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Development of subject-specific elderly female finite element models for vehicle safety

Chongqing University-Yunlei Yin, Junming Li, Qingmiao Wang
State Key Lab of Veh NVH & Safety Technology/Chongqing Univ-Wenxiang Dong, Zhenfei Zhan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1224
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Previous study suggested that female, thin, obese, and older occupants had a higher risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes. Human body finite element models were a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. The mesh deformation method based on radial basis function(RBF) was an attractive alternative for morphing baseline model to target models. Generally, when a complex model contained many elements and nodes, it was impossible to use all surface nodes as landmarks in RBF interpolation process, due to its prohibitive computational cost. To improve the efficiency, the current technique was to averagely select a set of nodes as landmarks from all surface nodes. In fact, the location and the number of selected landmarks had an important effect on the accuracy of mesh deformation. Hence, how to select important nodes as landmarks was a significant issue. In the paper, an efficient peak point-selection RBF mesh deformation method was used to select landmarks. The multiple peak points were selected to expand landmarks set, so as to improve the morphing quality compared…

CAN Bus Message Electrical Signatures for Automotive Reverse Engineering, Bench marking and Rogue ECU Detection

Warwick Control Technologies, Ltd.-Christopher Quigley, David Charles, Richard McLaughlin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0476
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There are many applications in which you may need to reverse engineer the Controller Area Network (CAN), e.g.: • Automotive competitor analysis • Telematics applications such fleet management • Disabled driver applications The typical reverse engineering process is concerned with moving a sensor and watching the CAN bus for message changes. For example, wind down a door window and see if this kicks off changes in CAN message data. Many CAN buses have many messages originating from many Electronic Control Units (ECUs). This means it is difficult to watch all of them at the same time. It would be far easier if you could simply watch a smaller number of CAN messages to observe changes by isolating the ECUs the messages originate from. This paper/article describes a process that allows the user to identify which CAN messages are transmitted by a particular ECU. This is achieved by getting the electrical signature of each CAN message and matching known CAN messages with unknown ones. Therefore, the transmitting ECU of the unknown CAN messages can be determined.…

Development of Parametric Tool to Design Base Frame for Marine Application Engine

Cummins Inc.-Mukesh Kumar, Neeraja Rajasekhar, Prachi Pokharkar, Bibhu Mahanta, Rohit Saha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0798
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A spread sheet based parametric tool is developed to design the base frame for a marine genset. Factors such as engine details, alternator details, anti-vibration mount (AVM) etc., that determine the design of the base frame, are set as parameters in the spreadsheet. The spreadsheet has formulae to calculate channel specifications, and anti-vibration mount deflections. It is linked to channel standards database and selects the optimal channel based on calculations. Similarly, the tool provides guidance in selection of anti-vibration mounts (AVM) from supplier catalogues, helps to predict number of anti-vibration mounts required and their location on base frame. This spread sheet is integrated with a generic base frame 3D model and 2 D print in Creo, which is auto-updated based on calculated parameters in the spreadsheet. Using this tool the user can generate a 3D-model and 2D print. This tool helps to standardize the design process and reduces design turnaround time considerably. The output of the tool and existing base frame designs were analysed using a finite element tool (ANSYS). Modal and static analysis were…

On-board Predictive Maintenance with Machine learning

Isuzu Technical Center of America Inc.-Yong Sun, Zhentao Xu, Tianyu Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1048
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Field Issue( Malfunction) incidents are costly for manufacture’s service department. Especially for commercial fleet customers, the downtime can be the biggest concern. To reduce the warranty cost and improve customer’s confidence in our products, preventive maintenance provides the benefit of 1.fixing the problem when it is small; 2. reducing downtime of scheduled targeted service time to reduce downtime. However, normal telematics system has difficulty in capturing useful information even with pre-set triggers. Some malfunction issue takes weeks to find out route cause due to the difficulty of repeating the error in a different vehicle and engineers to analyze large amount of data. In order to solve above challenges, a machine learning based predictive software/hardware system has been implemented. Multiple machine learning techniques, including CNN, has been utilized in the proposed pipeline to: 1) decide when to record data. 2) decide what variables to record for what period of time 3) root cause diagnostics on the spot based on time series data analysis. The system utilizes both histogram data and time series data. For the time…

Automated Assessment of E/E-Architecture Variants Using an Integrated Model- and Simulation-Based Approach

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)-Harald Bucher, Kevin Neubauer, Jürgen Becker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0111
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Due to the continuously increasing complexity of automotive electric/electronic architectures (EEAs), model-based systems engineering principles became state-of-the-art for designing such heterogeneous systems. However, current Architecture Description Languages (ADLs), their system-design and analysis tools as well as frameworks for simulation-based analysis of EEA models often are not fully integrated in a single design process but usually require error-prone import/export processes, especially when considering distributed collaboration, from EEA data models to external analysis frameworks and vice versa. Particularly, this barriers the efficient assessment and comparison of distinct architecture variants regarding certain non-functional properties. Moreover, simulation-based analysis of the latter intended for EEA assessments in early concept phases necessitates backtracking capabilities to allow iterative model adaptations. In this paper, we present a novel approach for evaluating EEAs dynamically in different use-cases and comparing their architecture variants. We contrived a generic concept to integrate actor-oriented simulation and analysis tools with EEA system-design tools based on a previously developed approach for synthesizing and executing a cross-domain simulation model out of static EEA descriptions in PREEvision. Additionally, our concept comprises the…

Autonomous Data Cleaning by Keeping Internal Structure and Homogenous Volumes between Objects

ESS Engineering Software Steyr-Vijay Mishra, Martin Schifko, Vijai Kumar Suriyababu, Alireza Eslamian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0808
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous cars already exist, why should anybody these days spend manual time on mesh preparation? This is a task for the machine and no the human being. In this session, we will show the one-click way to prepare the mesh for multi bodies or topological complex objects for CAX applications. In this session a typical process is discussed, how to obtain autonomously suitable data cleaning and output qualities of complex multi object geometries. The import process moves all embedded objects to the global coordinate system. The user can review if the input data is the correct one. Once this is confirmed by the user everything else runs fully automated. At first each object is getting subdivided and reassembled into sheets and solids by removing redundant geometries. Sheets are getting inflated accordingly. Next a homogenous belt is created between objects. Please note that everything sustained so far. Depending on the goal for this process one can obtain: - Closed connected surface mesh - Closed volumes of each objects and the belt - All kind of Boolean…

Use of CAE Tool to Evaluate the Body Pressure Distribution Plot on Automotive Seating

Woodbridge Group-DM N. Alam, Vaidehi Chennubhotla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0402
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Body Pressure Distribution (BPD) plot plays a vital role during designing the seating system. The seating system provides support and comfort to the occupants while they are operating the vehicle. The traditional way to produce Body Pressure Distribution (BPD) plot for a seating system is to use actual human subject with pressure sensor mat. But this is only possible when the seat has been manufactured. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of CAE analytical tool to find the BPD plot at the early phase of the seating system design. BPD plot created by using SAE standard manikin is not very realistic as that dummy back and butt is not deformable compared to human manikin dummy. Human manikin back and butt is made of deformable finite element tissue which gives more realistic direction of body pressure distribution. With the help of CAE analytical tool, the traditional process is streamlined, and a seat design could be achieved in a shorter period with greater accuracy. We will show the correlation between actual BPD and…

Diagnostics of Fatigue Cracks in Rotor Systems of Machines

South Ural State University-Albert Zakhezin, Olga Kolosova, Yuri Pryadko, Sergei Aliukov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0337
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
High-speed loaded rotor systems are widely distributed in machines and equipment of various branches of technology, including transport. Maintaining rotor systems at the appropriate high technical level is an important task, the solution of which is necessary to reduce current costs, to decrease the number of emergency situations. In this paper, the process of appearance of fatigue cracks in rotor systems is considered and the degree of their development is determined. Based on the carried out studies, the method for predicting the development of the fatigue cracks has been developed. The destruction of structural elements under variable loads usually occurs gradually, as a result of the accumulation of microdamages that pass into the developing fatigue microcracks. The appearance of cracks does not mean that the structural elements are completely out of order and that immediate repairs are necessary. In practice, structural elements with cracks can continue to function reliably for a considerable time, and a slight decrease in operating loads can increase their durability and even completely halt the growth of cracks. Therefore, when vibrating…
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An Automation for Meter Cluster Message Layout

Calsonic Kansei Corp.-Masatoshi Arai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1247
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Meter clusters display conventional warnings as well as complicated messages such as ADAS. Display systems of meter clusters are developed using model based development methods, which include two kinds of models: logic models and GUI models. GUI models display pictures and messages according to instructions of logic models' output, which are generally made using MATLAB/Simulink. Testing and validation for logic models have been already applied. GUI models are made by GUI tools which can be operated graphically. However, approximately 9 million manual operations are necessary for each system. In this way, GUI tools are bound to cause human errors and are hard to identify. An automatic layout tool has been developed to improve operation efficiency and reduce any human errors. The automatic layout tool for GUI tools has three functions: an arrangement function, a localize function, and, a check function. Each screen consists of 30 pictures and messages on an average. Each picture or message needs 10 attributes: color, font size, etc., which are stored in the system specifications. One system has 1,000 screens of…

Intelligent Vehicle Monitoring for Safety and Security

Ohio State University-Matthew Andrew Appel, Qadeer Ahmed
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0129
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The challenges posed by connected and autonomous vehicles fall beyond the scope of current version of ISO 26262. According to the current functional safety standard, human intervention defines the degree of severity of the fault. Since the driver involvement in CAVs will decrease in future, this classifies all malfunctions/faults as ASIL D. On the other hand, CAVs bring additional capabilities such as advance sensors, telematics-based connectivity etc. which can be used to devise efficient approaches to address functional safety challenges. The caveat to these additional capabilities are issues like cybersecurity, complexity, etc. This paper will present a systematic approach to understand challenges and propose a potential solution to handle faults/malfunctions in CAVs. This approach requires a framework, presented in this paper, to deal with the functional safety challenges when the driver is not in the loop. The framework introduces the concept of ‘Smart Diagnostics’ algorithms that utilize the additional set of sensors and connectivity available in CAVs. These smart algorithms may be model-based for the on-board systems (e.g. motors, sensors etc.) or machine learning based…