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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A PASSENGER VEHICLE TO ANALYSE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS USING CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. Raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. METHODOLOGY: As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair & maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle…
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Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System For Hot Climate Regions

Pranav Vikas India Private Limited-Tarun Rana, Yuji Yamamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2507
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
ELECTRIC VEHICLE THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR HOT CLIMATE REGIONS Rana Tarun*, Yamamoto Yuji, Kumar Ritesh, Bhagatkar Shubhada Pranav Vikas India Private Limited, India Key Words Electric Vehicles (EV); Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS); COP; Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System (EVTMS); BTMS and HVAC System Integration; Thermal System Performance Comparison; Active Liquid Cooling; EV Battery Cooling Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Electric Vehicles is the need of time to limit global warming and it is in application at a wide scale in colder or mild climate regions where ambient temperature is limited to mild or moderate level. Its application (Heat pump, CO2) is constrained to cold climates only due to securing better COP for heating function, sacrificing cooling COP of the existing system when operated in Hot Climate Regions, thus limiting its application to nearly half of the automotive user-base. This study is aimed to develop a new Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System (EVTMS) limited to active liquid cooling for application of Electric Vehicle in Hot Climate Regions with higher system COP targets when compared to existing…
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Premium Buses Airconditioning System Development and Verification

Volvo Buses-Ganesh Kowndinya, Asish Mohanty
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Airconditioning has become a prominent picture in premium segment buses over a decade of time. It has undergone many changes as and when the demand for passenger comfort in public transport industry has raised. Airconditioning is a critical topic influencing the passenger comfort in most of the mass transit vehicles. Transit buses operate in diversified weather conditions especially in country like India across the year, which impose challenge to a single airconditioning system fitted onto bus to provide right airconditioning so the passenger comfort will not be compromised. Airconditioning system has positively increased the comfort level of passengers irrespective of hauling distance or its application for city or intercity transits. Selecting a right airconditioning system for bus application plays a major role in addressing the passenger comfort topic in a broader perspective. This paper discuss on those important area’s which directly impacts the passenger comfort in transit application. This paper discuss in detail onto different stages in airconditioning system selection process, development methods and verification process to evaluate the system against stated requirement while keeping…
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Assessment of Energy Consumption and Range in Electric Vehicles with High Efficiency HVAC Systems Based on the Tesla Expander

University of Brescia-Paolo Iora, Alberto Cassago, Costante Invernizzi, Alessandro Copeta, Gioele Di Marcoberardino, Stefano Uberti
University of Florence-Daniele Fiaschi, Lorenzo Talluri
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are considered one of the most promising solution to improve the sustainability of the transportation sector aiming at a progressive reduction of the dependence on fossil fuels and the associated local pollutants and CO2 emissions.Presently, the major technological obstacle to a large scale diffusion of BEVs, is the fairly low range, typically less than 300 km, as compared to classical gasoline and diesel engines. This limit becomes even more critical if the electric vehicle is operated in severe weather conditions, due to the additional energy consumption required by the cabin heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC).The adoption of vapor-compression cycle, either in heat pump or refrigerator configuration, represents the state-of-the-art technology for HVAC systems in vehicles. Such devices typically employ an expansion valve to abruptly reduce the pressure causing the flash evaporation of the working fluid. This component, although necessary to provide the cooling effect, is also responsible of a significant exergy loss, which reduces the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle.In this paper we study the possible benefits in terms of energy…
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Products of Tomorrow: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35286
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

This column presents technologies that have applications in commercial areas, possibly creating the products of tomorrow. To learn more about each technology, see the contact information provided for that innovation.

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Frankfurt with an ‘E’

Automotive Engineering: October 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP10_13
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Early September's Frankfurt Motor Show was all about production-ready or near-production electric vehicles (EVs), as Europe's propulsion transformation gains momentum. With European Union-wide carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions regulations closing in and societal pressure on the auto sector's contribution to climate change and sustainability, Europe's automakers-particularly those in Germany - are hastening their EV development timelines.

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Image Warping Caused by Heat-Induced Turbulence

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34930
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

It is well known from astronomical imaging that various atmospheric conditions and weather effects have an impact on image quality. This is due to local changes of the refractive index of the air in the optical path. These changes are wavelength-dependent and vary with changes in the atmospheric pressure and its humidity.

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Comparison of GATS Messages to SAE ATIS Standards

V2X Core Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2539_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report provides a comparative summary between the various messages found in the SAE ATIS standards work (notably SAE J2313, J2353, J2354, J2369 and J2374) and that found in the GATS standard (Global Automotive Telematics Standard). GATS is a message set meant to be deployed on mobile phone systems based on the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) phone system which is being deployed in European markets and which the SAE may need to harmonize with as part of the World Standards activities of TC204. This document provides an overview of the various types of supported messages and how they compare with US terms and messages. Some selected features of the GATS work are recommended for assimilation into the next revision of ATIS standards. No attempt at determining a U.S. policy in this regard is provided. This document seeks to provide the reader familiar with SAE ATIS with a high level overview of technical knowledge of the GATS approach in similar areas.
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RDS Phrase Lists

V2X Core Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2540/1_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides a table of textual messages meeting the requirements for expressing “Radio Data Systems” (RDS) phrases commonly used in the ITS industry. They can be used both over the RDS subcarrier transmission media as part of a 37-bit long “Group 8a message” as well as being used to provide a common content list of phrases used in a wide number of other media and applications. This document SHALL define the normative index values to be used, extending the CEN established list to provide phrases needed by US practitioners. This standard provides non-normative textual phrases which MAY be used by implementers to ensure intelligible results. This document SHALL follow the formats and rules established in SAE J2540 in the expressions, manipulations, and use of such tables. It should be pointed out that within the rules established by this document a variety of final table are all considered “compliant” with the document, and may vary as fits the needs of implementers.
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Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

AMA-NASA Langley Research Center-Justin Strickland, Patricia Hunt
FAA William J. Hughes Technical Center-Christopher Dumont
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results.The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. Ten research flights were made into deep convective systems that included Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) near the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean, and Tropical Storms Danny and Erika near the Caribbean Sea. The radar and in-situ measurements from these ten flights were analyzed…
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