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Development of the Active Sound Generation Technology using Motor Driven Power Steering System

Hyundai Motor Co.-Kyoung-Jin Chang
Mdynamix AG-Leonhard Angerpointner, Dominik Schubert, Matthias Niegl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1536
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
As original engine sound is usually not enough to satisfy the driver’s desire for the sporty and fascinating sound, active noise control (ANC) and active sound design (ASD) have been great technologies in automobiles for a long time. However, these technologies which enhance the sound of vehicle using loud speakers or electromagnetic actuators etc. lead to the increase of cost and weight due to the use of external amplifier or external actuators. This paper presents a new technology of generating a target sound by the active control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) which is already mounted in vehicle. Firstly, an algorithm of this technology, called an active sound generation (ASG), is introduced with those signal conversion process, and then the high frequency noise issue and its countermeasure are presented. Secondly, ASG test bench is designed using a motor driven power steering (MDPS) system and then it is checked if ASG has any influence on an original function of MDPS. Thirdly, motor-induced vibration is measured in the transfer path and then the appropriate level…
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Measurement of the Biodynamic Response of the Hand-Arm System and Study of its Influence on the Vibrational Response of the Steering Wheel

INSA Lyon-Etienne Parizet
PSA Group, INSA Lyon-luc laroche
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1548
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Driver’s hands modify the vibrational response of the steering wheel, so that car manufacturers are used to measure vibrations of the free steering wheel to ensure reproducibility. However, levels measured in this condition do not represent those perceived by the driver. The aim of this study is to predict the vibrational response of the hand-wheel coupled system from measurements of the non-held steering wheel, and of the mechanical impedance of the arm. The mechanical impedance of the hand-arm system is measured at three levels of vibration (0.5 2.5 and 5 m/s²) in two directions of excitation (along the arm and in the normal direction of the palm). The position of the arm and the hand grip are controlled to be as close as possible to a driving situation. For each condition, the mechanical impedance is calculated and compared to models of ISO 10068. The differences introduced between the response of the left and right hand are also investigated according to the preferred hand and anthropometric data. In a second step, a measurement of the vibrational…
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Methodology to quantify the undesirable effects of the localized inefficiency of heat pick-up in suction line on an automotive air-conditioning system

Y.S.Sarath Reddy
Tata Motors Ltd-Suresh Tadigadapa, Santosh Ghorpade, Ankit Shukla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0036
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
The automotive application places very special demands on the air conditioning system. As is the case with any other process, system efficiency is very important and the automotive air-conditioning application is no exception. While the characteristics of all the major components in the air conditioning system like compressor, condenser, evaporator and blower contribute to overall system efficiency, localized inefficiencies do play a part and so must be kept to a minimum, especially in this day and age when extra emphasis is being paid on sustainability. One such phenomenon that contributes to the system inefficiency is heat pick-up in suction line. Since the temperature at the evaporator-outlet is quite lower than ambient and also its surroundings (steering system pipes and hoses, engine, air intake pipes and so on), the refrigerant picks up heat as it moves along the suction line up to the compressor inlet. This heat pick-up is detrimental to the overall system performance. Even though most of the automotive HVAC engineers are fairly aware of the undesirable effects of heat pick-up in suction line,…
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Facility for Complete Characterization of Suspension Kinematic and Compliance Properties of Wheeled Military Vehicles

SEA, Ltd.-Dale Andreatta, Gary Heydinger, Anmol Sidhu, Scott Zagorski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0175
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of their ongoing efforts to model and predict vehicle dynamics behavior, the US Army’s Ground Vehicle Systems Center procured a facility in two phases. The facility is called the Suspension Parameter Identification and Evaluation Rig (SPIdER) and has a capacity covering all of the military’s wheeled vehicles, with vehicle weights up to 100,000 lbs (45,400 kg), up to 150 inches wide, with any number of axles. The initial phase had the ability to measure bounce and roll kinematic and compliance properties. The SPIdER is the companion machine to the Vehicle Inertia Parameter Measuring Device (VIPER) which measures the inertia properties of vehicles of similar size. In 2015, the final phase of the SPIdER was completed. This phase includes ground plane wheel pad motion so that lateral, longitudinal, and aligning moment compliance and kinematic properties can be measured. These capabilities greatly enhance the SPIdER’s features, giving it the ability for making complete suspension and steering system kinematic and compliance measurements. Horizontal forces and aligning moments can be applied up to the limits of tire…
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Experimental Ride Comfort Analysis of an Electric Light Vehicle in Urban Scenario

Politecnico di Torino-Angelo Domenico Vella, Alessandro Vigliani, Antonio Tota, Domenico Lisitano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1086
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Urban mobility represents one of the most critical global challenges nowadays. Several options regarding design and power sources technologies were recently proposed; among which electric and hybrid vehicles are quite successful to meet the increasingly restrictive environmental targets. This significant goal may affect the perceived vehicle comfort and drivability, especially in everyday urban scenarios. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a comparison in terms of comfort between vehicles belonging to different categories, but all designed for urban mobility: an electric 2-passenger quadricycle used during the demonstration phase of the European project STEVE, an internal combustion engine 2-passenger car (Smart Fortwo), an electric 4-passenger car (Bolloré Bluecar) and an internal combustion engine 4-passenger car (Fiat 500). Leading European car-sharing services use the last three car models. Onboard accelerations at the seat, the feet and the steering wheel are recorded, as suggested by ISO 2631 and ISO 5349 standards. The tests are performed driving on a straight path on two different road surfaces at eight constant vehicle speeds. An optical sensor clamped outside of…
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Pre-Validation Method of Steering System by Using Hybrid Simulation

Hyundai Motor Company-Hong Suk Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0645
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the preliminary validation method of the steering system is constructed and the objective is to satisfy the target performance in the conceptual design stage for minimizing the problems after the detailed design.The first consideration about steering system is how to extract the reliable steering effort for parking. The tire model commonly used in MBD(Multi-Body Dynamics) has limited ability to represent deformations under heavy loads. Therefore, it is necessary to study adequate tire model to simulate the behavior due to the large deformation and friction between the ground and the tire. The two approaches related with F tire model and mathematical model are used. The second is how to extract each link’s load in the conceptual design stage. Until now, each link’s load could be derived only by actual vehicle test, and a durability analysis was performed using only pre-settled RIG test conditions. Therefore, in this study, we established the process of deriving the RIG test conditions by integrating the hydraulic system and the dynamics model without actual vehicle test. The last one…
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Computation of Safety Architecture for Electric Power Steering System and Compliance with ISO 26262

Oakland University-Saif Salih, Richard Olawoyin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0649
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays and with the advancement of the automotive industry, functional safety has become one of the most significant challenges for autonomous and connected vehicles. The automotive industry is transforming from conventional driving technology where the driver or the human being is a part of the control loop to fully autonomous development and self-driving mode. The SAE levels of autonomy define level 4 by (These automated driving features will not require you to take over driving). Thus, more and more safety-related electronically controlled units ECUs are deployed in the control module of the vehicle. As a result, more complexity of system architecture, software, and hardware are interacting and interfacing which increases the risk of both systematic and random hardware failures. In order to reduce these risks and avoid any potential failure or loss of control, ISO 26262 was introduced and developed to guide the automotive original equipment manufacturer OEMs and suppliers to ensure an adequate and acceptable level of safety procedures are implemented. This study focuses on the EPS systems and their ASIL assignement. It was…
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Autonomous Lane Change Control Using Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller and Bicycle Model

Kettering University-Ajinkya A. Joshi, Diane L. Peters, Jennifer M. Bastiaan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0215
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As advanced vehicle controls and autonomy become mainstream in the automotive industry, the need to employ traditional mathematical models and control strategies arises for the purpose of simulating autonomous vehicle handling maneuvers. This study focuses on lane change maneuvers for autonomous vehicles driving at low speeds. The lane change methodology uses PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller to command the steering wheel angle, based on the yaw motion and lateral displacement of the vehicle. The controller was developed and tested on a bicycle model of an electric vehicle (a Chevrolet Bolt 2017), with the implementation done in MATLAB/Simulink. This simple mathematical model was chosen in order to limit computational demands, while still being capable of simulating a smooth lane change maneuver under the direction of the car’s mission planning module at modest levels of lateral acceleration. The simulation indicated that the lane change control system performed well for low speeds and at moderate steering wheel angles. After the simulation phase, the model was converted to implementable vehicle code and integrated into a vehicle for on-road testing of obstacle…
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Development of the Rig and Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Bench for Evaluating Steering Performance

Hyundai Motor Company-Changsu Kim, Byungrim Lee, Youngdae Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0647
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The development of vehicles faces changes in many future flows. The vehicle’s power transfer systems are being changed from conventional types to Hybrid, Electric and Hydrogen vehicles. At this moment, the technology of EPS (Electric Power Steering) system has been expanding from a simple torque assist system to LKAS(Lane Keeping Assist System), PAP(Park Assist Pilot), ALCAS(Active Lane Change System), ADAS(Advanced Driver Assistance System). A good test bench is necessary for the evaluation of both hardware and control logics of EPS in these complexities of development process. Simultaneous Rig and HILS tests can be performed to check that the steering hardware system can perform to the concept of the development vehicle and develop EPS control logic performances. The hardware performance of the steering system might be evaluated based on measured friction and stiffness, taking into account various driving conditions. And the control logic of the EPS can be evaluated based on the response capability and steering torque measured through the appropriate vehicle model which could represent virtual driving conditions.
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Improve Transient Response Correlation of SUV Using MSC.ADAMS & MSC.EASY5 Functional Mock-Up Interface for Hydraulic Power Steering System

Mahindra Research Valley-Baskar Anthonysamy, Visweswara Lenka, Balaramakrishna N, Abhijit Londhe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0651
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a comprehensive model of a hydraulic power steering system for predicting the transient responses under various steering inputs.The hydraulic system model, which integrates together all fluid line elements and hydraulic components, is formulated using the MSC Easy5 software. A full vehicle model is developed in ADAMS/Car. Functional Mock up Interface (FMI), a tool independent standard is used for co-simulation of ADAMS and Easy5 Dynamic models.This paper describes a co-simulation methodology developed using FMI interface for full vehicle Simulations using hydraulic power steering. A virtual simulation scheme is developed to obtain the system transient responses and the results are compared with those measured from the tests.In general, the simulation results agree with those obtained from the tests under the same steering inputs and operating conditions. The presented model can predict the dynamic steering characteristics of the full vehicle transient simulations with a good accuracy, which could otherwise only be done through testing on prototypes. These models can be used for tuning of performance and design of new power steering system.