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Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Low-NOx Emissions in a Light-Duty CIDI Engine Using Advanced Fuels
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 21, 2002 by SAE International in United States
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The control of NOx emissions is the greatest technical challenge in meeting future emission regulations for diesel engines. In this work, a modal analysis was performed for developing an engine control strategy to take advantage of fuel properties to minimize engine-out NOx emissions. This work focused on the use of EGR to reduce NOx while counteracting anticipated PM increases by using oxygenated fuels.
A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine for light-duty vehicles was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control System. Engine mapping consisted of sweeping parameters of greatest NOx impact, starting with OEM injection timing (including pilot injection) and EGR. The engine control strategy consisted of increased EGR and simultaneous modulation of both main and pilot injection timing to minimize NOx and PM emission indexes with constraints based on the impact of the modulation on BSFC, Smoke, Boost and BSHC. The engine combustion instability region was determined, and the operating parameters were controlled for stable operation.
The engine was operated steady state at four different speed (rpm)/load (kPa, BMEP) conditions as follows: 1500/100, 1500/262, 2000/200, and 2300/420. The test fuel matrix included: an ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel (3 ppm) used in the DOE DECSE Program, an ultra-low sulfur California-type diesel fuel (11 ppm), an ultra-low sulfur fuel (15 ppm) manufactured in a current refinery unit targeted to meet 2007 sulfur level, a blend of ultra-low sulfur California-type diesel fuel with tripropylene glycol monomethyl ether at 7 weight percent oxygen, a blend of ultra-low sulfur with tripropylene glycol monomethyl ether at 7 weight percent oxygen, a blend of ultra-low sulfur with dibutyl maleate at 7 weight percent oxygen, and a neat Fischer-Tropsch fuel. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate. Total PM, SOF, NOx, CO, THC, CO2, and O2 were measured.
It was possible to decrease mode-weighted NOx emissions compared to the OEM calibration - generally with corresponding increases in other emissions. These emissions increases could be partially overcome with the use of oxygenated fuels. However, increases in fuel consumption and losses in engine boost proved more significant in limiting practical NOx control than the benefits from fuel compositional changes in the current engine configuration. In subsequent work, emission control devices will be used to control the smoke/particulate and HC emissions, and exhaust measurements will emphasize toxicologically relevant species.
- Manuel A. Gonzalez D. - PDVSA
- Wendy Clark - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Leslie R. Wolf - BP
- John A. Garbak - U. S. Department of Energy
- Kenneth J. Wright - Phillips Petroleum Company
- Mani Natarajan - Marathon Ashland Petroleum Company
- Douglas M. Yost - Southwest Research Institute™ (SwRI ® )
- Edwin A. Frame - Southwest Research Institute™ (SwRI ® )
- Thomas E. Kenney - Ford Motor Co.
- James C. Ball - Ford Motor Co.
- James P. Wallace - Jim Wallace & Associates, LLC
- David L. Hilden - General Motors
- King D. Eng - Shell Global Solutions, U.S.A.
CitationGonzalez D., M., Clark, W., Wolf, L., Garbak, J. et al., "Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Low-NOx Emissions in a Light-Duty CIDI Engine Using Advanced Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-2884, 2002, https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-2884.
SAE 2002 Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V111-4; Published: 2003-09-15
Number: V111-4; Published: 2003-09-15
- Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 1. The effect of engine operating mode and fuels on emissions of toxic air pollutants and gas and solid phase PAH. Ball, J.C., Lapin, C., Buckingham, J., Frame, E., Yost, D., Gonzalez, M., Liney, E., Natarajan, M., and Wallace, J.P.III. SAE Paper 2001-01-3627.
- Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 2. The Effect of Fuels on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH Using a Composite Of Engine Operating Modes. Ball, J.C., Lapin, C., Buckingham, J., Frame, E., Yost, D., Gonzalez, M., Liney, E., Natarajan, M., and Wallace, J.P.III. SAE Paper 2001-01-3628.
- Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 3. The Effect of Pilot Injection, Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH”. Ball, J.C., Lapin, C., Buckingham, J., Frame, E., Yost, D., Gonzalez, M., Liney, E., Natarajan, M., and Wallace, J.P.III. SAE Paper 2001-01-3629.
- Oxygenates for Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels: Part 1. Screening and Selection Methodology for the Oxygenates. Natarajan, M., Naegeli, D. W., Frame, E. A., Asmus T., Clark W., Garbak J., González D., M. A., Liney, E., Piel W. and Wallace James P. III. SAE Paper 2001-01-3631.
- The Emissions Performance of Oxygenated Diesel Fuels in a Prototype DI Diesel Engine. Hilden, D.L., Eckstrom, J.C., and Wolf, L.R., SAE paper 2001-01-0650.
- Oxygenates Screening for Advanced Petroleum-Based Diesel Fuels: Part 2. The Effect of Oxygenate Blending Compounds on Exhaust Emissions. González D., M. A., Piel, W., Asmus, T., Clark, W., Garbak, J., Liney, E., Natarajan, M., Naegeli, D. W., Yost, D., Frame, E. A., Wallace James P. III. SAE Paper 2001-01-3632.
- Effects of Oxygenated Compounds on Combustion and Soot Evolution in a DI Diesel Engine: direct Luminosity Imaging. Mueller, C. J., Martin G. C. SAE Paper 2002-01-1631.
- The Effects of Oxygenates on Diesel Engine Particulate Matter. Cheng A.S., Dibble R. W., Buchholz B. A. SAE Paper 2002-01-1705
- Performance of Fischer-Tropsch Liquids with Oxygenates in a VW 1.9L TDI. Suppes G. J., Burkhart M. L., Cordova J. C., Sorem R. M., Russell B. SAE paper 2001-01-3521.
- Effects of Fuel Parameters and Diffusion Flame Lift-Off on Soot Formation in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine. Musculus M. P., Dec J. E., Tree D. R. SAE Paper 2002-01-0889.
- Flame Lift-Off on Direct-Injection Diesel Fuel Jets: Oxygen Concentration Effects. Siebers D., Higgins B., Pickett L. SAE Paper 2002-01-0890.
- Effects of Advanced Fuels on the Particulate and NOx Emissions from an Optimized Light-Duty CIDI Engine, Szymkowicz, P., French, D., Crellin, T., SAE Paper 2001-01-0148.
- Overall Results: Phase I Ad Hoc Diesel Fuel Test Program, Kenney, T., Gardner, T., Low, S., Eckstrom, J., Wolf, L., Korn, S., Szymkowicz, P., SAE Paper 2001-01-0151.
- 40 CFR Part 86 Subpart D
- 40 CFR Part 86 Subpart N
- Sirman, M. B., Owens E. C. and Whitney K. A., “Emissions Comparison of Alternate Fuels in An Advanced Automotive Diesel Engine”, Southwest Research Institute Report for DOE and US Army TARDEC, Interim Report TFLRF No. 338.
- Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program - Phase I Interim Data Report No. 4: Diesel Particulate Filters - Final Report, U.S. Department of Energy, January 01, 2000.
- Impact of Lubricant Oil on Regulated Emissions of a Light-Duty Mercedes-Benz OM611 CIDI-Engine, Froelund, K., et. al., SAE Paper 2001-01-1901.