub-system development involves various combinations of testing and qualification activities to realize a flight worthy system. The sub-system needs to be verified for massive number of customer requirements. Power quality (PQ) testing is also an important testing activity carried out as a part of environmental qualification test. It is intended to verify the functionality of sub-system with various power disturbances, to determine the ability of a sub-system to withstand power quality disturbances. The sub-system being designed should be reliable enough to handle power quality anomalies. Power quality test generates enormous amount of test result data for analysis with millions of data samples depending on the test, and can be identified as Big Data. The engineer needs to analyze each set of test data as a part of post processing to ensure the power disturbances during testing are as per the standard requirements and functional performance of the sub-system is met. Manually analyzing the test data with classical methods and generating the report requires more time and effort, as it needs analysis of millions of test data samples, also leading to possibility of errors. Hence it is required to have automated methods to perform unsupervised data mining in faster way and generate the post processed report as required by end user. This paper presents the testing of aircraft sub-system, for power quality with various power input disturbances involved, mainly focusing on test data analysis techniques using script based analysis tools. Also it discusses on the utilization of options available in various tools for automation of test data analysis and presentation.

Development of a Climate and Altitude Simulation Test Bench for Handheld Power Tools

  • Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences - Artur Martel, Fino Scholl, Dennis Weierter, Maurice Kettner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0033
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
For evaluating the overall suitability of using innovative biofuels in handheld power tools such as chainsaws, trimmers and blowers, under any typical operating condition worldwide, a climate and altitude conditioning test bench was developed at the Institute of Energy Efficient Mobility (IEEM) of Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences. The 6 m³ hermetically sealed and thermally insulated test chamber is large enough to fit the entire power tool. A two-stage refrigeration system with intake air drying and resistance heating allows for realistic temperature conditions to be set in the test chamber, ranging from arctic cold to tropical heat (-20 to 45 °C). Altitudes up to 3,000 m above sea level can be simulated using a throttle valve at the inlet of the chamber and a pressure-controlled rotary piston blower positioned downstream the test chamber outlet. The air-cooled engines to be tested are fully exposed to the ambient conditions inside the test chamber, able to aspirate the conditioned combustion air freely and release both exhaust gas and waste heat into the chamber environment. In order to control the power tools when the chamber is closed, an adaptive remote control system was specially developed. It enables automatic engine start by cable pull (e.g. for cold start testing), engaging the choke valve as well as operating the throttle lever automatically. This paper discusses the development process, the design, the operating limits as well as the transient and stationary operating behavior of the climate and altitude simulation test bench.

A Novel Framework Approach for Model Based Process Integration from Requirements to Verification Demonstrated on a Complex, Cyber-Physical Aircraft System

  • ESI ITI GmbH - Marcel Gottschall, Bastian Binder
  • dSPACE GmbH - Soeren Reglitz
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1947
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a demonstrator developed in the European CleanSky2 project MISSION (Modelling and Simulation Tools for Systems Integration on Aircraft). Scope is the development towards a seamless integrated, interconnected toolchain enabling more efficient processes with less rework time in todays, highly collaborative aerospace domain design applications. Considering the different aircraft and system level aspects and their interactions, the framework will support integration from requirements to certification. The demonstration described here, consists of an open, modular and multitool platform implementation, using specific techniques to achieve fully traceable (early stage) requirements verification by virtual testing. The most promising approach is a model based integration along the whole process from requirements definition to the verified, integrated (and certified) system. Based on the technology readiness level 5 delivered for the software toolchain in the MISSION project, the present paper extends previous publications in this series, introduces the motivation and briefly describes the technical background and a potential implementation of a workflow suitable for that target. Applying novel methodologies like agility to the aerospace domain workflow requires a sophisticated way of managing the multidimensional integration of various engineering tools and processes usually used along the development cycle. The demonstrator relies on two open standards for connecting databases of the necessary information (models) with each other and make them available to connected tools throughout the process (FMI and OSLC). Hence, it can be shown that such interconnected information, represented by a common datamodel, allows a high level of automation at various steps within a typical design process and results in safer, more reliable workflows. In this regard, the present paper focusses on the design part and its related steps like requirements definition, architectural design, systems decomposition and performance modeling. The early stage verification of the driving product requirements is achieved by model based, virtual testing methods representing incremental maturity levels of the system along the development cycle from model in the loop up to virtual processor in the loop. Later on, test automation will be integrated as it is already considered from the very beginning in the iterative, agile workflow. Thus, the demonstration will emphasize the value of the ongoing transition from paper based process to automated product design for common multipartner, collaborative processes in today’s aerospace development.

ED-247 (VISTAS) Gateway for Hybrid Test Systems

  • dSPACE France SARL - Yannick HILDENBRAND
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1949
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Testing a full Aircraft System involving several on-board computers, physical I/O and communication buses require connecting them to adequate test benches to stimulate or monitor the I/O in a suitable way. These benches are under control of models that reproduce the flight situations that occur in a real Aircraft. In many situations, it makes sense to replace one or several real computers by a virtualized equivalent device. Basically, a software representation of the equipment running on a PC helps achieving V&V tasks, even when the real systems are not yet all available. Such a setup, combining real and virtualized systems is called "Hybrid Test System". But then, how can we handle I/O and buses on a virtual equipment? One answer to this is the ED-247 EUROCAE standard, also called "VISTAS", which recently has been brought to a mature state. The main idea behind is to encapsulate I/O or busses information in UDP multicast datagrams on an Ethernet network. Once this is done, several virtualized computers can be connected together and distributed simulations can be run, as if these were real ones. One difficulty arises in hybrid testing configurations when real devices and virtualized ones have to be connected together. In general, a real computer is connected to a simulator that provides the counterpart of buses and I /O. Multiple simulators can be combined, with the help of a communication layer, such as the one defined in the research project 'VHTNG' (Virtual and Hybrid Testing Next Generation). But the communication layer purpose is different from the VISTAS standard and combining both requires a suitable Gateway. In the scope of the VHTNG project, dSPACE France focuses on the Gateway functionality between the Communication Layer and virtualized computers having a VISTAS interface. The Gateway translates a description of real I/O or buses to the equivalent VISTAS form and vice-versa. In this paper, we'll discuss the requirements for the Gateway, and then present the mechanisms used, and how a few specific problems have been solved. The discussion is based on the work dSPACE France has done for building a fully operational demonstrator for the VHTNG project.

Design and Development for Multi-Generational Teams

  • Florida Space Institute - Michael Conroy
  • University of Central Florida - Luis Rabelo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1919
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Aero and Space projects live a long time. Around the turn of the century NASA first began to discuss Multi-Decadal (Monel) projects with respect to the tools, methods, infrastructure and culture necessary to successfully establish outposts and bases both on the Moon as well as in adjacent space. Pilot projects were completed, capabilities developed and solutions were shared across the Agency. A decade later the Mars discussion was Multi-Generational with planning milestones 50 years in the future. The 1970’s Requirements Document, or the 1990’s System Model are nowhere near suitable for planning, development, integration and operations of multi-national, highly complex, incredibly expensive development efforts planned to outlast not only the careers of the developers but that of their children as well. This paper will share and discuss challenges, tools, methods, plans, successes and unmet goals associated with development of such systems. It will include: success cases, new methods, architectures and norms; as well as capabilities and methods that enabled success, those that did not and a possible way forward. And it will discuss the technologies, standards, processes, methods and representations key to creating, managing, using, re-using and sharing multi-generational information. This includes the challenges, options and examples of tools capable of supporting the needs of these teams. A solution is far from ready, so the paper will also attempt to identify, share and discuss some of the known challenges awaiting today's multi-generational teams.

Evaluation of the Powertrain Condition Based on the Car Acceleration and Coasting Data

  • Kharkiv National Auto and Highway University - Ernest Rabinovich, Igor V. Gritsuk, Vladimir Zuiev, Evgeny Zenkin E.Y.
  • Odessa National Maritime University - Andrii Golovan
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1771
To be published on 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Diagnosis of the car is a necessary means for early detection of developing malfunctions. A technique for diagnosing on a short road based on the acceleration in the second and third gears and coasting from 50 or 40 to 20 km/h is proposed. The results should be compared with the reference values calculated, taking into consideration the speed rolling resistance dependence, described by the square trinomial, the speed air resistance dependence with the variable exponent, the losses of the transmission idling mode and the progressive total resistances decrease at speeds below 25 km/h. The general speed dependence of the total resistance is described by a sixth-degree polynomial but not the second-degree one, as many researchers believe. The experimental check was performed on a subcompact sedan with 1.6 atmo engine. Weight of 1370 kg. First class road with an average rise of 0.0182, asphalt in good condition. There was no wind.

An Experimental Investigation on Spray Mixing and Combustion Characteristics for Spray C/D Nozzles in a Constant Pressure Vessel

  • Universitat Politecnica de Valencia - Jose V. Pastor, Jose M Garcia-Oliver, Antonio Garcia, Andrés Morales López
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1783
To be published on 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a coordinate effort from research partners from all over the world which aims at creating a large experimental database to validate CFD calculations. Two injectors from ECN, namely Spray C and D, have been compared in a constant pressure flow vessel, which enables a field of view of more than 100 mm. Both nozzles have been designed with similar flow metrics, with Spray D having a convergent hole shape and Spray C a cylindrical one, the latter being therefore more prone to cavitation. Although the focus of the study is on reacting conditions, some inert cases have also been measured. High speed schlieren imaging, OH* chemiluminescence visualization and head-on broadband luminosity have been used as combustion diagnostics to evaluate ignition delay, lift off length and reacting tip penetration. Parametric variations include ambient temperature, oxygen content and injection pressure variations. Results extend the range of variation of previously reported experiments in the literature for such nozzles, showing good agreement with such previous results and enlarging the available database for CFD validation. A systematic shorter lift-off length is observed for Spray C, while ignition delay from broadband luminosity and schlieren visualization show no clear difference between both nozzles. Comparison against literature results from Spray A has also been performed, from which behavior of the larger nozzles is seen to be highly affected by the slower mixing process.

Improving the Process of Vehicle Units Diagnosis by Applying Harmonic Analysis to the Processing of Discrete Signals

  • Odessa National Maritime University - Andrii Golovan, Sergey Rudenko
  • Kharkov National Auto and Highway University - Igor Gritsuk
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1774
To be published on 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The article discusses the features of designing a diagnostic system in which harmonic analysis is used to improve the quality of diagnostic information processing. The cyclic analog signal coming from the sensor and containing the diagnostic information is converted into a discrete signal. Accumulation of diagnostic information processed by equipment is carried out in the form of discrete signals. The processing and analysis of the obtained diagnostic information is carried out by applying harmonic analysis. Periodic processes of operation of vehicle units are associated with the occurrence of noise and vibration having a different frequency but related to the same node. A feature of the presented system is that it uses a contactless method of obtaining diagnostic information about the operation of vehicle units. The system calculates the speed of the node, measures the noise level and calculates the level of vibration that occurs during its operation. The article shows the results of experimental studies on the determination of vibration in vehicle nodes. Found relationship between the occurrence of noise and increasing the level of vibration of the node. The algorithm for the refinement of the harmonic analysis result is formalized, which makes it possible to eliminate the crude unpredictable error caused by the sampling of the analog signal. The application of pre-filtering algorithms analog signal from the sensor used to reduce the overall level of noise spectrum is substantiated. The article describes the structure of the diagnostic system allowing to determine the vibration level of rotating nodes. The use of harmonic analysis in the diagnostic system, in the conditions of a limited amount of diagnostic information, reduces the error in determining the amplitude of the vibration signal by 15-50%.