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Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol. 62, 2018

  • Book
  • B-STAPP2018
Published 2019-04-30 by The Stapp Association in United States
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2018 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Effect of restraints on chest deflection • Thoracic response in dynamic front loading • Side impact assessments and comparisons • Front airbag deployment rates and implications • Reanalysis of experimental brain strain data • Modeling pedestrian impacts • Short communications o New data on the biomechanics of injury and human tolerance, new methods and tools to study the biomechanics of injury, new developments in occupant protection systems, and new concepts on the biomechanics of injury based on experimental and analytical studies.
 

Influence of DISH, Ankylosis, Spondylosis and Osteophytes on Serious-to-Fatal Spinal Fractures and Cord Injury in Rear Impacts

Collision Research & Analysis Inc.-Samuel White
ProBiomechanics LLC-David Viano, Chantal Parenteau
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Seats have become stronger over the past two decades and remain more upright in rear impacts. While head restraints are higher and more forward providing support for the head and neck, serious-to-fatal injuries to the thoracic and cervical spine have been seen in occupants with spinal disorders, such as DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis), ankylosis, spondylosis and/or osteophytes that ossify the joints in the spine. This case study addresses the influence of spinal disorders on fracture-dislocation and spinal cord injury in rear impacts with relatively upright seats. Nineteen field accidents were investigated where serious-to-fatal injuries of the thoracic and cervical spine occurred with the seat remaining upright or slightly reclined. The occupants were lap-shoulder belted, some with belt pretensioning and cinching latch plate. The occupants were older and had pre-existing disorders of the spine, including DISH, ankylosis, spondylosis and/or osteophytes that ossify the spinal joints. The crashes were summarized and the mechanism for injury was analyzed. The 19 cases involved fracture-dislocation and spinal cord injury at areas of the spine where DISH, ankylosis, spondylosis and/or…
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Comfortable Head and Neck Postures in Reclined Seating for Use in Automobile Head Rest Design

University of Michigan-Matthew Reed, Sheila Ebert, Monica Jones
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Little information is available on passenger preferences for posture and support in highly reclined seat configurations. To address this gap, a laboratory study was conducted with 24 adult passengers at seat back angles from 23 to 53 degrees. Passenger preferences for head and neck posture with and without head support were recorded. This paper presents the characteristics of the passengers’ preferred head support with respect to thorax, head, and neck posture.
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Study of Optimization Strategy for Vehicle Restraint System Design

ESTECO North America-Zhendan Xue
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Guosong Li, Ching-Hung Chuang, Kevin Pline
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle restraint systems are optimized to maximize occupant safety and achieve high safety ratings. The optimization formulation often involves the inclusion or exclusion of restraint features as discrete design variables, as well as continuous restraint design variables such as airbag firing time, airbag vent size, inflator power level, etc. The optimization problem is constrained by injury criteria such as Head Injury Criterion (HIC), chest deflection, chest acceleration, neck tension/compression, etc., which ensures the vehicle meets or exceeds all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) requirements. Typically, Genetic Algorithms (GA) optimizations are applied because of their capability to handle discrete and continuous variables simultaneously and their ability to jump out of regions with multiple local optima, particularly for this type of highly non-linear problems. However, the computational time for the GA based optimization is often lengthy because of the relatively slow convergence comparing to derivative based algorithms. This study compares GA and multi-strategy optimization algorithms on driver’s side full frontal 90-degree rigid barrier impact MADYMO simulations at different impact speeds with belted and unbelted occupants. The…
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Analysis of Rear Seat Sled Tests with the 5th Female Hybrid III: Incorrect Conclusions in Bidez et al. SAE 2005-01-1708

ProBiomechanics LLC-David Viano, Chantal Parenteau
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Objective: Sled test video and data were independently analyzed to assess the validity of statements and conclusions reported in Bidez et al. SAE paper 2005-01-1708 [7].Method: An independent review and analysis of the test data and video was conducted for 9 sled tests at 35 km/h (21.5 mph). The 5th female Hybrid III was lap-shoulder belted in the 2nd or 3rd row seat of a SUV buck. For one series, the angle was varied from 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 deg PDOF. The second series involved shoulder belt pretensioning and other belt modifications.Results: Bidez et al. [7] claimed “The lap belts moved up and over the pelvis of the small female dummy for all impact angles tested.” We found that there was no submarining in any of the tests with the production lap-shoulder belts. Bidez et al. [7] claimed “H3-5F dummies began to roll out of their shoulder belt at… 30 degrees. Complete loss of torso support was seen at 45 degrees without significant kinetic energy dissipation.” We found that the shoulder belt remained…
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Occupant Kinematics and Loading in Low Speed Lateral Impacts

American Bio Engineers-Justin Brink, Brian Jones, Scott Swinford
Biomechanical Research & Testing-Christopher Furbish, Judson Welcher
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Instrumented human subject and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) responses to low speed lateral impacts were investigated. A series of 12 lateral collisions at various impact angles were conducted, 6 near-side and 6 far-side, with each test using an ATD and one human subject. Two restrained female subjects were utilized, with one positioned in the driver seat and one in the left rear seat. Each subject was exposed to 3 near-side and 3 far-side impacts. The restrained ATD was utilized in both the driver and left rear seats, undergoing 3 near-side and 3 far-side impacts in each position. The vehicle center of gravity (CG) change in velocity (delta-V) ranged from 5.5 to 9.4 km/h (3.4 to 5.8 mph). Video analysis was used for quantification and comparison of the human and ATD motions and interactions with interior vehicle structures. Human head, thorax, and low back accelerations were analyzed. Peak human subject head resultant accelerations ranged from 0.9 to 36.8 g’s. Peak human subject thorax and low back lateral accelerations ranged from 1.0 to 17.1 g’s and 1.3…
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Aircraft Personal Ventilation: A CFD Thermal Comfort Analysis

Embraer-Fernando Stancato
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, many different research efforts are being conducted to develop personal ventilation system for aircrafts. A numerical CFD study is presented as an example analysis, finding the relationship between the initial jet temperature and mass flow to the local thermal comfort on the head, chest and face. Typical regional airplane cabin geometry was used with two passengers seated. The passengers were modeled with numerical manikins with body and arms. The study first investigated whether the personal ventilation jet has influence on only one of the passengers or if it also affects the other. It was demonstrated that the proposed personal ventilation outlet can influence local thermal comfort with minimum influence on the adjacent passenger. The equivalent temperatures on the head, chest and face were calculated with different initial jet temperatures. It was shown that the three body parts present different dependence on the initial jet temperature due to the different distances of the personal ventilation outlet and varying cloth thermal resistances. Lower temperatures may cause higher discomfort than higher temperatures. It was determined that the…
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Styling and Packaging Approach to Meet Pedestrian Upper Leg Requirements as per Euro NCAP Protocol

Tata Motors Limited-Dnyaneshwar Mhaskar, Ashish Kumar Mahapatre, Milind Bhagat
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In most of the countries all over the world, thousands of pedestrians and vulnerable road users are struck by motor vehicles and getting killed or get severe injuries. Accident research data shows that pedestrians are a significant proportion of all road user casualties [1]. In pedestrian impact with vehicle front end, several organ forms impact directly to front end of the vehicles and get severe injuries in head, lower leg and pelvis region. Pelvis region of pedestrian get severe injuries due to hit by Bonnet Leading Edge. Impact force is major injury driving parameter in case of pelvis region. In earlier Euro NCAP Pedestrian Protocol -v7.1.1 [2], upper leg impact energy calculation was based on BLE (Bonnet Leading Edge) height and bumper lead. Vehicle front end styling was not playing any role in deciding upper leg impact energy. Upper leg impact performance was purely dependent on BLE height and package space available. Whereas in current Euro NCAP Pedestrian Protocol -v8.4 [3], upper leg impact energy calculation is estimated based on vehicle front end styling and…
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Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing

Safety Test Instrumentation Stds Comm
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1733_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to compare test results obtained from different crash test facilities, standardized coordinate systems need to be defined for crash test dummies, vehicle structures, and laboratory fixtures. In addition, recorded polarities for various transducer outputs need to be defined relative to positive directions of the appropriate coordinate systems. This SAE Information Report describes the standardized sign convention and recorded output polarities for various transducers used in crash testing.
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Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin Oblique Vertical Testing

US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineerin-Hollie A. Pietsch, David R. Weyland
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Abstract - The Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan) was developed to assess injury in Live Fire Test and Evaluation (LFTE) and laboratory development tests of vehicles and vehicle technologies subjected to underbody blast (UBB) loading. While UBB events impart primarily vertical loading, the occupant location in the vehicle relative to the blast can result in some inherent non-vertical, or off-axis loading. In this study, the WIAMan Technology Demonstrator (TD) was subjected to 18 tests with a 350g, 5-ms time duration drop tower pulse using an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) energy attenuating seat in four conditions: purely vertical, 15° forward tilt, 15° rearward tilt, and 15° lateral tilt to simulate the partly off-axis loading of an UBB event. The WIAMan TD showed no signs of damage upon inspection. Time history data indicates the magnitude, curve shape, and timing of the response data were sensitive to the off-axis loading in the lower extremity, pelvis, and spine.
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