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Using Vehicle EDR Data to Calculate Motorcycle Delta-V in Motorcycle-Vehicle Lateral Front End Impacts

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0885
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This research focuses on the use of Event Data Recorders (EDR) to assist in calculating speed loss or ΔV undergone by a motorcycle in a broadside type impact into a vehicle. If the struck vehicle has EDR data, this could be a useful tool in calculating motorcycle ΔV or corroborating motorcycle ΔV calculations from crush or other methodologies. Certain parameters critical to calculation of motorcycle ΔV must be considered, including the appropriate effective mass to use for the motorcycle/rider combination. This study used crash test data to determine a method of applying parameter values to accurately calculate motorcycle ΔV in a motorcycle-vehicle collision.In this study, three crash tests were performed in which a motorcycle with a dummy rider traveling in the range of 42 to 51 mph collided into the right front corner of a vehicle traveling between 5 and 16 mph. In all three tests, both the vehicle and motorcycle were instrumented with triaxial accelerometers and triaxial rate gyros. The first test involved a 2002 Kawasaki ZRX1200R traveling at 42.2 mph into the right…
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Co-simulation Methodology for PHEV Thermal System Development

FCA US LLC-Rezwanur Rahman, Auvi Biswas, Craig Lindquist, Masuma Khandaker, Sadek Rahman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1392
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Thermal development of automotive applications is a lot more complex than it used to be in the past. Specifically, for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), all the sub-systems are so intertwined that it’s hard to analyze them as sub-systems only. A system level solution is needed for proper sizing of components. For early thermal development, a co-simulation method can ensure that we take into account the inter-dependency of all the thermal features in the car. As for example a large PHEV battery may need to be passively cooled by refrigerant, which is in turns associated with the interior HVAC cooling system. For proper sizing of the condenser, chiller etc., one has to account for the battery cooling and cabin cooling as one system. There are also many thermal actuators on a PHEV, e.g. control valves, pulse-width-module (PWM) pumps, electric compressor, electric coolant heaters etc. Smart controls and calibration development early in the product development can impact sizing of front end cooling modules and other heat exchangers significantly. The design of hardware and software has to…
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Analysis of the Dynamic Performance of an Engine Front End Accessory Drive System with an Asymmetric Damping Tensioner

Ningbo Fengmao Far-East Rubber Co., Ltd.-Weijun Zhao
South China University of Technology-Bo Zhou, Wen-Bin Shangguan, Shangbin Long, Yi Sun
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0409
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The automatic tensioner is an important component of the engine front end accessory drive system (EFEADS). It maintains the tension of the belt steadily and reduces the slip of pulley, which is benefit for improving the life of V-ribbed belt. In this paper, an EFEADS model is established which is considering with the hysteretic behavior and the asymmetry of friction damping of a tensioner. A four-pulley EFEADS is taken as a study subject. The dynamic responses of system, such as the oscillation angle of each pulley, the slip factor of pulley, the oscillation of tensioner arm and the dynamic belt tension are analyzed with symmetric damping and asymmetric damping tensioner. Meanwhile, the influence of asymmetric damping factors of tensioner on the dynamic response of EFEADS is also investigated. The experimental results show that tensioner with an asymmetric damping can effectively reduce the oscillation angle of each pulley and the oscillation of tensioner arm, and the fluctuation of dynamic belt tension.
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A Design and Optimization Method for Pedestrian Lower Extremity Injury Analysis with the aPLI Model

Changan Automobile Co., Ltd.-Ruyi Chen
Chongqing University-Yue Fu, Huijie Xu, Guan Lin, Zhenfei Zhan, Ping Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0929
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As pedestrian protection tests and evaluations have been officially incorporated into new C-NCAP, more stringent requirements have been placed on pedestrian protection performance. In this study, in order to reduce the injury of the vehicle front end structure to the pedestrian's lower extremity during the collision, the advanced pedestrian legform impactor (aPLI) model was used in conjunction with the finite element vehicle model for collision simulation based on the new C-NCAP legform test evaluation regulation. This paper selected the key components which have significant influences on the pedestrian's leg protection performance based on the CAE vehicle model, including front bumper, front-cover plate, upper impact pillar, impact beam and lower support plate, to form a simplified model and conducted parametric modeling based on it. Then, the variable correlation analysis was carried out on the sample results obtained from the design of experiment (DOE), and the contribution analysis of design variables to the injury measures was discussed. The sample variables and responses were also used to construct the approximate models for further optimization studies. Taking the pedestrian…
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Lightweight Design of Automotive Front End Material-Structure Based on Frontal Collision

Nanjing University of Science & Technology-JIANGFAN ZHANG
Naveco, Ltd.-Xiaojun Zou, Liu-kai Yuan, Hualin Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0204
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The front end structure is an important role in protecting the vehicle and passengers from harm during the collision. Increasing its protective capacity can be achieved by increasing the thickness or replacing high-strength materials. Most of the current research is analyzed separately from these two aspects. This paper proposes a multi-objective optimization method based on weighting factor analysis, which combines material and thickness selection. Firstly, the optimized components are determined based on the 100% frontal collision simulation results. Secondly, six thicknesses and two materials of the front part of the vehicle body are selected as design variables to construct an orthogonal test design. In this paper, a weight-based multi-factor optimization method is used to numerically analyze the response results obtained by orthogonal experiments. Analyze the impact of each factor on the optimization goal to select the most reliable optimization. This optimization method can select the best material and component thickness combination scheme. The results show that the mass of the selected parts are reduced by 16.5%; the total energy absorption is increased by 5.2%; the…
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Analysis for Dynamic Performances of Engine Front End Accessory Drive System under Accelerating Condition

Ningbo Fengmao Far-East Rubber Co.,Ltd-Weijun Zhao
South China University of Technology-Chujian Lin, Shangbin Long, Yi Sun, Wen-Bin Shangguan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0399
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A model for a generic layout of an engine front end accessory drive system is established. The dynamic performances of the system are obtained via a numerical method. The dynamic performances consist of the oscillation angle of tensioner arm, the slip ratio of each pulley and the dynamic belt tension. In modeling the system, the hysteretic behavior of an automatic tensioner, the loaded torque of the accessory pulley versus the engine speed, the torsional vibration of crankshaft and the creep of the belt are considered. The dynamic performances of the system at steady state and under accelerating condition are analyzed. An example is provided to validate the established model. The measured results show that the torsional vibration of crankshaft is larger and the dynamic performances of the system are different under accelerating conditions, though the acceleration is small. In the end, the dynamic performances of the system using different belts with different Young’s modulus are studied by the established model.
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Assessment & Optimization of Front End Cooling Module of a Commercial Vehicle by CFD Simulation & Prototype Testing

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Ashok Patidar, Vikas LASHKARI
VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Eshaan Ayyar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0164
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Overall cycle time and prototype testing are significantly decreased by assessment of cooling module performance in the design stage itself. Hence, Front End Cooling and Thermal Management are essential components of the vehicle design process. Performance of the cooling module depends upon a variety of factors like frontal opening, air flow, under-hood sub-systems, module positioning, front grill design, fan operation.Effects of design modifications on the engine cooling performance are quantified by utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool FluentTM. Vehicle frontal configuration is captured in the FE model considering cabin, cargo and underbody components. Heat Exchanger module is modelled as a porous medium to simulate the fluid flow. Performance data for the Heat Exchanger module is generated using the 1D KuliTM software.In this paper, CFD simulation of Front End Cooling is performed for maximum torque and maximum power operating conditions. Analysis results predict and plot the air flow patterns in the under-body region by obtaining velocity streamlines in the wind tunnel volume. Hot and cold air recirculation zones are identified and rectified by design changes. Temperature…
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Adaptive sampling in the design space exploration of the automotive front end cooling flow

FCA US LLC-Venkata KrishnaMohan Chagarlamudi, Mark Doroudian, Arturo Guzman
Simulia-Malik Kayupov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0149
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Adaptive sampling in the design space exploration of the automotive front end cooling flow (Author)Venkata Krishna Mohan Chagarlamudi, FCA NA - mohan.chagarlamudi@fcagroup.com, (Co-Author) Arturo Guzman FCA NA - arturo.guzman@fcagroup.com, (Co-Author) Mark Doroudian FCA NA - mark.doroudian@fcagroup.com, (Co-Author) Dr. Malik KAYUPOV Dassault Systemes Simulia Corp - malik.kayupov@3ds.com One of the key inputs 1-D transient simulation takes is a detailed front end cooling flow map. These maps that are generated using a full vehicle 3D CFD model require expensive computational resources and time. This paper describes how an adaptive sampling of the design space allowed the reduction of computational efforts while keeping desired accuracy of the analysis. The idea of the method was to find a pattern of DOE sampling points for 3D CFD simulations that would allow a creation of an approximation model accurate enough to predict output parameter values in the entire design space of interest. Two procedures were implemented to get the optimal sampling pattern. One of them employed the observations listed below, identification of the areas that would require less sampling points by…
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Modeling and Analysis of Front End Accessory Drive System with Overrunning Alternator Decoupler

Ningbo Fengmao Far-East Rubber Co.,Ltd-Weijun Zhao
South China University of Technology-Zhonghui Yin, Shangbin Long, Yi Sun, Wen-Bin Shangguan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0398
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The generator is an important loaded component of an engine front end accessory drive system (EFEADS). With a huge moment of inertia and a highest running speed, the vibration and noise often occurs in operation, which has an effect on the service life. Thus an overrunning alternator decoupler (OAD) is used in the EFEADS for reducing the vibration of system. In this paper, a model of EFEADS with an OAD is established. The impact of the OAD on the dynamic responses of pulley of generator and the system are analyzed, and is verified by bench experiments. And the influence of parameters, such as spring stiffness, moment of inertia of generator and loaded torque on the dynamic performances of the system are studied. The influence of misalignment in pulleys on the dynamic performance of system is also discussed. The presented method is useful for optimizing the dynamic performance of system, such as the oscillation of tensioner arm and the slip ratio of the belt-generator pulley.
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Case Study on the Challenges and Responses of a Large Turnkey Assembly Line for the C919 Wing

Electroimpact Inc.-Mark Forbes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0010
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Design and production of an assembly system for a major aircraft component is a complex undertaking, which demands a large-scale system view. Electroimpact has completed a turnkey assembly line for producing the wing, flap, and aileron structures for the COMAC C919 aircraft in Xi’an, China. The project scope includes assembly process design, material handling design, equipment design, manufacture, installation, and first article production support. Inputs to the assembly line are individual component parts and small subassemblies. The assembly line output is a structurally completed set of wing box, flaps, and ailerons, for delivery to the Final Assembly Line in Shanghai. There is a trend toward defining an assembly line procurement contract by production capacity, versus a list of components, which implies that an equipment supplier must become an owner of production processes. The most significant challenge faced was the amount of front end engineering work required to develop detailed assembly processes and reconcile them with the customer, who remains the actual process owner. Other challenges include aircraft maturity delays, design changes due to process definition…
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