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System Effects Test Example for Atmospheric Radiation Environment

Honeywell-Laura Dominik
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1865
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Galactic cosmic rays and solar rays produce particle cascades in the atmosphere, where resulting particles (mainly high energy neutrons) can interact with components to cause Single Event Effects (SEE). The effects from atmospheric radiation can cause various fault conditions, including corrupted data, processor halts and interrupts, operational errors, and component latch ups requiring a power cycle. As technology trends continue to achieve higher densities and lower voltages, semiconductor devices are becoming more susceptible to atmospheric radiation effects. Testing to measure the susceptibility of a component or equipment to atmospheric radiation environments requires the utilization of highly advanced laboratory facilities. Testing can be performed at the component level to measure the device-level susceptibility, or the test can be performed to measure impacts at the equipment level. This paper provides an example of a test intended to measure equipment level effects while irradiating a single component. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the mitigations and protections designed into the equipment.

Compensating the Effects of Hazardous External Influences on the Engine Performance by Control Methods

Central Institute of Aviation Motors-Oskar Gurevich, Sergei Smetanin, Mikhail Trifonov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1862
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft equipment is operated in a wide range of external conditions, which, with a certain combination of environmental parameters, can lead to icing of the internal structural elements of the engine. Due to icing the engine components performance change what leads to decrease in thrust, gas dynamic stability, durability, etc. Similar effect has a volcanic ash sucked into the engine flow-path. The safe aircraft operation and its desired performance may be lost as a result of such external influences. The impact of this factors on the engine performance depends on the engine control methods. Therefore, it is relevant to study control methods that allow fully or partly compensate the effect of engine components performance degradation. The focus of this paper is to determine the control methods of an aircraft gas turbine engine aimed at solving this problem. The object of the study is a modern commercial engine with a bypass ratio of about 9. In this paper analysis of the effect of icing and volcanic ash sucking on the engine components performance is conducted. It…

Focus on challenges in SLD regime : reemitted droplets models

Dassault Aviation-Francois Caminade
Dassault-Aviation-Loïc frazza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2001
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A lot of studies have been carried out over the last decades on SLD ice accretion challenges. Many of them referred to modelling SLD physics like break-up, splashing, bouncing, etc… and rely on numerous physics experiments. Different models have been developed In Europe and North-America and have been implemented in several numerical tools, widely in 2D but more and more in 3D. As these tools are intended to be used increasingly among the community, deficiencies have to be deeper investigated. This paper provides some highlights on specific needs linked to SLD impingement and ice accretion, especially for 3D high fidelity computations. The computations presented in this paper are performed with the in-house code AeTher developed by Dassault Aviation. The special feature of this code is that it uses finite element method for solving the impingement and bouncing equations. This leads to some difficulties regarding the reemitted impingement. After presenting the models implemented within the droplet trajectory/impingement (Trontin & Villedieu, 2016), basic validation will be presented with direct impingement on classical geometries as NACA0012 and NACA23012…

Type IV Anti-icing Fluid Subjected to Light Freezing Rain: Visual and Thermal Analysis

UQAC - AMIL-Jean-Denis Brassard, Caroline Laforte, Christophe Volat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1971
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Deicing the aircraft using fluid, prior takeoff is mandatory; since a thin layer of ice or snow can compromise the safety. With the same idea, to use anti-icing fluid during a frozen precipitation to protect the aircraft is also essential. Commercialized anti-icing fluids all pass the process of qualification as described in the SAE documents. One of these documents specifies a set of tests that reproduce freezing precipitation to obtain endurance time and then the holdover timetables. The endurance time is determined by visual inspection: when 30% of the plate is covered with frozen contaminants, the failure is called. With the evolution of technology and the venue of new tools, it may simplify the process, and at least confirm the observations. This paper proposed a thermal and visual analysis of the behaviour of a Type IV fluid subjected to light freezing rain. During the precipitation the plate temperature is recorded using thermocouples and recorded using a visual camera and an IR camera. The results show that the fluids have an interesting thermal behaviour. The use…

Experimental and Computer Model Results for a Carbon Nanotubes Electrothermal De-Icing System

Embraer-Rodrigo Domingos
Embraer SA-Gilberto Becker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2005
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Results from three-dimensional computer models of a Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) based de-icing system are compared to experimental data obtained at UTAS-Ohio Icing Wind Tunnel (IWT). A prototype of the CNT based de-icing system being jointly developed by UTAS and EMBRAER was installed in a section of a business jet horizontal tail and tested in the IWT for a range of conditions. The 3D numerical analysis tools used in the comparisons are AIPAC and FENSAP-ICE®. The former was derived from an anti-icing model developed at Wichita State University in 2010. AIPAC uses the finite volumes method for the solution of the icing problem on an airfoil leading edge (or other 3D surfaces) and relies on CFD solvers to obtain the external flow properties used as boundary conditions. The latter is a computer code for icing simulations currently commercialized by ANSYS®. Both tools are capable of predicting 3D multi-step ice shapes under rime, glaze and mixed regimes, and can also deal with the complex dynamics of cyclic ice accretion, melting, and shedding present in the realm of…

On-Ground Cold Soak Fuel Frost Modeling

Embraer-Daniel Martins da Silva, Luis Santos, André Katchborian, Rodrigo Sousa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1975
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A common phenomenon that may be observed during an aircraft operation is the formation of an on-ground cold soak fuel frost (CSFF), following a landing. This frost formation occurs as integral tanks located on an aircraft’s wings are subjected to low temperatures for a prolonged period typically at high altitude, which allows the fuel to reach low temperatures. If at the landing airport, the aircraft is exposed to a high-humidity ambient CSFF may occur. This sequence of events allow the water to desublimate into ice and to build up onto the wing surface. This frost formation, depending of its extend, may affect the aircraft performance, affecting safety or the aircraft dispatchability. In this paper a cold soak fuel frost modeling for an aircraft wing tank is presented. Numerical prediction are compared with experimental data and qualitative verification for the frost formation and decay during a landing is presented. The numerical simulation showed good agreement between experimental observation and modeling. In addition, an in-flight evaluation was performed where two frost formations, obtained with a Monte Carlo…

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of Glaze Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

FAA Technical Center-Timothy G. Smith
NASA Glenn Research Center-Andy P. Broeren
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1987
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Aerodynamic assessment of icing effects on swept wings is an important component of a larger effort to improve three-dimensional icing simulation capabilities. An understanding of ice-shape geometric fidelity and Reynolds and Mach number effects on the iced-wing aerodynamics is needed to guide the development and validation of ice-accretion simulation tools. To this end, wind-tunnel testing was carried out for 8.9% and 13.3% scale semispan wing models based upon the Common Research Model airplane configuration. Various levels of geometric fidelity of an artificial ice shape representing a realistic glaze-ice accretion on a swept wing were investigated. The highest fidelity artificial ice shape reproduced all of the three-dimensional features associated with the glaze ice accretion. The lowest fidelity artificial ice shapes were simple, spanwise-varying horn ice geometries intended to represent the maximum ice thickness on the wing upper surface. The results presented in this paper show that while both the thickness and location of the simply swept horn ice are important parameters to the resulting aerodynamics, the location is a much larger driver. These conclusions are consistent…

Numerical Simulation of Aircraft and Variable-Pitch Propeller Icing with Explicit Coupling

ANSYS Inc.-Isik Ozcer, Guido S. Baruzzi, Miraj Desai, Maged Yassin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1954
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A 3D CFD methodology is presented to simulate ice build-up on propeller blades exposed to known icing conditions in flight, with automatic blade pitch variation at constant RPM to maintain the desired thrust. One blade of a six-blade propeller and a 70-passenger twin-engine turboprop are analyzed as explicitly-coupled stand-alone components in a multi-shot quasi-steady icing simulation. The thrust and swirl produced by the propellers provide the loading distribution for their actuator disk surrogates mounted on the aircraft. The thrust that must be generated by the propellers is obtained from the drag computed on the aircraft. The total icing exposure time is subdivided into 30-second shots. The flight conditions are typical for a 70-passenger twin-engine turboprop in a holding pattern in Appendix C icing conditions: 190 kts, altitude 6,000 ft, air static temperature -16 ˚C, LWC 0.3 g/m3 and MVD 20 microns. The iced geometries are automatically remeshed at each shot using ANSYS FENSAP-ICE and Fluent Meshing tools. Solutions for the 2-meter blade are computed in a periodic domain to reduce computational costs. The pitch variation…

Advanced Nanocomposite Low Adhesion Icephobic Coating for Aerospace Applications

Oceanit Laboratories Inc.-Vinod Veedu, Sumil Thapa, Ganesh Kumar Arumugam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1996
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Icing is a major safety issue for flight operations in the civil, defense and space sectors. Ice can form on critical components during takeoff/landing, or while in service, depending on prevailing weather conditions. Aircraft manufacturers relies on two different approaches to prevent ice buildup using an active anti-icing system to melt ice buildup or deicing chemicals/ice repellent surface to minimize the buildup ice. The use of active anti-icing systems offers good protection, however can add significant penalty to overall weight, energy consumption and cost. Aerospace industry is in need for an advanced ice repellent surface to effectively minimize ice buildup on critical components with no modification to existing design can provide significant relief to ice prone systems. In this paper, Oceanit will present its most advanced nanocomposite low ice adhesion icephobic coating technology that was developed and demonstrated for application on metallic surfaces to provide the lowest ice adhesion to significantly reduce ice buildup. Oceanit’s advanced icephobic coating was tested to be one of the lowest ice adhering coating (ice adhesion strength = 5.1kPa) ever…

Experimental Investigation of High Speed SLD Impact

ONERA-Virginel BODOC, Pierre Berthoumieu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2006
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The necessity of enhancing existing simulation tools to predict accurately the ice accretion cause by SLD is obvious. This paper proposes an experimental investigation of fast impinging supercooled large droplet (SLD) in non-icing conditions. Two main aspects of the impact event are analyzed and discussed: the impact dynamics as a function of the surface nature and the deposition rate of the liquid on the impingement surface for various conditions. The data has been recorded and characterized at ambient pressure using a vertical wind/droplet tunnel. To avoid the droplets evaporation the relative humidity was controlled. The morphology of impact was studied by backlighted imagery and quantitative results were obtained by image analysis. The deposition rate was obtained weighting the water accumulated on the impingement plate.