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Stabilizer Foot Optimization for Backhoe Loader

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Sandeep D Dhotre, Gurwinder Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0104
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Continuous improvement and weight reduction are key contributors to success of most of the Product Engineering Organizations. This helps to keep the product competitive in market from cost, weight and performance stand point. It needs to be ensured to have enough strength in the structures to support the external loads along with quality requirements. This can be ensured by removing material from redundant zones and provide it at necessary areas carrying loads. In current paper, author covers information about utilization of topology optimization tool to achieve the weight reduction and in turn cost reduction to contribute in the organizations Value Improvement efforts. Stabilizer foot optimization is an opportunity explored in construction vehicle (Backhoe). Current stabilizer foot is a common design across multiple models that range in performance and weight capability. The stabilizer foot functions to stabilize the machine transferring the load from the backhoe through to the ground surface. The foot is also used as a primary vehicle lifting point. Machine performance varies 40% from the largest to smallest models which presents an opportunity to…

Achieving Compliance to RDE – How Does This Development Target Impact the Development Process, Testing Methodologies and Tools

AVL LIST GmbH-Gerald Hochmann, Arnold Berger, Harald Mayrhofer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0358
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
• Background - RDE and CO2 Fleet consumption reduction • issues to be solve – are existing testbeds capable to efficiently develop towards RDE and CO2 reduction • Solution - focusing on operating points caused by RDE specific testbed hardware is used as well as software tools to enable efficient development. At first glance RDE seems to be a road testing topic only, mistakenly. While Type approval test must be performed at the Road and Chassis Dyno, development work beforehand delivers solutions fulfilling the demanded legislation limits. Making the right development steps and decisions will lead to a technical solution within economy of scales. Much of this work done happens on engine testbeds and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) according to UN-ECE legislation or the new test cycle for the chassis dyno according WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Test Procedure) will not change that. The question is, are engine test beds fit for this new challenge or are changes required? One characteristic element of RDE is the randomness of operating conditions generated by a road drive. There…

LEAN Techniques for Effective, Efficient and Secure Information Processing in Automotive Homologation

ARAI-Yogesh Thipse
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0335
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
It is an established fact that virtual knowledge based engineering has revolutionized R & D activities by streamlining processes, ensuring productivity and accuracy. This has resulted in freeing up time for quality interpretational work and decision making for engineering the best of products. Subsequently, homologation is a mandatory requisite activity for product signoff. It certifies the quality of the product and is an important factor in giving the product an authenticity for sale in the market. Homologation entails compliance to regulations existing in form of well-established standards which elaborate systematic and detailed guidelines on conducting physical testing for automotive systems, sub-systems or components for specific vehicle types. The contemporary homologation scenario encompasses heavy usage of virtual platform tasks like data acquisition, application of heuristics from the standards, post processing, classification, test output report and type approval certificate generation. It is highly desirable that the homologation procedure needs to be streamlined and of high fidelity through seamless integration of all steps involved in the information processing as well as effective capture of homologation knowledge in a…

Challenges in the Regulatory Framework for Automated Driving

IDIADA Automotive Technology SA-Ignacio Lafuente, Marta Tobar, Carles Luján, Estrella Martínez Rami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0097
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Automated Driving (AD) is foreseen to be one of the major social and technological challenges in the coming years. Many manufacturers are developing new models with cutting-edge functionalities, which are not included in the scope of the current regulatory framework. Apart from demonstrating their know-how and expertise about AD, their willingness to sell their AD models in the European market is accelerating the rule-making system. However, which is the roadmap for the European regulatory framework? Policy makers and regulatory bodies are pushing their boundaries at all levels (national and international) in order to introduce modifications in existing regulations. These regulations will enable the introduction of these new functionalities into the market. Without decreasing the standards of safety and security, the implementation of a clear and harmonized regulatory framework and approval process is extremely needed. The last amendments of the UN Regulation nº 79 related to steering equipment or the creation of new standards such as the ISO 21448 regarding Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) are examples of recent efforts from the regulatory bodies to…

Management of RAM Fault for Safety Applications

John Deere-Anavaratha Selvan Ganapathi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0365
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Introduction As safety compliance (ISO 26262) has become a norm for automotive embedded software development, the OEMs and Tier1s are pushed to follow the safety guidelines during hardware and software development process. This demands for microcontroller/software not only to detect internal faults but also to find the exact root cause of the failure and have a self-healing mechanism. In this article, the injection, detection and safety action of RAM fault will be addressed using specific microcontroller and Vehicle Application. This article will focus on: 1. RAM fault injection, detection and safety action which will cover ISO-26262 functional safety from QM to ASIL-D. 2. RAM test implementation using AUTOSAR Complex Device Driver which contains the complete RAM faults detection and their test manager implementation in accordance with ISO-26262. 3. RAM test discussion will be on memory separations and the algorithm selection, different kinds of RAM errors and the correction mechanism, diagnostics coverage, single and continuous test. 4. Conclusion based on achieved diagnostics coverage, Single point fault metric and latent point fault metric.

Model-Based Approaches in Developing an Advanced Aftertreatment System: An Overview

Cummins Inc.-Changsheng Su, Joseph Brault, Achuth Munnannur, Z. Gerald Liu, Sean Milloy, Arvind Harinath, David Dunnuck, Ken Federle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0026
To be published on 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Cummins has recently launched next-generation aftertreatment technology, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system, for medium-duty and heavy-duty engines used in on-highway and off-highway applications. Besides meeting EPA 2010+ and Euro VI regulations, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system offers 60% volume and 40% weight reductions compared to current aftertreatment systems. In this work, we present model-based approaches that were systematically adopted in the design and development of the Cummins Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system. Particularly, a variety of analytical and experimental component-level and system-level validation tools have been used to optimize DOC, DPF, SCR/ASC, as well as the DEF decomposition device. The highlights of this work can be summarized as follows: a). internal dosing is more efficient than external dosing to control HC slip; High CPSI DOCs show better HC oxidation performance at high SV due to enhanced mass transfer; b). the adopted advanced DPF technologies enable greater ash capacity for long maintenance intervals; c). SCR performance was optimized with the use of a hydrothermally robust Cu-Zeolite catalyst coated on high CPSI substrates.
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Cutting Tools, Wire, Electrical, General Specification for

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6173A
  • Current
Published 2018-12-12 by SAE International in United States

This standard covers design requirements, performance requirements, and methods of procurement for tools and associated accessories used to cut aerospace vehicle electrical wire and cable. Aerospace vehicle electrical wire has stranded conductors with protective plating and specialized insulation. Poor quality wire cutting can compromise the performance of wiring.

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Condition-Based Maintenance for Aerospace Systems

drR2 Consulting-Ravi Rajamani
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-193
Published 2018-12-11 by SAE International in United States

Condition-Based Maintenance in Aviation: The History, The Business and The Technology describes the history and practice of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) systems by showcasing ten technical papers from the archives of SAE International, stretching from the dawn of the jet age down to the present times.

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Diagnostics and Prognostics of Aerospace Engines

drR2 Consulting-Ravi Rajamani
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-195
Published 2018-11-28 by SAE International in United States

The propulsion system is arguably the most critical part of the aircraft; it certainly is the single most expensive component of the vehicle. Ensuring that engines operate reliably without major maintenance issues is an important goal for all operators, military or commercial. Engine health management (EHM) is a critical piece of this puzzle and has been a part of the engine maintenance for more than five decades. In fact, systematic condition monitoring was introduced for engines before it was applied to other systems on the aircraft.

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Cleaner, Carpet, Water Extraction Type

AMS J Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals and Materials Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS1631D
  • Current
Published 2018-11-27 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers one type of carpet cleaner in the form of a liquid.