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Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling

Altair Engineering India Pvt Ltd-Painuri Thukaram
Altair Engineering India Pvt , Ltd.-Sreeram Mohan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2456
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling Authors: Sreeram Mohan*, Painuri Thukaram**, Panduranga Rao*** Objective / Question: Ability to have least failures in products on the field with minimum effort from the manufacturers is a major area of focus driven by Industry 4.0 initiatives. Amidst traditional methods of performing system / subsystem level tests often does not enable the complete coverage of a machine health performance predictions. This paper highlights a workable workflow that could be used as a template while considering system design especially employing Digital Twins that help in mimicking real-life scenarios early in the design cycle to increase product’s reliability as well as tend to near zero defects. Methodology: With currently available disruptive technologies , systems are integrated multi-domain 'mechatronics' systems operating in closed-loop/close-interaction. This poses great challenges to system health monitoring as failure of any component can trigger catastrophic system failures. It may be the reason that component failures, as per some aerospace reports, are found to be major contributing factors to aircraft loss-of-control. Essentially, it is either too expensive or impossible to…
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Improvement of Aircraft Availability and Optimization of Component Costs by Pre-Emptive Removal of Targeted Components

Pavcon, LLC-Alan Lesmerises
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
Availability of large repairable systems, like aircraft, are critical for commercial operators to generate revenue, and for military organizations to achieve their mission readiness objectives. Of the relatively few studies that deal with improving availability, most have focused on increasing reliability, and not on the biggest driver of low availability - Unscheduled Maintenance Events (UMEs). The cost of maintenance has long been a target of cost-cutting measures, and one common strategy focuses on extracting as much service life as possible out of various non-critical system components by letting those components “run to failure” (as defined in SAE JA1012). However, one of the biggest drawbacks of the “run to failure” approach is that it comes at the cost of lower asset availability because the failure of one of those components will nearly always lead to a UME, typically just when the operator wants to use, or is currently using, that asset. To combat the impact of UMEs, many OEMs, operators, and component manufacturers are looking to prognostics to get advanced notice of impending failures, so monitored…
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Framework Standard for Prognosis: An Approach for Effective Prognosis Implementation

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Sanket Pawar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Prognosis is used to improve system availability. This is achieved by minimizing system downtime with the help of mechanisms that senses the degradation in the system health to predict the ‘time-to-failure’ of the system. Degradation in the system’s health is measured by sensing the early signs of aging and wear and tear of the system components. This requires knowledge of all the failure modes of the system along with patterns of behavioral changes in the individual components of the system while it continues to age.Prognosis methods and mechanisms are still evolving. So, no comprehensive guidelines or framework standards exist as of today that can provide reliable and standardized prognosis solutions to the end user customers. The intent of devising such a framework and guidelines is to improve and standardize the implementation of prognosis solutions so that; it will be more effective to all stakeholders from the perspective of safety, cost and convenience.At present, there is a lot of variation in the implementation of a prognostic mechanism, although having well developed methods for the same. This…
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Condition-Based Maintenance in Aviation: The History, The Business and The Technology

drR2 Consulting-Ravi Rajamani
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-193
Published 2018-12-11 by SAE International in United States

Condition-Based Maintenance in Aviation: The History, The Business and The Technology describes the history and practice of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) systems by showcasing ten technical papers from the archives of SAE International, stretching from the dawn of the jet age down to the present times.

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A Process for Utilizing Aerospace Propulsion Health Management Systems for Maintenance Credit

E-32 Aerospace Propulsion Systems Health Management
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5987
  • Current
Published 2018-12-06 by SAE International in United States
The process detailed within this document is generic and can be applied to commercial and military applications. It applies to the entire end-to-end health management system throughout its lifecycle, covering on-board and on-ground elements. The practical application of this standardized process is detailed in the form of a checklist. The on-board element described here are the source of the data acquisition used for off-board analysis. The on-board aspects relating to safety of flight, pilot notification, etc., are addressed by the other SAE Committees standards and documents. This document does not prescribe hardware or software assurance levels, nor does it answer the question “how much mitigation and evidence are enough”. The criticality level and mitigation method will be determined between the ‘Applicant’ and the regulator. In order to provide some detailed guidance utilizing the process and checklist, some high-level examples of previous successful cases of Maintenance Credit applications are included. At this point, it is incumbent on the ‘Applicant’ to explain any differences in terminology between the health management system they are seeking a credit for…
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Diagnostics and Prognostics of Aerospace Engines

drR2 Consulting-Ravi Rajamani
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-195
Published 2018-11-28 by SAE International in United States

The propulsion system is arguably the most critical part of the aircraft; it certainly is the single most expensive component of the vehicle. Ensuring that engines operate reliably without major maintenance issues is an important goal for all operators, military or commercial. Engine health management (EHM) is a critical piece of this puzzle and has been a part of the engine maintenance for more than five decades. In fact, systematic condition monitoring was introduced for engines before it was applied to other systems on the aircraft.

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Systems Engineering for Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) Systems

  • Professional Development
  • C1866
Published 2018-06-29
Most complex systems are moving toward a “smart” solution, with automated methods for identifying and diagnosing problems. This course will explore how efficient systems can be designed in an effective manner to ensure that they meet performance requirements. Because predictive maintenance is important to the aerospace industry, this course will address systems engineering (SE) and review prognostic health management (PHM) and explain how you can utilize them to obtain a better system. Additionally, it will address requirements management; model-based design; and verification and validationBy attending this seminar, you will be able to: Identify basic systems engineering terminology and methodsRecognize the fundamentals of PHM systemsSummarize why PHM design and development is fundamentally tough in today’s industrial settingExplain how SE can help with PHM design and development1 Day .7 CEUs
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Framework and Platform for Next Generation Aircraft Health Management System

UTC Aerospace Systems-Ashutosh Kumar Jha, Gaurav Sahay, Adishesha Sivaramasastry
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
In aerospace industry, the concept of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) has gained momentum and is becoming need of the hour for entire value chain in the industry. The expected benefits of lesser time for maintenance reduced operating cost and ever busy airports are motivating aircraft manufacturers to come up with tools, techniques and technologies to enable advanced diagnostic and prognostic systems in aircrafts.At present, various groups are working on different systems and platforms for health monitoring of an aircraft e.g. SHM (Structural Health Monitoring), PHM (Prognostics Health Monitoring), AHM (Aircraft Health Monitoring), and EHM (Engine Health Monitoring) and so on. However, these approaches are mostly restricted to federated architecture where faults and failures for standalone line replaceable units (LRUs) are logged inside the unit in fault storage area and are retrieved explicitly using maintenance based applications for fault and failure diagnostics. With the transformational growth in computing technology, one can easily visualize the possibilities of moving from present federated architecture to integrated architecture for health monitoring of aircraft in near future.The advanced analytical methods…
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Sharpening the focus on OBD-II security

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: April 2017

Jennifer Shuttleworth
  • Magazine Article
  • 17TOFHP04_11
Published 2017-04-01 by SAE International in United States

In Fall 2016, the U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce reached out to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in regards to addressing OBD-II security. The letter requested NHSTA to “convene an industry-wide effort to develop a plan of action for addressing the risk posed by the existence of the OBD-II port in the modern vehicle ecosystem.”

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An Indirect Tire Health Monitoring System Using On-board Motion Sensors

Ford Motor Company-Jianbo Lu
University of Michigan-Tomas Poloni
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear. The estimated ERR are further processed to compute the unloaded tire radius (UTR). The UTR directly reflects the tread depth loss that the proposed on-board tire…
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