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Pre-validation method of steering system by using hybrid simulation

Hyundai Motor Company-Hong Suk Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0645
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the preliminary validation method of the steering system is constructed and the objective is to satisfy the target performance while minimizing the problems after the detailed design considering it in the conceptual design stage. The first consideration about steering system is how to extract the reliable steering effort for parking. The tire model commonly used in MBD has limited ability to represent deformations under heavy loads. Therefore, it is necessary to study adequate tire model to simulate the behavior due to the large deformation and friction between the ground and the tire. The two approaches related with F tire model and mathematical model are used. The second is how to extract the each link’s load in the conceptual design stage. Until now, each link’s load is derived by the actual vehicle test, and a durability analysis was performed using the pre-settled RIG test conditions. Therefore, in this study, we established the process of deriving the RIG test conditions by integrating the hydraulic system and the dynamic system without actual vehicle test. The…
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Computation of Safety Architecture for Electric Power Steering System and Compliance with ISO 26262

Oakland University-Saif Salih, Richard Olawoyin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0649
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays and with the advancement of the automotive industry, functional safety has become one of the most significant challenges for autonomous and connected vehicles. The automotive industry is transforming from conventional driving technology where the driver or the human being is a part of the control loop to fully autonomous development and self-driving mode. The SAE levels of autonomy define level 4 by (These automated driving features will not require you to take over driving). Thus, more and more safety-related electronically controlled units ECUs are deployed in the control module of the vehicle. As a result, more complexity of system architecture, software, and hardware are interacting and interfacing which increases the risk of both systematic and random hardware failures. In order to reduce these risks and avoid any potential failure or loss of control, ISO 26262 was introduced and developed to guide the automotive original equipment manufacturer OEMs and suppliers to ensure an adequate and acceptable level of safety procedures are implemented. This study focuses on the EPS systems and their ASIL assignement. It was…
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Development of the Rig and Hardware-In-the-Loop Test Bench for Evaluating Steering Performance.

Hyundai Motor Company-Changsu Kim, Byungrim Lee, Youngdae Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0647
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The development of vehicles faces changes in many future flows. The vehicle’s power transfer systems are being changed from conventional types to Hybrid, Electric and Hydrogen vehicles. At this moment, the technology of EPS (Electric Power Steering) system has been expanding from a simple torque assist system to LKAS(Lane Keeping Assist System), PAP(Park Assist Pilot), ALCAS(Active Lane Change System), ADAS(Advanced Driver Assistance System). A good test bench is necessary for the evaluation of both hardware and control logics of EPS in these complexities of development process. Simultaneous Rig and HiLS tests can be performed to check that the steering hardware system can perform to the concept of the development vehicle and develop EPS control logic performances. The hardware performance of the steering system might be evaluated based on measured friction and stiffness, taking into account various driving conditions. And the control logic of the EPS can be evaluated based on the response capability and steering torque measured through the appropriate vehicle model which could represent virtual driving conditions. In this paper, the environment in which…
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Improve Transient Response correlation of SUV using MSC.ADAMS & MSC.EASY5 functional mockup interface for Hydraulic Power steering system.

Mahindra Research Valley-Baskar Anthonysamy, VISWESWARA LENKA., BALARAMAKRISHNA N, Abhijit Londhe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0651
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a comprehensive model of a hydraulic power steering system for predicting the transient responses under various steering inputs. The hydraulic system model, which integrates together all fluid line elements and hydraulic components, is formulated using the MSC Easy5 software. A Full Vehicle Model is developed in ADAMS/Car. Functional Mock up Interface (FMI), a tool independent standard is used for co-simulation of ADAMS and Easy5 Dynamic models. This paper describes a Co-simulation methodology developed using FMI interface for Full Vehicle Simulations using Hydraulic Power steering. A Virtual simulation scheme is developed to obtain the system transient responses and the results are compared with those measured from the tests. In general, the simulation results agree with those obtained from the tests under the same steering inputs and operating conditions. The presented model can predict the dynamic steering characteristics of the Full vehicle transient simulations with a good accuracy, which could otherwise only be done through testing on prototypes. These models can be used for tuning of performance and design of new power steering system.
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Development of electrostatic capacity type steering sensor using conductive leather

Autoliv Japan Ltd-Yukinori Midorikawa
Honda R&D Co Ltd-Naohiro Sakamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1209
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) implemented by the US Department of Transportation, there were 10,743 accidents in 2016 that involved departure from the road, and among those accidents there were 12,043 fatalities. Lane departure prevention systems are expected to make a significant contribution to reducing accidents of this kind. Progress is also being made in the development of systems that further advance automation to enable autonomous driving. However, the evolution of these kinds of advanced safety systems is also raising concerns about the possibility that when systems are providing driving assistance, drivers may take their hands off the steering wheel and stop paying attention because they place too much trust in the safety systems. In addition, the occurrence of a malfunction in any part of the safety systems will mean that the responsibility for vehicle operation has to be returned to the driver immediately, but it is possible that the driver will not be able to respond adequately. Sensors that detect steering operations by the driver are therefore taking…
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Steering behavior of an Articulated Amphibious All-Terrain Tracked Vehicle

ARIS SpA-Emanuele Rota, Andrea Novara
Politecnico di Torino-Antonio Tota, Mauro Velardocchia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0996
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a study related to an Articulated Amphibious All-Terrain Tracked Vehicle (ATV) characterized by a modular architecture. In this case, an ATV with two modules is considered: the first one hosts mainly the vehicle engine and powertrain, meanwhile the second one can be used for goods transportation, personnel carrier, crane and so on. The engine torque is transmitted to the front axle sprocket wheel of each module and finally distributed on the ground through a track mechanism. The two modules are connected through a specific multiaxial joint able to guarantee four relative degrees of freedom between them. One of ATV main characteristics is an Electro Hydraulic Power System (EHPS) to steer the vehicle up to a minimum curvature radius of 6.5 m, thus letting the vehicle steerable on any kind of terrain without a differential tracks speed. The paper aims to analyze the kinematic and dynamic behaviour of the ATV on a flat road, through a simplified vehicle model built in Matlab/Simulink environment. The model describes the vehicle main planar motion and the…
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A Tire Work Load (TWL) Based Controller for Active Independent Front Steering System (AIFS)

Helwan University-Mohab Bahnasy, Mahmoud Atef Aly, Walid Oraby
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0648
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle Handling performance depends on many parameters. One of the most important parameters is the dynamic behavior of the steering system. However, steering system had been enhanced thoroughly over the past decade where Active Front Steering (AFS) is now present and other system as Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) is currently in the research phase. Actually, (AFS) system adopt the front wheels’ angles base on the actual input steering angle from the driver according to vehicle handling dynamics performance. While, the AIFS controls the angle of each front wheel individually to avoid reaching the saturation limits of any of the front wheels’ adhesion. In this paper modeling and analysis of an AIFS is presented with Tire Work Load (TWL) based controller. Magic formula tire model is implemented to represent the tire in lateral slip condition. A specially derived 3-DOF vehicle handling model longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion with four wheels is capable for studying AIFS implementing proposed control strategy. AIFS system is proposed to implement two main control strategies, which are PI controller only for…
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Composite Steering Strategy for 4WS-4WD EV Based on Low-Speed Steering Maneuverability

Tongji University-Yang Yang Wang, Zhi Guang Liu, Yuan Xing Jiang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
A composite steering control strategy, which combines four-wheel steering (4WS) and differential steering, is proposed in this paper, to optimize steering maneuverability in the conditions where the vehicle speed is below 15 Km/h, mainly for U-turning and parking conditions. A dynamic model is developed for the steering system and the tire system. Taking different steering wheel inputs into consideration, a 4WS control strategy proportional to the front wheel steering angle is quoted to improve the steering maneuverability in the low speed conditions and guarantee the manipulability by controlling the side slip of the vehicle. Based on the 4WS system, this paper explores the possibility of further improving the low-speed maneuverability of the vehicle through differential steering. And the differential steering control strategy is developed, including four hub-motor output modes. A composite steering controller is designed based on the 4WS-4WD electric vehicle platform. Through the real vehicle calibration tests, the output torque distribution coefficient of the hub motor in the differential steering control strategy is obtained, and the composite steering control strategy optimal for maneuverability is…
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Research on Control Algorithm of Active Steering Control Based on the Driver Intention

Jilin University-Pengcheng Zhang, Hongyu Zheng
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Active steering technology can improve the operability of the driver by the involvement to the steering system. Driver is the major controller of the vehicle Therefore, the involvement of advanced technologies including the active steering technology shouldn’t interfere with the intention of the driver, and the driver should still have great control of the vehicle. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of the driver’s control when the active steering system works to improve the flexibility of the low speed and the stability of the high speed, and the active steering model based on the driver’s steering intention is established. Through the CarSim simulation software, this paper adopts 9 parameters related to the vehicle steering of the DLC (Double Line Change). And PCA (Principal Component Analysis) algorithm, a tool of statistical analysis, is applied to select 4 parameters which can stand for the DLC from the 9 parameters, which makes the data processing easier. Through the 4 parameters, this model divide the driver’s steering intention into four categories (emergency steering, normal steering,…
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Towability Design Criteria and Equipment Use - Passenger Cars, Vans, and Light-Duty Trucks

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1142_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the type of equipment commonly used with towing equipment, provides information to calculate safe steering loads, and outlines design criteria.
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