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Tapered Hole Automation for Hard Metals – Enabling Producibility

Electroimpact Inc.-Russell DeVlieg
The Boeing Company-Trevor Hartnagel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0006
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Assembly of the F-15 wing utilizes the Taper-Lok fastening system which requires precise preparation of conical holes to enable tapered fasteners to provide a uniform interference fit. The controlled interference fit directly affects fastener preload to reduce stress and improve fatigue life. Traditional methods for generating tapered holes in thick aluminum and titanium structures require heavy duty tooling. Fixtures are clamped to aircraft structure which hold large power feed to complete the hole generation processes in multiple steps. Manual drilling for Taper-Loks is labor intensive, non-ergonomic, and requires extreme care to ensure quality holes are produced. Automated hole generation was a logical solution to the complex Taper-Lok fastening system, however replicating traditional drilling methods proved challenging. Extensive testing was completed to ensure hole quality generated with automation would meet or exceed existing power feed equipment. Once process capabilities were proven and equipment requirements were generated, an articulated arm-based drilling system was developed and implemented. The automation was designed to accurately position and complete the hole preparation process in a single pass by the use of…
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Case Study on the Challenges and Responses of A Large Turnkey Assembly Line for the C919 Wing

Electroimpact Inc.-Mark Forbes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0010
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Design and production of an assembly system for a major aircraft component is a complex undertaking, demanding a large-scale system view. Electroimpact has completed a turnkey assembly line for producing the wing, flap, and aileron structures for the COMAC C919 aircraft in Xi’an, China. The project scope includes assembly process design, material handling design, equipment design, manufacture, installation, and first article production support. Inputs to the assembly line are individual component parts and small subassemblies. The assembly line output is a completed set of wing box, flaps, and ailerons, for delivery to the FAL in Shanghai. There is a trend toward defining an assembly line procurement contract by its production capacity, versus its list of components, which implies that an equipment supplier must become an owner of production processes. The most significant challenge faced was amount of front end engineering work required to develop detailed assembly processes and reconcile them with the customer, who remains the actual process owner. Other challenges include aircraft maturity delays, design changes due to process definition evolution, factory environmental conditions…
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An Approach to Verification of Interference Concerns for Multicore Systems (CAST-32A)

Rapita Systems, Inc., Ltd.-Steven H. VanderLeest, Christos Evripidou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0016
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The avionics industry is moving towards the use of multicore systems to meet the demands of modern avionics applications. In multicore systems, interference can affect execution timing behavior, including worst case execution time (WCET), as identified in the FAA CAST-32A position paper. Examining and verifying the effects of interference is critical in the production of safety-critical avionics software for multicore architectures. Multicore processor hardware along with aerospace RTOS providers increasingly offers robust partitioning technologies to help developers mitigate the effects of interference. These technologies enable the partitioning of cores for different applications at different criticalities and make it possible to run multiple applications on one specific core. When incorporated into system-design considerations, these partitioning mechanisms can be used to reduce the effects of interference on software performance. In this paper we describe a novel approach to verifying the effectiveness of RTOS interference mitigation on the final hosted software. We showcase the use of the proposed approach on the NXP T2080 multicore board. The approach follows a V-model based methodology in which high- and low-level requirements…
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A Study on the development of Aerostructures Design for Assembly guidelines and their effective use to proactively identify opportunities for improvement in mitigating common defects of the Aerostructures Assembly.

GITAM School of Technology, Hyderabad-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0009
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
An Aircraft’s assembly process plays a vital part in its design, development and production phases and contributes to about half of the Total cost spent in its entire product lifecycle. DFA principles have been one of the proven effective methodologies in Automotive and Process industries. Use of DFA principles have resulted in proactively simplifying and optimizing engineering designs with reduced product costs, and improved inefficiencies in product design and performance. Standardization of Assembly guidelines is vital for “Design and Build” and “Build-To-Print” manufacturing supplier organizations. However, Standardizing design methodologies, through use of proven tools like Advanced Product Quality Planning, (APQP) are still in the initial stages in Aerospace part and process design processes. Thus, there is a tremendous opportunity for research on the application of the existing DFA guidelines to optimize Engineering Aerospace Assembly processes aiming to simplify, standardize design methodologies by building on existing industry practices which have a common platform for design communication and are easy to adopt within the existing process/systems. This technical paper is to discuss the framework for application of…
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Delivery of Mixed Reality Tools Training in the Modern Production Environment

Boeing Co.-Mark Friesen, Lorrie Sivich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0052
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Since the early development of Mixed Reality (MR) technologies for the gaming industry, Boeing Research and Technology has been a leader in applying the technology to the production environment. Mixed Reality technologies have matured in size reduction and cost enabling a wide variety of visualization tools into the factory today. They include: tablets, Microsoft’s HoloLens, Google Glasses, Vive, and Oculus to name a few. These digital productivity tools allow the factory worker to perform work through installation, quality inspection, and trouble shooting.
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In-Process Hole and Fastener Inspection Using a High-Accuracy Laser Sensor

Electroimpact Inc.-Zachary Luker, Erin Stansbury
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0015
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Electroimpact has produced a new in-process inspection system for use on drilling and fastening systems. The system uses a high-accuracy, non-contact, laser system to measure the flushness of installed fasteners. The system is also capable of measuring part normality and providing feedback to the machine for correction. One drawback to many automatic inspection systems is measurement error. Many sources of measurement error exist in a production environment, including drilling chips, lubrication, and fastener head markings. Electroimpact’s latest system can create a visualization of the measured fastener for the operator to interpret. This allows the operator to determine the cause of a failed measurement, thus reducing machine downtime due to false negatives. Electroimpact created a custom C# WPF application that queries the point-cloud data and analyzes the raw data. A custom “circle Hough transform” scoring algorithm is used to find the center of the nosepiece (pressure foot). A best fit plane is calculated from the point cloud data to find the panel surface. This plane is then used to output panel normality in the A and…
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Development of High Productivity and Low Cost Card-Edge Type ECU for Motorcycles

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Yuichi TAKEDA, Daisuke SUGIO, Koji INOSE
Keihin Corporation-Syuichi TAKIOKA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0516
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
To reduce global warming, Honda has been worked on emission reduction and fuel efficiency enhancement by applying fuel injection systems. The productivity enhancement and cost reduction are strongly demanded in developing countries as the market is expanding. To enhance productivity and reduce cost of ECU, application of the semiconductor production method has been started for printed circuits with edge connectors. However, products that fully meet the requirements of us have not been realized so far. The ECU developed this time has a structure shielding the whole PCB package except the edge connector terminals. Thus, the waterproofness required for an ECU has realized, as a standalone component, as the first in the world (by Honda survey). To achieve that, we developed transfer molding dies equipped with a unique mechanism never been applied. Moreover, we developed an epoxy resin that eliminates the after cure process. Thus, productivity of 5 times over conventional was realized with a multi-cavity molding capable of moldings more than 10 pieces at a time. Furthermore, a new waterproof card-edge connector was developed, in…
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A cutting-edge technology to increase the friction coefficient in bolted joints in a simple way

3M do Brasil-Vanessa de Souza Valério, Rosana Emi Tamagawa, Kellen Cristina Busiol, Petrus Lencioni Filho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0236
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight vehicles are one of the most efficient solutions to reduce the fuel consumption and the emission of polluting gases, which leads the automotive industry to the constant need to manufacture ever lighter vehicles. Due to these current requirements, there is a general move toward compact and lightweight powertrain system designs. Although more compact, these systems must be able to transmit the same or even higher forces and torques. Dealing with these contradictory requirements adding to the constant request to minimize production and assembly costs is a huge challenge to engineers. One approach is to enhance the coefficient of static friction in friction joints. When friction joints are designed, physical parameters such as overall size and surface pressure usually can only be varied in a tight window. Load transmission capability in friction joints is thus limited by the friction coefficient of the mating materials. An efficient solution for these limitations is to apply a nickel diamond coating either to the actual parts of the joints or to friction shims for installation in the joint. In…
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Basic technical requirements for ballistic safety to guarantee the quality of civilian automotive armoring services in Brazil

Polytechnic School of University of Sao Paulo-Guido Muzio Candido, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0329
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Brazil is the largest civilian armored vehicle market in the world with more than 16,000 new protected units produced in 2018, followed by Mexico with 7,000 automobiles, according to Brazilian Army (BA) data. In this context, this paper presents an overview of Brazilian market for civilian vehicle armoring, definitions and characteristics of transparent and opaque ballistic resistance protective materials according to U. S. Department of Justice, the National Institute of Justice, NIJ Standard 0108.01. Based on this premises, the paper addresses basic technical requirements for ballistic safety in design and process to guarantee minimum quality of armoring services. The purpose of this paper is to safeguard the original features and functionality of the automotive components while simultaneously providing recommended ballistic protection of the vehicle with quality. The adoption of minimum automotive quality management system requirements from IATF 16949 International Automotive Task Force, in armoring services with different types of vehicle models and brands, will encourage to reduce tack time production, to improve vehicle armored quality, to reduce final reworks, to keep original equipment guarantees, to…
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Effect of Shot Peening Conditions on the Fatigue Life of Additively Manufactured A357.0 Parts

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy-Andrea Gatto, Antonella Sola
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy Maserati S.p.A., Italy-Emanuele Tognoli
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-02-0009
Published 2020-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue performance can be a critical attribute for the production of structural parts or components via additive manufacturing (AM). In comparison to the static tensile behavior of AM components, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the fatigue performance. The growing market demand for AM implies the need for more accurate fatigue investigations to account for dynamically loaded applications. A357.0 parts are processed by laser-based powder bed fusion (L-PBF) in order to evaluate the effect of surface finishing on fatigue behavior. The specimens are surface finished by shot peening using ϕ = 0.2 and ϕ = 0.4 mm steel particles and ϕ = 0.21-0.3 mm zirconia-based ceramic particles. The investigation proves that all the considered post-processing surface treatments increase the fatigue resistance of as-built parts, but the effect of peening with ϕ = 0.4 mm steel particles or with ceramic particles is more pronounced than that of peening with ϕ = 0.2 mm steel particles, although this treatment has the same Almen A value as the ceramic one. The surface morphology and the crack surface…
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