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Windshield Glare from Bus Interiors: Potential Impact on City Transit Drivers at Night

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

OHTECH Incorporated, Canada-Peter Pityn, Sue Clouse-Jensen
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-02-0008
To be published on 2019-11-29 by SAE International in United States
Windshield glare at night is a safety concern for all drivers. Public transit bus drivers also face another concern about glare caused by interior lighting sources originally designed for passenger safety. The extent to which interior light reflections contribute to glare is unknown. Unique methods for measuring discomfort and disability glare during bus driving were developed. An initial simulation study measured windshield luminance inside of a New Flyer D40LF diesel bus parked in a controlled, artificial, totally darkened test environment. Findings indicated significant disability glare (from elevated luminance) in the drivers’ primary field of view due to interior reflections. Any reduction in contrast would result in less prominent glare if actual driving conditions differ. To assess this, levels of windshield glare were also measured with the bus parked on the roadside under the “background glow” of the urban environment. Findings reveal that under road conditions the extent of disability glare from interior reflections is much less, but not negligible, when contrast is reduced. The information gathered in these studies may be useful to manufacturers and…
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EMC challenges & solutions for Electric Buses

ICAT-Enoch Eapen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2503
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
EMC challenges & solutions for Electric Buses Enoch Eapen, Devender Kumar and Madhusudan Joshi International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Electric buses are talk of the town in India with Government pushing the implementation of E-mobility in general and for public transportation in particular. However due to high voltages and complex power electronics design, it often becomes difficult to deal with EMC related non-compliances. ICAT being largely experienced in the EMC testing and validation of E-buses, would like to present the various EMC challenges and the solutions related to E-buses. In this paper we would share three case studies where the EMC issues related to E-buses were mitigated by either introducing simple changes to the existing design or through large/small modification. We believe that the proposed case studies would help the bus manufactures to understand the real EMC issues closely and implement the solutions accordingly prior to submitting for final certification to the test agencies leading to lesser cost impact and shorter validation time.
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Transformational Technologies Reshaping Transportation - An Academia Perspective

Ohio State University-Giorgio Rizzoni, Qadeer Ahmed, Mukilan Arasu, Pradeep Sharma Oruganti
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper and the associated lecture present an overview of technology trends and of market and business opportunities created by technology, as well as of the challenges posed by environmental and economic considerations. Commercial vehicles are one of the engines of our economy. Moving goods and people efficiently and economically is a key to continued industrial development and to strong employment. Trucks are responsible for nearly 70% of the movement of goods in the USA (by value) and represent approximately 300 billion of the 3.21 trillion annual vehicle miles travelled by all vehicles in the USA while public transit enables mobility and access to jobs for millions of people, with over 10 billion trips annually in the USA creating and sustaining employment opportunities.Commercial vehicles provide access to work and leisure time for millions of people every day and deliver and distribute the goods that make our economy move, from raw materials, to components, to finish products, as well as providing a multitude of services and support functions. While on-road trucks and buses represent only part…
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Prediction of Hydraulic Cavitation Using 1D Simulation

John Deere India Pvt. Ltd.-Vinit Jawale, Ameya Bandekar
VJTI-Pritam Shinde, Addanki Rao
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Hydraulic Cavitation is, in many cases, an undesirable occurrence. It is the formation and collapse of air cavities in liquid. In hydraulic devices such as pumps, motors, etc. cavitation causes a great deal of noise, local erosion, damage to components, vibrations, increases oil contamination and a loss of efficiency. There is already established process of predicting cavitation using 3D simulation software. However, the model development is the time-consuming process as well as prediction process is component /subsystem level and cannot be done for various duty cycle operations at architecture level. That requires exploring our research in 1D simulation technique for prediction of cavitation. In this research, we have developed and implemented a methodology/mathematical model for the prediction of hydraulic cavitation in hydraulic system using a 1D simulation technique. For simulation purpose, we have taken an example of simple hydraulic system and predicted the cavitation in one of the component/subsystem of hydraulic system for ambient conditions. The mathematical model proposed based on mass transport equations of vapor, liquid and gas, Rayleigh-Plesset equations, Singhal model and bubble…
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ZF's Tech Portfolio is Ready for Level 4 Autonomy

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: September 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP09_11
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

Well aware of the relentless hype that comes with automated driving development, ZF's autonomy boss knows cost will be crucial-and customer persuasion required.

“We are constantly asking this question: Who is the customer likely to buy an SAE Level 4 autonomous vehicle in the consumer passenger market?” This is one of the key queries that drives the thinking of Torsten Gollewski, head of autonomous mobility systems at ZF. The global Tier 1 is playing a crucial role in enabling the next generation of mobility.

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Comparison of GATS Messages to SAE ATIS Standards

V2X Core Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2539_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report provides a comparative summary between the various messages found in the SAE ATIS standards work (notably SAE J2313, J2353, J2354, J2369 and J2374) and that found in the GATS standard (Global Automotive Telematics Standard). GATS is a message set meant to be deployed on mobile phone systems based on the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) phone system which is being deployed in European markets and which the SAE may need to harmonize with as part of the World Standards activities of TC204. This document provides an overview of the various types of supported messages and how they compare with US terms and messages. Some selected features of the GATS work are recommended for assimilation into the next revision of ATIS standards. No attempt at determining a U.S. policy in this regard is provided. This document seeks to provide the reader familiar with SAE ATIS with a high level overview of technical knowledge of the GATS approach in similar areas.
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RDS Phrase Lists

V2X Core Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2540/1_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides a table of textual messages meeting the requirements for expressing “Radio Data Systems” (RDS) phrases commonly used in the ITS industry. They can be used both over the RDS subcarrier transmission media as part of a 37-bit long “Group 8a message” as well as being used to provide a common content list of phrases used in a wide number of other media and applications. This document SHALL define the normative index values to be used, extending the CEN established list to provide phrases needed by US practitioners. This standard provides non-normative textual phrases which MAY be used by implementers to ensure intelligible results. This document SHALL follow the formats and rules established in SAE J2540 in the expressions, manipulations, and use of such tables. It should be pointed out that within the rules established by this document a variety of final table are all considered “compliant” with the document, and may vary as fits the needs of implementers.
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First Smile, Last Smile

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: May 2019

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP05_09
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

May Mobility is building a unique business model around AV shuttle services, explains COO and co-founder Alisyn Malek.

Entering the busy headquarters of May Mobility, my eyes fix almost immediately on a huge red Corvette brake caliper sitting on a tool cart beside an engineer's work station. “You guys must be planning some really fast self-driving shuttles,” I quip to COO and co-founder Alisyn Malek moments later, when she greets me for our interview.

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Analysis of Whole Body Vibration of a Two-Wheeler Rider

NIT Rourkela-Kashish Veda Eluri, Vadde Lokesh Reddy, Murugan Sivalingam, Balaji PS
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Two-wheel motorcycles are preferred in many countries as they have some merits such as cheaper, easy to handle and give higher fuel economy compared to three and four-wheel vehicles. Majority of the population in India falls under low and middle-income groups. Two-wheelers cater to the needs of low and middle-income users, and fill the gaps when public transport systems are inefficient or not available. Most of the people in India use motorcycles for transportation. However, due to different road conditions, motorcycle rider experiences different health effects within a few years of their vehicle travel. This paper investigates the effect of vibration on a man commuter’s health. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a male rider’s body was considered, and a numerical analysis was carried out to assess the effect of vibration acting on the commuter during a two-wheeler ride under various road conditions for a chosen suspension system and presented in this paper. Road conditions were chosen based on the different surface roughness values. The most affected rider’s body part due to the vibration…
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On-Vehicle Fuel Cut Testing for Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications

Corning (Shanghai) Company, Ltd.-Zhihui Lu
Corning Incorporated-Xiangyu Feng, Haixu Liu, Weiwei Li, Suhao He
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With the introduction of a stringent particulate number (PN) limit and real driving emission (RDE) requirements, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are widely adopted for gasoline engines in Europe and China. The filter collects soot and ash. Like in diesel applications, the collected soot will continuously burn under favorable exhaust conditions. However, at extreme conditions, there could be large amounts of soot build-up, which may induce a highly exothermal event, potentially damaging the filter. Thus, it is important to understand what drives the over-heating in application, and develop counter measures.In this study, an on-vehicle fuel cut (FC) testing procedure was developed. The testing was conducted on two vehicles, one gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and one multiple port injection (MPI) vehicle, with different exhaust systems designs (a close coupled GPF and an under floor GPF) and catalyst coating levels (bare and heavily coated GPFs). Good test repeatability was achieved through carefully controlling testing conditions. Also discussed in the paper is a simple analytical 0D model, which can very well capture the mass transport and reaction fundamentals,…
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