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EMC challenges & solutions for Electric Buses

ICAT-Enoch Eapen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2503
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
EMC challenges & solutions for Electric Buses Enoch Eapen, Devender Kumar and Madhusudan Joshi International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Electric buses are talk of the town in India with Government pushing the implementation of E-mobility in general and for public transportation in particular. However due to high voltages and complex power electronics design, it often becomes difficult to deal with EMC related non-compliances. ICAT being largely experienced in the EMC testing and validation of E-buses, would like to present the various EMC challenges and the solutions related to E-buses. In this paper we would share three case studies where the EMC issues related to E-buses were mitigated by either introducing simple changes to the existing design or through large/small modification. We believe that the proposed case studies would help the bus manufactures to understand the real EMC issues closely and implement the solutions accordingly prior to submitting for final certification to the test agencies leading to lesser cost impact and shorter validation time.

Prediction of Hydraulic Cavitation using 1D simulation technique

John Deere India Pvt. Ltd.-Vinit Jawale, Ameya Bandekar
VJTI-Pritam Shinde, Addanki Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0129
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Hydraulic Cavitation is, in many cases, an undesirable occurrence. It is the formation and collapse of air cavities in liquid. In hydraulic devices such as pumps, motors, etc. cavitation causes a great deal of noise, local erosion, damage to components, vibrations, increases oil contamination and a loss of efficiency. There is already established process of predicting cavitation using 3D simulation software. However, the model development is the time-consuming process as well as prediction process is component /subsystem level and cannot be done for various duty cycle operations at architecture level. That requires exploring our research in 1D simulation technique for prediction of cavitation. In this research, we have developed and implemented a methodology/mathematical model for the prediction of hydraulic cavitation in hydraulic system using a 1D simulation technique. For simulation purpose, we have taken an example of simple hydraulic system and predicted the cavitation in one of the component/subsystem of hydraulic system for ambient conditions. The mathematical model proposed based on mass transport equations of vapor, liquid and gas, Rayleigh-Plesset equations, Singhal model and bubble…

Premium Buses Airconditioning System Development and Verification

Volvo Buses-Ganesh Kowndinya, Asish Mohanty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0020
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Airconditioning has become a prominent picture in premium segment buses over a decade of time. It has undergone many changes as and when the demand for passenger comfort in public transport industry has raised. Airconditioning is a critical topic influencing the passenger comfort in most of the mass transit vehicles. Transit buses operate in diversified weather conditions especially in country like India across the year, which impose challenge to a single airconditioning system fitted onto bus to provide right airconditioning so the passenger comfort will not be compromised. Airconditioning system has positively increased the comfort level of passengers irrespective of hauling distance or its application for city or intercity transits. Selecting a right airconditioning system for bus application plays a major role in addressing the passenger comfort topic in a broader perspective. This paper discuss on those important area's which directly impacts the passenger comfort in transit application. This paper discuss in detail onto different stages in Airconditioning system selection process, development methods and verification process to evaluate the system against stated requirement while keeping…

First Smile, Last Smile

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: May 2019

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP05_09
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

May Mobility is building a unique business model around AV shuttle services, explains COO and co-founder Alisyn Malek.

Entering the busy headquarters of May Mobility, my eyes fix almost immediately on a huge red Corvette brake caliper sitting on a tool cart beside an engineer's work station. “You guys must be planning some really fast self-driving shuttles,” I quip to COO and co-founder Alisyn Malek moments later, when she greets me for our interview.

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Analysis of Whole Body Vibration of a Two-Wheeler Rider

NIT Rourkela-Kashish Veda Eluri, Vadde Lokesh Reddy, Murugan Sivalingam, Balaji PS
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Two-wheel motorcycles are preferred in many countries as they have some merits such as cheaper, easy to handle and give higher fuel economy compared to three and four-wheel vehicles. Majority of the population in India falls under low and middle-income groups. Two-wheelers cater to the needs of low and middle-income users, and fill the gaps when public transport systems are inefficient or not available. Most of the people in India use motorcycles for transportation. However, due to different road conditions, motorcycle rider experiences different health effects within a few years of their vehicle travel. This paper investigates the effect of vibration on a man commuter’s health. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a male rider’s body was considered, and a numerical analysis was carried out to assess the effect of vibration acting on the commuter during a two-wheeler ride under various road conditions for a chosen suspension system and presented in this paper. Road conditions were chosen based on the different surface roughness values. The most affected rider’s body part due to the vibration…
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On-Vehicle Fuel Cut Testing for Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications

Corning (Shanghai) Company, Ltd.-Zhihui Lu
Corning Incorporated-Xiangyu Feng, Haixu Liu, Weiwei Li, Suhao He
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With the introduction of a stringent particulate number (PN) limit and real driving emission (RDE) requirements, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are widely adopted for gasoline engines in Europe and China. The filter collects soot and ash. Like in diesel applications, the collected soot will continuously burn under favorable exhaust conditions. However, at extreme conditions, there could be large amounts of soot build-up, which may induce a highly exothermal event, potentially damaging the filter. Thus, it is important to understand what drives the over-heating in application, and develop counter measures.In this study, an on-vehicle fuel cut (FC) testing procedure was developed. The testing was conducted on two vehicles, one gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and one multiple port injection (MPI) vehicle, with different exhaust systems designs (a close coupled GPF and an under floor GPF) and catalyst coating levels (bare and heavily coated GPFs). Good test repeatability was achieved through carefully controlling testing conditions. Also discussed in the paper is a simple analytical 0D model, which can very well capture the mass transport and reaction fundamentals,…
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Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Shared Mobility and Enabling Technologies

Shared and Digital Mobility Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3163_201809
  • Current
Published 2018-09-24 by SAE International in United States
This Recommended Practice provides a taxonomy and definitions for terms related to shared mobility and enabling technologies. Included are functional definitions for shared modes (e.g., carsharing, bikesharing, ridesourcing, etc.). Public transit services and other incumbent services—such as car rentals, shuttles, taxis, paratransit, ridesharing (carpooling/vanpooling), and pedicabs—are also included in the ecosystem of shared mobility services. This Recommended Practice also provides a taxonomy of related terms and definitions (e.g., station-based roundtrip, free-floating one-way, etc.). This Recommended Practice does not provide specifications or otherwise impose requirements on shared mobility.

Effects of Clamping Force on the Operating Behavior of PEM Fuel Cell

Tianjin University-Rouxian Chen, Yanzhou Qin, Qing Du, Jun Peng
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is widely recognized as an outstanding portable power plant and expected to be possibly commercialization in the near future. As is well known, mechanical stresses implemented on the bipolar plates during the assembly procedure should have prominent influences on mass and heat transfer behavior inside the cell, as well as the resultant performance. In this study, an analytical model is proposed to comprehensively investigate the influence of clamping force on the mass transport, electrochemical properties and overall cell output capability of a PEM fuel cell. The results indicate that proper clamping force not only benefits the gas leakage prevention but also increases the contact area between the neighboring components to decrease the contact ohmic resistance. However, deformation always takes place simultaneously, changing the local physical structures of the cell components, which possibly leads to the decrement of porosity and permeability of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and catalyst layer (CL), hinders the gas species and liquid water transport in GDL, and also decreases the cross-sectional flow area in the…
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Urban toll: a feasibility study of deployment using the monitoring technology, transport infrastructure and fleet renewal in the city of São Paulo

Universidade Estadual de Campinas-Yuzo Iano
Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie-Luiz Vicente Figueira de Mello Filho, Marcos Almeida do Amaral, João Carlos Gabriel
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
The study aims at an integrative analysis between the means of locomotion, the routes and the technology for monitoring and enforcement. It aims to equalize the daily travel flows following the provisions of Law 12,587 / 12, known as the Urban Mobility Law, and contributing to the improvement of the life quality of the population. The inclusion of urban tolls tends to reduce the number of journeys of individual motor vehicles in the expanded center, an area already established since 1996. In contrast, investment in the provision of public transport service, in addition to favoring the reduction of emission of pollutants in the atmosphere, tends to shorten travel time and significantly improve the health and well-being of the population. The technology-based monitoring allows real-time enforcing of the circulating fleet in the expanded center, indirectly contributing to public safety. As a result, the integration of monitoring, roads and fleet establishes a collective gain in urban mobility.
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Bus’ system electrification review – A technological operational comparative assessment

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Despite the recent groundbreaking improvements in diesel engine technology, with its inherent improved emission performance (Euro VI, US 2010 and their equivalences), it is well known that there is a limit on cleaning diesel buses. At the same time, cities and transit operators have been permanently challenged for seeking for traction technologies to comply with the emissions’ reduction agenda. In this context, electric bus traction technologies appear as a promising alternative for cleaning the bus’ fleets, with their intrinsic potential to reduce environmental impacts caused by public transport, such as greenhouse gas and local pollutant, as well as noise emissions. Moreover, the use of electricity also contributes to reduce the transport system’s dependency on fossil fuels and their inherent price volatility. From an operational perspective, it is required that alternative bus' traction technologies comply with diesel bus performance, in terms of costs, technological maturity, operational reliability, refueling times and infrastructure requirements. This, in some way, has challenged regulatory authorities and operators with the conflicting objectives of shifting to zero emission vehicles, while keeping the required…
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