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Ball, James C.
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ERRATUM

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company, USA-James C. Ball, James E. Anderson, Dairene Uy, Timothy J. Wallington
Michigan State University, USA-Jacob A. Duckworth
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0015.1
Published 2020-01-29 by SAE International in United States
Erratum
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Oxidation of Soybean Biodiesel Fuel in Diesel Engine Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company, USA-James C. Ball, James E. Anderson, Dairene Uy, Timothy J. Wallington
Michigan State University, USA-Jacob A. Duckworth
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0015
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
During diesel engine operation, some fuel is entrained in engine oil, particularly as a consequence of strategies to regenerate NOx traps or particle filters. This “fuel dilution” of oil can adversely affect engine oil properties and performance. Compared to diesel fuel, biodiesel is more prone to fuel dilution and more susceptible to oxidation. Oxidation stability experiments were conducted at 160°C using a modified Rapid Small-Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT) and a Rancimat instrument with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt% biodiesel in four fully formulated engine oils, two partially formulated engine oils, and two base oils. These experiments showed decreasing oxidation stability with increasing biodiesel content. An exception was noted with the least stable oils (two base oils and one engine oil) in which 5 wt% biodiesel improved the oxidation stability relative to oil without biodiesel. Experiments with biodiesel distillation fractions identified this stability enhancement within the least volatile biodiesel fraction, consistent with natural antioxidants in the biodiesel. Omission of two engine oil additives, antioxidants and zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP), led to an unexpected increase in oxidation…
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Soy Biodiesel Oxidation at Vehicle Fuel System Temperature: Influence of Aged Fuel on Fresh Fuel Degradation to Simulate Refueling

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-James E. Anderson, Travis R. Collings, Sherry A. Mueller, James C. Ball, Timothy J. Wallington
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0809
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study of the effects of partially-oxidized biodiesel fuel on the degradation of fresh fuel was performed. A blend of soybean oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in petroleum diesel fuel (30% v:v biodiesel, B30) was aged under accelerated conditions (90°C with aeration). Aging conditions focused on three different degrees of initial oxidation: 1) reduced oxidation stability (Rancimat induction period, IP); 2) high peroxide values (PV); and 3) high total acid number (TAN). Aged B30 fuel was mixed with fresh B30 fuel at two concentrations (10% and 30% m:m) and degradation of the mixtures at the above aging conditions was monitored for IP, PV, TAN, and FAME composition. Greater content of aged fuel carryover (30% m:m) corresponded to stronger effects. Oxidation stability was most adversely affected by high peroxide concentration (Scenario 2), while peroxide content was most reduced for the high TAN scenario (Scenario 3). However, changes in TAN and FAME composition were modest with all four scenarios reaching a plateau in TAN formation at similar times and FAME concentrations showing similar declines. The…
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Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuel and Aftertreatment at a Low NOx, Low Power Engine Condition

BP-Leslie R. Wolf
ConocoPhillips-Kenneth J. Wright
Published 2005-10-24 by SAE International in United States
Previously we reported (SAE Paper 2005-01-0475) that emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from an engine operating at low NOx conditions using Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT100) were lower than those emissions from the engine using an ultra-low sulfur (15 PPM sulfur) diesel fuel (BP15). Those tests were performed at two operating modes: Mode 6 (4.2 bar BMEP, 2300 RPM) and Mode 11 (2.62 bar BMEP, 1500 RPM). We wanted to evaluate the effect on emissions of operating the engine at low power (near idle) in conjunction with the low NOx strategy. Specifically, we report on emissions of total hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), NOx, particulates (PM), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, gas phase polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) and particle phase PAH's from a DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine using a low NOx engine operating strategy at Mode 22 (1.0 bar BMEP and 1500 RPM).Mode 22 did produce some differences in emissions levels and aftertreatment performance for toxicologically relevant species compared to Modes 6 and 11. Further, uncontrolled step changes in these emissions were observed to occur at the low exhaust…
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Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Dibutyl Maleate and Tripropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Diesel Fuel Additives to Lower NOx Emissions

BP-Leslie R. Wolf
Corning Incorporated-Timothy V. Johnson
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
A previous paper reported (SAE Paper 2002-01-2884) that it was possible to decrease mode-weighted NOx emissions compared to the OEM calibration with corresponding increases in particulate matter (PM) emissions. These PM emission increases were partially overcome with the use of oxygenated diesel fuel additives. We wanted to know if compounds of toxicological concern were emitted more or less using oxygenated diesel fuel additives that were used in conjunction with a modified engine operating strategy to lower engine-out NOx emissions. Emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from fuels containing triproplyene glycol monomethyl ether and dibutyl maleate were the same or lower compared to a low sulfur fuel (15 ppm sulfur) even under engine operating conditions designed to lower engine-out NOx emissions. The emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds using a 100% Fisher Tropsch fuel, a recognized clean fuel, were equivalent to or less than emissions from the two oxygenated diesel fuels. These results suggest that these oxygenated diesel fuel additives can be used to lower engine-out NOx emissions without risking any increase in tailpipe emissions of compounds of…
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Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Low-NOx Emissions in a Light-Duty CIDI Engine Using Advanced Fuels

BP-Leslie R. Wolf
Ford Motor Co.-Thomas E. Kenney, James C. Ball
Published 2002-10-21 by SAE International in United States
The control of NOx emissions is the greatest technical challenge in meeting future emission regulations for diesel engines. In this work, a modal analysis was performed for developing an engine control strategy to take advantage of fuel properties to minimize engine-out NOx emissions. This work focused on the use of EGR to reduce NOx while counteracting anticipated PM increases by using oxygenated fuels.A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine for light-duty vehicles was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control System. Engine mapping consisted of sweeping parameters of greatest NOx impact, starting with OEM injection timing (including pilot injection) and EGR. The engine control strategy consisted of increased EGR and simultaneous modulation of both main and pilot injection timing to minimize NOx and PM emission indexes with constraints based on the impact of the modulation on BSFC, Smoke, Boost and BSHC. The engine combustion instability region was determined, and the operating parameters were controlled for stable operation.The engine was operated steady state at four different speed (rpm)/load (kPa, BMEP) conditions as follows: 1500/100, 1500/262, 2000/200, and…
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Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 3. The Effect of Pilot Injection, Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

Equilon Enterprises-Eleanor Liney
Ford Motor Co.-James C. Ball
Published 2001-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of pilot fuel injection on engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur (∼1 ppm), low aromatic, hydrocracked fuel, the same low-sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a California reformulated fuel, and a EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The pilot fuel injection was either turned off or turned on with engine control by either Location of Peak Pressure (LPP) of combustion or the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) calibration strategy. These three control strategies were compared over 2 speed-load modes run in triplicate. Thirty-three potentially toxic compounds were measured. In general, either pilot fuel injection strategy (LPP or OEM) produced higher emissions than with pilot injection turned off.
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Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 2. The Effect of Fuels on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH Using a Composite Of Engine Operating Modes

Equilon Enterprises-Eleanor Liney
Ford Motor Co.-James C. Ball
Published 2001-09-24 by SAE International in United States
A weighted composite of four engine-operating modes, representative of typical operating modes found in the US FTP driving schedule, were used to compare engine-out emissions of toxic compounds using five diesel fuels. The fuels examined were: a low-sulfur low-aromatic hydrocracked diesel fuel, the same low-sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a CARB fuel, and a EPA number 2 diesel certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was operated over 4 speed-load modes: mode 5, 2600 RPM, 8.8 BMEP; mode 6, 2300 RPM, 4.2 BMEP; mode 10, 2000 RPM, 2.0 BMEP; mode 11, 1500 RPM, 2.6 BMEP. The four engine operating modes were weighted as follows: mode 5, 25/1200; mode 6, 200/1200; mode 10, 375/1200; and mode 11, 600/1200. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate. An analysis of variance of fuels showed that, in general, the 15% v/v dimethoxy methane fuel and the Fisher-Tropsch fuels had significantly lower (p < 0.05) emissions of measured compounds compared to the remaining fuels and were statistically indistinguishable from each other.
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A Toxicological Evaluation Of Potential Thermal Degradation Products of Urea

Ford Motor Co.-James C. Ball
Published 2001-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this paper is to make a preliminary assessment of the potential toxicity of compounds that might be emitted from diesel vehicles using urea/SCR technology. The use of urea as a reductant in the removal of NOx from the exhaust of diesel-powered vehicles has the potential to emit at least seven thermal decomposition products and unreacted urea from the tail-pipe. These compounds include: urea, ammonia, cyanate ion, biuret, cyanuric acid, ammelide, ammeline, and melamine. The toxicity data base for these compounds, in general, is poor. In addition, there have been few, if any, studies examining the inhalation route of exposure - the most likely route of exposure for people from vehicle exhaust. The measurement and identification of these compounds from the exhaust of urea/SCR- equipped vehicles is needed to prioritize the kinds of health effects studies required to understand the toxicity of these compounds.
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Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 1. The Effect of Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

Equilon Enterprises-Eleanor Liney
Ford Motor Co.-James C. Ball
Published 2001-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to quantify engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur, low-aromatic hydrocracked (∼1 ppm) fuel, the same low sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a CARB fuel, and an EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The engine was operated over 4 speed-load modes. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate. Thirty three potentially toxic compounds were measured for each fuel and mode. An analysis of variance of the fuels showed that, in general, the 15% v/v dimethoxy methane fuel and the Fisher-Tropsch fuels had significantly lower (p < 0.05) emissions of measured compounds compared to the remaining fuels and were statistically indistinguishable from each other.
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