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Integrated Model Predictive Control and Adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter for Semi-active Suspension System Based on Road Classification

China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd.-Zhenfeng Wang, Shengjie Xu, Fei Li, Xinyu Wang, Jiansen Yang
Suzhou University of Science and Technology-Jing Miao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0999
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The accuracy of state estimation and optimal control for controlable suspension system, especially in observer-based suspension system control for improving road handling and ride comfort, is a challenging task for the vehicle industry under various road excitations. Due to the high fatality rate caused by inaccurate state-based control algorithm, how to precisely and effectively acquire vehicle suspension state and chose the reasonable control algorithm become a hot topic in both academia and industry. Uncertainty is unavoidable for the suspension system, e.g., varying sprung or unsprung mass, suspension damping force or spring stiffness. To deal with the above issues, a novel observer-based control approach, which combines adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) observer and model predictive control (MPC), is proposed in the paper. A quarter semi-active suspension nonlinear model and road profile model are first established. Secondly, using the pavement level identification method based on system response, an AUKF algorithm is employed to estimate accurately the state of suspension system. Due to the nonlinear of semi-active suspension damping force in the movement process, the optimal predictive controller…
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Design and Fabrication of Carbon Fibre/Epoxy-Aluminum Hybrid Suspension Control Arms for Formula SAE Race Car

ARAI FID PUNE-Pramod Hande
Vellore Institute of Technology-Mayank Gupta, Akash Porwal, Harshvardhan Rao Budi, Padmanabhan Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0230
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Suspension system of a vehicle plays an important role to carefully control motion of the wheel throughout the travel. The vertical and the lateral dynamics (ride and handling) is affected by the unsprung-to-sprung mass ratio. Lower value of this mass ratio leads to enhanced performance of the car. To optimize the unsprung mass of the car, design of control arm plate is optimized with Aluminum material and Carbon fibre reinforced composite control arms framework are used to achieve high stiffness to weight ratio. These leads to increase in overall power to weight ratio of the car which helps to deliver maximum performance to the wheels. Through analysis of real-life working conditions of the entire steering knuckle assembly in ACP pre- post ANSYS 18.1 with the defined boundary conditions, equivalent stress and total deformations are obtained. Based on the results, geometrical topology of the control arms plates is further optimized. After several tensile tests on different bond length and bond gap,the outer surface of control arm tube were bonded to inner surface of control arm plate…
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PREDICTION OF SUSPENSION SYSTEM BEHAVIOR UNDER MISUSE LOADING USING EXPLICIT APPROACH

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Sameer Sudhakar Thakare, Sunil Kathoke, Kameshwara rao Appana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1394
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Abstract: In the automotive industry, the development of suspension systems for misuse loads is essential. The vehicle may experience the abusive loads in fore-aft, lateral and vertical directions. From a design perspective, it is crucial that the suspension should be robust enough to withstand the abusive loading in different directions. Testing as well as virtual simulation of the suspension for feasible misuse scenarios can provide a desired design solution in the most optimized time. Better Virtual simulation practices provided with good modeling strategy and detail material model data can help to anticipate the accurate response of the system, which can benefit to reduce the number of physical tests. This paper describes an explicit dynamic approach to predict the behavior of suspension system under impact load condition. Material failure model is proposed to simulate the failure of parts and change in load path under high loading condition.
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Second-order sliding mode controller for performance analysis of Quarter car Magnetorheological suspension system

Anna University-Arockia Suthan Soosairaj, Arunachalam K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1005
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To achieve the simultaneous improvement in ride comfort of the passenger as well as the stability of the vehicle, a second-order sliding mode controller is proposed in this study. Super twisting algorithm attenuates the chattering effect present in the conventional sliding mode controller without affecting the stability of the system. The Lyapunov stability analysis is carried out to verify the stability of the controller. The effectiveness of the designed super twisting algorithm used second-order sliding mode controller is validated in a semiactive quarter car suspension with seat model. Modified Bouc-wen magnetorheological (MR) damper model is used as a semiactive damper and the voltage that has to be supplied to the magnetorheological damper is controlled by a super twisting algorithm and sliding mode controller. Continuous modulation filtering algorithm is adopted to convert the force signal of a controller into the equivalent voltage input to the MR damper. The entire system is modelled in Matlab/Simulink software and the simulations are carried out based on random road disturbances. The results show that there is a significant improvement in…
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Vibration control of semi-active vehicle suspension system incorporating MR damper using fuzzy self-tuning PID approach

Helwan University-Ahmed Shehata Gad, W. Oraby, H. Metered
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1082
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a nonlinear semi-active vehicle suspension system using MR fluid dampers is investigated to enhance ride comfort and vehicle stability. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy self-tuning PID control techniques are applied as system controllers to compute desired front and rear damping forces in conjunction with a Signum function method damper controller to assess force track-ability of system controllers. The suggested fuzzy self-tuning PID operates fuzzy system as a PID gains tuner to mitigate the vehicle vibration levels and achieve excellent performance related to ride comfort and vehicle stability. The equations of motion of four-degrees-of-freedom semi-active half-vehicle suspension system incorporating MR dampers are derived and simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. Control performance criteria including bounce and pitch motions are evaluated in both time and frequency domains in order to quantify the effectiveness of proposed system controllers under bump and random road disturbances. Fuzzy self-tuning PID controller gives a better force tracking than fuzzy logic. The performance of both controlled semi-active suspension systems using MR dampers is compared with MR passive and conventional passive to show the…
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Pre-validation method of steering system by using hybrid simulation

Hyundai Motor Company-Hong Suk Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0645
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the preliminary validation method of the steering system is constructed and the objective is to satisfy the target performance while minimizing the problems after the detailed design considering it in the conceptual design stage. The first consideration about steering system is how to extract the reliable steering effort for parking. The tire model commonly used in MBD has limited ability to represent deformations under heavy loads. Therefore, it is necessary to study adequate tire model to simulate the behavior due to the large deformation and friction between the ground and the tire. The two approaches related with F tire model and mathematical model are used. The second is how to extract the each link’s load in the conceptual design stage. Until now, each link’s load is derived by the actual vehicle test, and a durability analysis was performed using the pre-settled RIG test conditions. Therefore, in this study, we established the process of deriving the RIG test conditions by integrating the hydraulic system and the dynamic system without actual vehicle test. The…
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Modelling of a combined system of hydraulic magnetorheological fluid damper with braking-by-wire system

Tsinghua University-Cenbo Xiong, Liangyao Yu, Zhenchuan Li, Zhenghong Lu, Abi Lanie
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0988
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A hydraulic chamber is embedded in serial with the accumulator of a normal mono-tube magnetorheological fluid damper (MRFD). The damper stiffness can be adjusted by changing the initial accumulator volume with the hydraulic chamber. This hydraulic chamber is connected to an electric pump and controlled by the braking-by-wire system. Some signals and control parameters of the braking system are shared with the suspension system. A modified bi-viscosity magnetorheological fluid (MRF) model that explicitly includes the parameter of control current is adopted to determine the viscous forces of the damper. A dynamic model of this hydraulic MRFD is subsequently set up based on the hydro dynamic system and the MRF model. In this scheme, both the MRF viscosity and the damper stiffness can be continuously adjusted at the same time. A theoretical model combining the vehicle dynamics, the braking-by-wire system and the hydraulic MRFD is established based on which the control principles of the hydraulic MRFD according to the braking intensity are revealed. Simulations are carried out to study the parametric influences of this combined braking…
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The Effect Of Friction On Ride Comfort Simulation And Suspension Optimization

Ebco Inc.-Peijun Xu
Huazhong University of Science and Technology-Wang Xuwang, Xiaoyu Chen, Yunqing Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0765
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The design of suspension system affects the vehicle dynamic performance such as ride comfort and handling. Nonlinear characteristics and friction effects are important characteristics of suspension system, and their influences on vehicle dynamic performance cannot be ignored. Based on the a seven degree-of-freedom vehicle vibration nonlinear model including friction effects, the dynamic responses of the vehicle and the influence of friction components on the vehicle responses are studied. The results show that friction significantly affects the simulation results of ride comfort. The optimal design of the vehicle suspension system was carried out in the case of considering suspension friction and ignoring suspension friction. The results show that whether considering suspension friction or not, optimizing the parameters of the suspension can improve the ride comfort of the vehicle, and the dynamic characteristics of the optimized vehicle model tend to be similar. However, considering the suspension friction, the suspension damping tends to be larger.
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Study on the Influence of Nonlinearity of Bushing and Air Spring Stiffness in Truck Suspension System on Joint Forces and Moments Calculation

South China University of Technology-Zhuo-Hui Guan, Zhengjun Wei, Wen-Bin Shangguan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1395
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The joint forces and moments applied to the joints in an air suspension system in truck are important input loads for lightweight and fatigue analysis of bushings, air spring brackets and trailing arms. In order to derive a reliable solution of joint forces and moments, engineers will generally use Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) simulation software, like ADAMS, which can save time in product development cycle. Taking an air suspension in truck as a study example, a 2-dimensional quasi-static model of an air suspension, whose stiffness of air spring and bushing is nonlinear, is established in ADAMS environment. After that, simulations are performed at the typical and extreme working condition, and the results are compared with another two cases. Case I assumes that all components are connected with rigid joints, and the stiffness of air spring is constant. Case II simplifies that all joints are replaced with flexible bushings, and the stiffness of bushings and air springs is constant, and the torsional stiffness of bushing is ignored. The comparisons with case I and case II show…
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Composite Hybrid Automotive Suspension System Innovative Structures (CHASSIS)

Ford Motor Company-Alan Banks
Gestamp-Gareth Bone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0777
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Composite Hybrid Automotive Suspension System Innovative Structures (CHASSIS) is a project to develop structural commercial vehicle suspension components in high volume utilising hybrid materials and joining techniques to offer a viable lightweight production alternative to steel. Three components are in scope for the project:- • Front Subframe • Front Lower Control Arm (FLCA) • Rear Deadbeam Axle The front subframe will be hybrid of prepreg carbon fibre and aluminium castings using advanced bonding. The FLCA will be glass and carbon fibre over moulding with steel inserts for strength and attachment purposes and the deadbeam axle will be a combination of e-glass, carbon fibre and aluminium extrusion. All components have a five minute cycle time to make the process viable for volume manufacture. The complexities of the designs lie in the areas of manufacturing, CAE prediction and highly specialised design methods. Design thinking was an intrinsic part of the development and the design team were able to use their extensive knowledge of material behaviour and state of the art manufacturing methods to enable a component…