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Simulation Analysis of a Dual-Purpose Intelligent Mobile Platform for Highway and Railway

Nan Sun
University of Science & Development-Wenming Zhang
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Railways play a huge role in China's transportation industry. In order to ensure intelligence, advanced technology and high efficiency in functions such as railway inspection, rescue and transportation, a dual-purpose intelligent mobile platform for both roads and railways was developed. Due to the height limitation of this platform, resilient wheels and rubber dampers with short stroke are used as the suspension system for the rail chassis. Based on this special suspension form, the dynamic model of the whole platform is derived, and the simulation model of the whole platform is established in the simulation software. The effects of resilient wheels’ axial stiffness, radial stiffness and vertical stiffness, lateral stiffness of rubber dampers on the vertical and lateral stability of the platform were studied. It is found that the increase of the radial stiffness of the resilient wheels will deteriorate the vertical stability and lateral stability of the platform. The increase in the axial stiffness of the resilient wheels will deteriorate the vertical stability of the platform and the lateral stability will be improved. The increase…
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Kinematics and Compliance Analysis of a 3.5 Tonne Load Capacity Independent Front Suspension for LCV

Hexagon Studio-Salih Kuris, Efe Gungor, Ataman Deniz, Gulsah Uysal, Baris Aykent
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper deals with the development of a 3.5 tonne carrying double wishbone front suspension for a low floor LCV. It is a novelty in this class of vehicles. It has a track width of 1810 mm and it has a recirculating ball steering system. The steering mechanism has been arranged so that the steering angle could reach to 48° that is a very effective angle in that vehicle range. This results as a lower turning radius which indicates a better handling for the vehicle.The steering and the front suspension system here have been optimized in terms of comfort and handling by using DOE (design of experiments) based on sequential programming technique. In order to achieve better suspension and steering system geometry, this technique has been applied. The results have been compared with the benchmark vehicle.
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Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System (CLASS)

Ford Motor Co.-Alan James Banks
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Composite Lightweight Automotive Suspension System is a composite rear suspension knuckle/tieblade consisting of UD prepreg (epoxy resin), SMC (vinylester resin) carbon fibre and a steel insert to reduce the weight of the component by 35% and reduce Co2. The compression moulding manufacturing process and CAE optimisation are unique and ground-breaking for this product and are designed to allow high volume manufacture of approx. 30,000 vehicles per year. The manufacturing techniques employed allow for multi-material construction within a five minute cycle time to make the process viable for volume manufacture. The complexities of the design lie in the areas of manufacturing, CAE prediction and highly specialised design methods. It is a well-known fact that the performance of a composite part is primarily determined by the way it is manufactured. The design team were able to use their extensive knowledge of material behaviour and state of the art manufacturing cells to enable a component that meets the required functional requirements. The CAE optimisation techniques developed during the project made a significant contribution to the project by…
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A Non-Contact Overload Identification Method Based on Vehicle Dynamics

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Daolin Zhou, Yiran Ding, Shimin Yu, Xiaofei Ma, Shuai Wang, Zhenyu Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The vehicle overload seriously jeopardizes traffic safety and affects traffic efficiency. At present, the static weighing station and weigh-in-motion station are both relatively fixed, so the detection efficiency is not high and the traffic efficiency is affected; the on-board dynamic weighing equipment is difficult to be popularized because of the problem of being deliberately damaged or not accepted by the purchaser. This paper proposes an efficient, accurate, non-contact vehicle overload identification method which can keep the road unimpeded. The method can detect the vehicle overload by the relative distance (as the characteristic distance) between the dynamic vehicle's marking line and the road surface. First, the dynamics model of the vehicle suspension is set up. Then, the dynamic characteristic distance of the traffic vehicle is detected from the image acquired by the calibrated camera based on computer vision and image recognition technology. The data error caused by the vehicle vibration can be reduced by the filter set up in this paper. Finally, the actual axle load of the vehicle can be obtained combined with the established…
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Analysis of Whole Body Vibration of a Two-Wheeler Rider

NIT Rourkela-Kashish Veda Eluri, Vadde Lokesh Reddy, Murugan Sivalingam, Balaji PS
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Two-wheel motorcycles are preferred in many countries as they have some merits such as cheaper, easy to handle and give higher fuel economy compared to three and four-wheel vehicles. Majority of the population in India falls under low and middle-income groups. Two-wheelers cater to the needs of low and middle-income users, and fill the gaps when public transport systems are inefficient or not available. Most of the people in India use motorcycles for transportation. However, due to different road conditions, motorcycle rider experiences different health effects within a few years of their vehicle travel. This paper investigates the effect of vibration on a man commuter’s health. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a male rider’s body was considered, and a numerical analysis was carried out to assess the effect of vibration acting on the commuter during a two-wheeler ride under various road conditions for a chosen suspension system and presented in this paper. Road conditions were chosen based on the different surface roughness values. The most affected rider’s body part due to the vibration…
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Model Reference Control for Active Suspension System

Benha University, Egypt-Aref M.A. Soliman, Sayed A. Abdallah, Fomel F. Amien
Minia University, Egypt-Mina M.S. Kaldas
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study is to develop a Model Reference Control (MRC) strategy for active suspension System. The MRC strategy employs both the suspension look-ahead preview and wheelbase preview concepts, and the methodology of the MRC based on the ideal hybrid skyhook-groundhook concept. The study performed using a 13 degree-of-freedom (DoF) vehicle vertical dynamics model including the active suspension actuators masses. The engine mass, driver seat and anti-roll bar are considered in the model. The MRC strategy uses eight Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers for both body and wheel control. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is applied to obtain the controller parameters using a cost function including both ride comfort and road holding performance. Comparison between the active suspension system provided with proposed MRC strategy, the ideal hybrid skyhook-groundhook suspension system, and the passive suspension system in terms of ride comfort and road holding is performed. The obtained results showed that, the proposed MRC strategy with the PID controllers are able to track the performance of the ideal hybrid skyhook-groundhook system, and provided significant improvements in both…
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A Novel Three Steps Composited Parameter Matching Method of an Electromagnetic Regenerative Suspension System

Tsinghua University-Du Yongchang
Xinjiang Vocational & Technical College of Communications-Dandan Cui
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The electromagnetic regenerative suspension has attracted much attention recently due to its potential to improve ride comfort and handling stability, at the same time recover kinetic energy which is typically dissipated in traditional shock absorbers. The key components of a ball-screw regenerative suspension system are a motor, a ball screw and a nut. For this kind of regenerative suspension, its damping character is determined by the motor's torque-speed capacity, which is different from the damping character of the traditional shock absorber. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a systematic approach for the parameter matching of ball-screw regenerative suspension, so that the damping character provided by it can ensure ride comfort and handling stability. In this paper, a 2-DOF quarter vehicle simulation model with regenerative suspension is constructed. The effects of the inertia force on ride comfort and handling stability are analyzed. A novel three steps composited matching method is proposed to determine the non-linear damping character of the ball-screw electromagnetic regenerative suspension. In this composited method, a genetic algorithm is adopted to calculate the optimal…
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Tire Ply-Steer, Conicity and Rolling Resistance - Analytical Formulae for Accurate Assessment of Vehicle Performance during Straight Running

Pirelli Tyre-Giuseppe Matrascia
Politecnico di Milano-Alessandro Lattuada, Gianpiero Mastinu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The aim of the paper is to provide simple and accurate analytical formulae describing the straight motion of a road vehicle. Such formulae can be used to compute either the steering torque or the additional rolling resistance induced by vehicle side-slip angle.The paper introduces a revised formulation of the Handling Diagram Theory to take into account tire ply-steer, conicity and road banking. Pacejka’s Handling Diagram Theory is based on a relatively simple fully non-linear single track model. We will refer to the linear part of the Handling Diagram, since straight motion will be considered only. Both the elastokinematics of suspension system and tire characteristics are taken into account.The validation of the analytical expressions has been performed both theoretically and after a subjective-objective test campaign.By means of the new and unreferenced analytical formulae, practical hints are given to set to zero the steering torque during straight running. Additionally, the vehicle rolling resistance during straight motion is studied. It is found that front toe seems primarily set for reasons that are related to the steering system, other…
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Study and Analysis of the Behavior of a Seated Human Body in a Vehicle by the Influence of an Active Suspension System

Anna University-Arivazhagan Anandan, Arunachalam K
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to study the influence of a suspension system on the human body with the effect of the controller behavior. For this work, 2-Degree of Freedom (DoF) quarter car suspension system with 4 DoF seated human body is modeled. The mathematical equation is developed by using a lumped mass parameter method. Governing equations of motions are generated by Newton’s Law of motion. Random road profile is also considered for this study. MATLAB/SIMULINK software is used to simulate the system results and system analysis is limited to a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller with hydraulic actuator. Seat to Head transmissibility ratio of the active suspension system is analyzed and compared with the passive suspension system. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed active system, simulated results are compared with ISO 2631 comfort curves. Therefore the result shows that the PID based active suspension system improves the ride comfort of the occupant when compared with passive suspension.
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Methodology to Determine Optimum Suspension Hard Points at an Early Design Stage for Achieving Steering Returnability in Any Vehicle

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Manjul Jyoti, Udhayakumar S, Karthik Senthi
Mahindra Research Valley-Sakharam Desai
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Steering returnability while driving is one of the most important parameter which affects the drive pleasure and handling of a vehicle. Steering returnability refers to the automatic returning response of the steering wheel after taking a full turn while vehicle is being steered during driving. Evaluating steering response characteristics of any vehicle in a virtual environment at early stage of a product development saves significant development time and cost. Through this paper an attempt has been made to develop a methodology for selection of suspension hard points which influences steering returnability characteristics of a vehicle at an early product design stage. Conventionally, suspension kinematic parameters such as Caster angle, Steering axis inclination (SAI), etc. are iterated during vehicle design stage to achieve desired Steering returnability. However, at times vehicle level trials indicate that increasing caster angle or SAI does not guarantee a desirable increase in steering returnability. In this new methodology a set of iterative trials are done to vary hard points (X, Y, Z co-ordinates) of Lower ball joint of an independent front suspension…
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