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SAE 2006 Automotive Dynamics, Stability and Controls Conference and Exhibition
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Optimization of a McPherson Suspension System Using the Design of Experiments Method

K.N.T University of Technology-Sh. Azadi
Sharif University of Technology-A. Eskandari, O. Mirzadeh
Published 2006-02-14 by SAE International in United States
In this research, the handling behavior of an intermediate class passenger car has been optimized by altering its front suspension parameters. For this purpose, a validated virtual model of the car, constructed by Adams/Car software, has been used. The utilized objective function is a combination of eight criteria indicating handling characteristics of the car. To reduce the amount of optimization parameters, a sensitivity analysis has been done by implementing the Design of Experiments method capabilities. Optimization has been done using the Response Surface Method. The obtained optimization results show a considerable improvement in the system response.
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ADAMS Simulation of Ride and Handling Performance of the Kinetic™ Suspension System

James R. Wilde, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther
Published 2006-02-14 by SAE International in United States
Kinetic Pty Ltd and Tenneco Automotive have developed a passive suspension system hereafter referred to as a Kinetic2 system. The motivation for the design of the system is discussed, and the function of the system is briefly explained. In a previous paper, the system has been shown to improve the stability and rollover resistance of a small SUV. In this study vehicle response characteristics are found by simulating a typical sinusoidal sweep maneuver. Improved handling is evaluated by simulating NHTSA’s yaw acceleration feedback fishhook test. Lastly ride is studied by simulating the vehicle driving over a characteristic stretch of California Freeway #5. All of the simulations were performed on a small SUV in standard form and equipped with the Kinetic system. Results of the ADAMS simulation are presented, and benefits are discussed.
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Dynamic Modeling of Torque-Biasing Devices for Vehicle Yaw Control

Eaton Corporation-Damrongrit Piyabongkarn, John Grogg, Qinghui Yuan, Jae Lew
University of Minnesota-Rajesh Rajamani
Published 2006-02-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper focuses on modeling of torque-biasing devices of a four-wheel-drive system used for improving vehicle stability and handling performance. The proposed driveline system is based on nominal front-wheel-drive operation with on-demand transfer of torque to the rear. The torque biasing components of the system are an electronically controlled center coupler and a rear electronically controlled limited slip differential. Kinematic modeling of the torque biasing devices is introduced including stage transitions during the locking stage and the unlocking/slipping stage. Analytical proofs of how torque biasing could be used to influence vehicle yaw dynamics are also included in the paper. A yaw control methodology utilizing the biasing devices is proposed. Finally, co-simulation results with Matlab®/Simulink® and CarSim® show the effectiveness of the torque biasing system in achieving yaw stability control.
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From Aviation down to Vehicles - Integration of a Motions-Envelope as Safety Technology

DaimlerChrysler AG -(Germany)-Frédéric Holzmann
Federal Swiss Institute of Technology-(Switzerland)-Roland Siegwart
Published 2006-02-14 by SAE International in United States
Some systems like the ESP already exist to support the driver for the stabilization of the vehicle. But the next generation of active safety system will have to deal with a wider environment of the vehicle, to go closer to the limit of the vehicle dynamic etc. With such a complexity the systems will also have to take into account their own limits and to reduce their actions when they have a low confidence, e.g. when sensors are degraded. This article describes firstly a virtual driver and secondly a decision control that fuses their command depending on their confidences in order to improve the reliability of the command level.
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Global Chassis Control - The Networked Chassis

Continental Teves AG & Co. oHG-Sascha J. Semmler, Peter E. Rieth, Steffen J. Linkenbach
Published 2006-02-14 by SAE International in United States
Global Chassis Control (GCC) from Continental Teves, a logical development of the current Electronic Stability Control (ESC), aims to ensure the best possible levels of active safety, ride quality and driving pleasure under the given driving conditions, using the available configuration of electronically controlled chassis subsystems. The system makes the vehicle easier to control in extreme situations at the same time as maximizing ride comfort and ensuring more responsive handling.
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Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing of Automotive Control Systems

Magneti Marelli Powertrain-Fabrizio Amisano
Politecnico di Torino-Aldo Sorniotti, Nicolò D'Alfio, Enrico Galvagno, Andrea Morgando
Published 2006-02-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper deals with the methodology implemented by Magneti Marelli and Politecnico di Torino Vehicle Dynamics Research group to develop and verify the software of active chassis and powertrain control systems through a Hardware-In-the-Loop automated procedure. It is a general procedure which can be adopted for all the active chassis control systems, not only for their development but also for the verification of their reliability. The steps of the procedure are described in the first part of the paper. The specific application on which this paper is focused concerns robotized gearboxes.
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Characterization of Key Vehicle Parameters Affecting Dynamic Rollover Propensity Using Simulation and 1/10th Model Testing

Goldspark Holdings Ltd-Amol Gulve
Goldspark Holdings Ltd and University of Detroit Mercy-Divesh Mittal, Jonathan M Weaver
Published 2006-02-14 by SAE International in United States
Rollover propensity is an important safety issue which should be considered early in the design of a vehicle. Although there is a trend toward higher-tech solutions to mitigate rollover risk, we feel that a vehicle designer should also be fully aware of the impact many of the vehicle's design parameters have on rollover propensity. Such awareness is essential to making appropriate engineering tradeoffs throughout the vehicle development process.In this paper, we present a study performed to gain a better understanding of the factors affecting the roll tendency of a vehicle. The equations of motion for a vehicle ignoring suspension effects and tire deflections are developed to gain an understanding of the physics involved and to preliminarily identify factors using a generic Matlab™ code. Further and more complete analysis was then completed using ADAMS™ Car. ADAMS™ Insight was used to vary few dynamic parameters for the vehicle executing a Fishhook maneuver, and a statistical analysis was performed on the resulting data using Minitab™.Experimentation was conducted on 1/10th model of Traxxas remote control car to see if…
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Tire Asymmetries and Pressure Variations in the Radt/Milliken Nondimensional Tire Model

Milliken Research Associates, Inc.-Douglas L. Milliken
University at Buffalo, State University at New York-Edward M. Kasprzak, Kemper E. Lewis
Published 2006-02-14 by SAE International in United States
The Nondimensional Tire Model is based on the idea of data compression to load-independent curves. Through the use of appropriate transforms, tire data can be manipulated such that, when plotted in nondimensional coordinates, all data falls on a single curve. This leads to a highly efficient and mathematically consistent tire model.In the past, data for slip angle and slip ratio has been averaged across positive and negative values for use with the transforms. In this paper, techniques to handle tire asymmetries in lateral and longitudinal force are presented. This is an important advance, since in passenger cars driving/braking data is almost always asymmetric and, depending on tire construction, lateral force data may follow likewise.In addition, this paper is the first to explore the inclusion of inflation pressure as an operating variable in the Nondimensional Tire Theory. Inflation pressure affects the shape of the tire curves, notably the linear range stiffness and peak force friction coefficient. With this new variable, the operating conditions addressed by Nondimensional Tire Theory now include slip angle, slip ratio, inclination angle,…
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Estimation of Critical Tire Parameters Using GPS Based Sideslip Measurements

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University-David M. Bevly, Robert Daily, William Travis
Published 2006-02-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the use of GPS to estimate vehicle sideslip and tire information. Both a one antenna GPS antenna/receiver and dual GPS antenna method are studied. Analysis of the accuracy that can be achieved using the two different GPS solutions is provided. The algorithms are then validated on a fully instrumented Infiniti G35 sedan. Experimental data is given showing the performance of the GPS based sideslip estimates compared against a simple bicycle model and a Datron™ velocity sensor.
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Influence of Suspension Properties on Vehicle Roll Stability

University of Michigan-Dearborn-Taehyun Shim, Pradheep C. Velusamy
Published 2006-02-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle roll dynamics is strongly influenced by suspension properties such as roll center height, roll steer and roll camber. In this paper, the effects of suspension properties on vehicle roll response has been investigated using a multi-body vehicle dynamics program.A full vehicle model equipped with front MacPherson and rear multilink suspensions has been used for the study. Roll dynamics of the vehicle were evaluated by performing fixed timing fishhook maneuver in the simulation. Variations of vehicle roll response due to changes in the suspension properties were assessed by quantitatively analyzing the vehicle response through simulation.Critical suspension design parameters for vehicle roll dynamics were identified and adjusted to improve roll stability of the vehicle model with passive suspension. Design of Experiments has been used for identifying critical hardpoints affecting the suspension parameters and optimization techniques were employed for parameter optimization. This approach provides a viable alternative to costlier active control systems for economy class vehicles.
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