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Evaluation of Near- and Far-Side Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impact Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent Inc-Sarah Sherman, Christina Garman, Alan Dibb
Exponent Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Jessica Isaacs
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many side-impact collisions occur at speeds much lower than tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In fact, nearly half of all occupants in side-impact collisions experience a change in velocity (delta-V) below 15 kph (9.3 mph). However, studies of occupant loading in collisions of low- to moderate-severity, representative of many real-world collisions, is limited. While prior research has measured occupant responses using both human volunteers and anthropometric test devices (ATDs), these tests have been conducted at relatively low speeds (<10 kph [<6.2 mph] delta-V). This study evaluated near- and far-side occupant response and loading during two side impacts with delta-V of 6.1 kph and 14.0 kph (3.8 mph and 8.7 mph). In each crash test, a Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) impacted the side of a late-model, mid-sized sedan in a configuration consistent with the IIHS side-impact crash-test protocol. Two instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile male ATDs were positioned in the vehicle, one in the driver's seat and one in the right, front passenger seat.…
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Capabilities and Limitations Related to Vehicle Dynamics and Operator Kinematics of Electric Scooter Micro-Mobility Modes

Exponent Inc.-Christina MR Garman, Steven G. Como, Ian C. Campbell, Jeffrey Wishart, Kevin O'Brien, Scott McLean
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0935
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Micro-mobility is a fast-growing trend in the transportation industry with stand-up electric scooters (e-scooters) becoming increasingly popular in the United States. To date, there are over 350 ride-share e-scooter programs in the United States. As this popularity increases, so does the need to understand the performance capabilities of these vehicles and the associated operator kinematics. Scooter tip-over stability is characterized by the scooter geometry and controls and is maintained through operator inputs such as body position, interaction with the handlebars, and foot placement. In this study, testing was conducted using operators of varying sizes to document the capabilities and limitations of these e-scooters being introduced into the traffic ecosystem. A test course was designed to simulate an urban environment including sidewalk and on-road sections requiring common maneuvers (e.g., turning, stopping points, etc.) for repeatable, controlled data collection. A commercially available e-scooter was instrumented to measure acceleration and velocity, steering angle, roll angle, and GPS position. Operators ranging from the 15th percentile to the 85th percentile were instrumented with wearable sensors to gain insight into the…
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Biomechanics of Passenger Vehicle Underride: An Analysis of IIHS Crash Test Data

Vollmer-Gray Engineering Laboratories-Mohammad Atarod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0525
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Occupant dynamics during passenger vehicle underride has not been widely evaluated. The present study examined the occupant data from IIHS rear underride crash tests. A total of 35 crash tests were evaluated. The tests were classified as full-width (n=9), 50% overlap (n=11), and 30% overlap (n=15). A 2010 Chevrolet Malibu impacted the rear underride guard of a stationary trailer at 35 mph. The trailer was filled with concrete blocks and attached to a 2001 Kenworth tractor. Several occupant kinematics and dynamics data including head accelerations, head injury criteria, neck shear and axial forces, neck moments, neck indices, chest acceleration, chest displacement, chest viscous criterion, sternum deflection rate, and left/right femur forces/impulses, knee displacements, upper/lower tibia moments, upper/lower tibia indices, tibia axial forces, and foot accelerations were measured. The vehicle accelerations, vehicle delta-Vs, and occupant compartment intrusions were also evaluated during these crash tests. The results indicated that the head and neck injury parameters were correlated with driver A-pillar rearward intrusion. The 30% overlap crashes showed significantly higher intrusion and head and neck injury values than…
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Multi-objective Restraint System Robust and Reliability Design Optimization with Advanced Data Analytics

ESTECO North America-Zhendan Xue
Ford Motor Co Ltd-Kevin Pline, Zhenyan Gao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0743
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle restraint system design optimization is important for occupant protection and achieving high score in NCAP rating of five-Star. The target is to minimize the Relative Risk Score (RRS), defined by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NTHSA)'s New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). The design input includes restraint feature options (e.g., some specific features on/off) as discrete design variables, as well as continuous restraint design variables, such as airbag firing time, airbag vent size, inflator power level, etc. The optimization problem is constrained by injury criteria involve HIC, chest deflection/acceleration, neck tension/compression, etc., which ensures the vehicle meeting or exceeding all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208 requirements. Considering the local variability of input variables such as manufacturing tolerances, the robustness and reliability of nominal designs were also taken into account in optimization process. Genetic Algorithms (GA) based optimization methods were applied because these methods can handle discrete and continuous design variables simultaneously, as well treat such highly nonlinear optimization problems in a robust manner In this study, frontal impact modes were used…
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A Human Body Model Study on Restraints for Side-Facing Occupants in Frontal Crashes of an Automated Vehicle

Joyson Safety Systems-Maika Katagiri, Sungwoo Lee
Joyson Safety Systems, NA-Jay Zhijian Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0980
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study is to investigate kinematics and responses of side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes of an automated minivan using Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) simplified occupant models (50th%ile male and 5th%ile female), and to develop new restraint concepts to protect the occupants. The latest GHBMC M50-OS and F05-OS models (version 2.1) were further validated with the Postmortem Human Subject (PMHS) side sled tests [Cavanaugh 1990] and the PMHS far-side sled tests [Formen 2013], with detailed correlations of the kinematics and the injury measures. Robustness and biofidelity of the GHBMC human models, especially for the pelvis and knee body regions, were further improved. Using the improved M50-OS and F05-OS models, we evaluated the body kinematics and injury measures of the side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes at severities ranging from 15 mph to 35 mph. Three restraint conditions were studied: 1) no restraint; 2) lap belt only; 3) lap belt and conceptual inflatable device. An additional parametric study on the restraint design parameters of the #3 restraint concept was performed to “optimize” the restraint…
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compatibility for reducing serious injury in side impact

Toyota Motor Co., Ltd.-Satoshi Akima, Noboru Tanase, Masato Kunisada
Toyota Motor North America Inc-Jason Hallman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0982
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to the research about SUV side impact by Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), it has be found that the side impact by pickup or SUV lead to larger injury criteria at pelvis and leg as compared to the side impact by IIHS SUV MDB. The root cause of the high injury criteria is large deformation of door. Intrusion of stiff front side members deformed the door. Although IIHS SUV MDB does not have stiff front side members, many pickups and SUVs have. Toyota Motor Corporation have considered frontal characteristic of vehicle. We adopt stiff bumper reinforcement and B-pillar can receive front side members through bumper reinforcement. It leads to small door deformation. We think that not only improvement of crashworthiness about side impact but also improvement of compatibility are effective to decrease fatality by side impact. To prove this idea, car to car side impact test (Highlander to Camry) is conducted.
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Occupant Dynamics During Low, Moderate, and High Speed Rear-End Collisions

Vollmer-Gray Engineering Laboratories-Mohammad Atarod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0516
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Numerous studies have evaluated occupant kinematics and dynamics in “low-speed” rear-end impacts. Occupant biomechanics during “moderate-to-high” speed rear impacts (delta-V ≥ 15 mph), however, has not been thoroughly examined. This study characterized the motions and forces experienced by the occupant head, neck, torso, hip, and left/right femur during these collisions. The publicly available NHTSA rear-end crash test data were examined. More specifically, the FMVSS 301 Fuel System Integrity tests were used. The test procedure involved a 30 mph moving barrier impacting the rear of the vehicles. Instrumented 50th percentile male Hybrid III ATDs were positioned in the left front driver seat. Occupant data including head accelerations, upper/lower neck shear and axial forces, upper/lower neck moments, lower neck acceleration, torso accelerations, torso deflection, hip accelerations, and left/right femur axial forces were measured and compared to published IARV tolerance data. The vehicle accelerations, vehicle delta-Vs, occupant position data, seat angular velocity, seat rotation and seatbelt forces were also evaluated during these crash tests. The occupant data for the “low-speed” rear-end impacts were extracted from the literature. The…
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A primary study on the restraint system of self-driving car

Hunan University-Binhui Jiang, Hongze Ren, Zhonghao Bai
The Johns Hopkins University-Feng Zhu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the variation of compartment design and occupant’s postures in the self-driving car, there is a new and major challenge for occupant protection. In particular, the studies on occupant restraint systems used in the self-driving car has significantly delayed compared to the development of the autonomous technologies. In this paper, a numerical study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of the mainstream restraint systems (3-points belt with airbag or 4-points belt with airbag) on the driver in three different scenarios (driving with a seat angle of 110°, half-reclining resting with a seat angle of 135°, and reclining resting with a seat angle of 160°) . It can be found that in the simulation results: 1. All the restraint systems are capable of providing effective protection for the driving driver and the restraint system with 4-points belt has advantages due to its better protective effect on the occupant thorax; 2. When the driver is half-reclining or reclining resting, the head HIC36, neck Nij and chest compression are about 827-958, 0.62-0.88, and 66-68 mm, respectively;…
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Head Support Concept to Mitigate Neck Injury for Children Installed Forward Facing in Vehicles

General Motors of Brazil-Rodrigo da Silva Ribeiro
Unicamp-Antonio Celso Fonseca De Arruda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0106
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The slender neck of a 3-year-old child can be serious injured or even lead to child’s death when loaded under frontal impact by the proportionately larger and heavier head. Accordingly with medical recommendations based on latest studies, a 3-year-old child is safer when installed in a rear-facing child seat, but this configuration is not feasible for some vehicles with limited rear space such as superminis, small MPVs and pick-ups when front seats are occupied. This study aims to explore the potential of neck tension (Fz) reduction in 3-year-old dummy installed forward-facing when subjected to three head static restraints (head strap, head support, cervical collar) as well as an overhead shield car seat in order to identify solutions for a device to avoid or mitigate neck injuries. To simulate frontal impacts, a 3-year-old dummy from Q series was installed on a reinforced vehicle body fixed on a sled test equipment where the United Nations R129 pulse was applied. Both head strap and head support were not able to reduce neck tension due to the high Q3…
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Human Torso Simulator

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35705
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Engineers have created a simulator that mimics the mechanical behavior of the human torso. It allows researchers to test different back brace designs and configurations without needing to test them on people, removing significant logistical and ethical issues.