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A Performance Measurement and Analysis Method for Infotainment System

Hyundai Motor Company-Peace Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1347
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The car infotainment system provides various functions such as navigation, DMB, and external device interworking. In the future, complex new technologies such as remote diagnosis and control, V2X communication, integrated display, and autonomous driving interworking should be reflected. Also, even after mass production, such as smartphones, software must be constantly updated to apply bug fixes and new functions. However, as the internal software modules work together in a complicated way, system performance problems tend to occur due to changes in the software, and if they are not managed from the development stage, more costs must be paid for improvement over time. Moreover, after mass production, the scope of improvement will be limited. Therefore, software must be verified and optimized from time to time to ensure system performance quality from the minimum development process. Generally, various tools are used to verify software performance. Currently, top, perf, strace, gdb, DLT, and bootchart are mainly used on Linux-based platforms. In addition, there is a lack of intuitive statistical information to analyze and judge the overall performance of the…
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Design of the powder metal shift fork and sleeve

Czech Technical University-Gabriela Achtenova, Jiri Pakosta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1322
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper will present the design of shift fork for automotive manual gearbox dedicated for the manufacturing with help of powder metal technology. Based on limitations and requirements of new production technology of shifting sleeve, a new prototype of shifting sleeve is created, for which are new shifting forks then designed. The form of the prototype of the shift sleeve respected the requirements of the new technology, but from cost reason, it was manufactured from steel. The shift fork was changed accordingly to the new form of the shift sleeve. The functionality of several forks with different tolerances was tested. Prototypes were put through functional and durability tests on testing bench in real automotive gearbox. The test were accomplished on the inertia test stand. Drawings and CAD models of tested prototypes, custom tools and designed shift forks will be described.
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Electrical Heated Epoxy Tool for Rotational Molding Application

John Deere India Pvt., Ltd.-Sorna Rajendran Gandhi, Amit S Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0234
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The conventional method of making rotational molding part is by heating the cast aluminum mold or sheet metal mold by hot air medium which has its own limitation on energy loss, the other means is by direct heat and cold of mold by passing hot oil/water in the mold to have better energy efficiency but leakage and safety problems associated with pumping pressurized hot oil / Water. There is no solution available for prototyping rotational molding parts using design intended material. The current practice of prototyping with conventional method is expensive and time-consuming. In this work, a simple method is presented to produce a rotational molded part with breakthrough in mold construction, which is Composite Mold Technology (CMT) with glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin built-in with electrical heaters. Project focuses is on proving CMT in comparison with the current production method. CMT reduce the cost by 90% and time to build Protomold by 30%. This electrical heated CMT can be used for new product development (NPD) and very low volume production as the cycle time of the part development was observed very high and life mold is yet to be tested. Deeper study of the life…
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Android Defense in Depth Strategy in an Automobile Ecosystem

Automotive Accessories-Nalinikanth Yerram
Embedded Systems Software & Security-Srinivas Chandupatla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1365
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Android is becoming an environment of choice in the automotive sector because of near production grade open source stack availability and large developer community. With growing interest from Automotive OEMs for Android IVI (In-Vehicle Infotainment) solutions, we predict a similar growth trend in an automobile like in Mobile space. At another end, the need for more interconnected devices within the Automobile ecosystem is increasing, which leads to an increased threat to security. In sophisticated device interconnections, identifying the gateways and implementing the right security strategy is key to improve overall system security & stability. While Android is maturing for automotive and with growing interest from automotive OEMs, we spent time in analyzing current Android defense-in-depth concepts with the automotive perspective. The main aim of this paper is to examine the current defense-in-depth strategies available in Android and propose additional measures to meet automotive needs. This paper shall aid OEM’s to consider proposed strategies for their Android IVI solutions for increased security & safety.
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Development of Power Control Unit for Compact-class Hybrid Vehicle

Toyota Motor Corporation-Toshio Ikeyama, Keitaro Ishikawa, Natsuki Nozawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0456
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed the new compact-class hybrid vehicle (HV). This vehicle incorporates a new hybrid system for the improvement of fuel efficiency. For this system, a new Power Control Unit (PCU) is developed. The feature of the PCU is downsizing, lightweight, and high efficiency. In expectation of rapid popularization of HV, the aptitude for mass production is also improved. The PCU, which plays an important role in the new system, is our main focus in this paper. Its development is described.
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Volume of Fluid vs. Cavitation CFD-Models to Calculate Drag Torque in Multi-Plate Clutches

SIMERICS GmbH-Rudi Niedenthal
Technical University of Munich-Daniel Groetsch, Katharina Voelkel, Hermann Pflaum, Karsten Stahl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0495
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Wet running multi-plate clutches and brakes are important components of modern powershift gearboxes and industrial powertrains. In the open stage, drag losses occur due to fluid shear. Identification of drag losses is possible by experiment or CFD-simulation. For calculation of the complex fluid flow of an open clutch CFD-approaches such as the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method or the Singhal cavitation model are applicable. Every method has its own specific characteristics. This contribution sets up CFD-calculation models for different clutches with diverse groove designs. We present results of calculations in various operating conditions obtained from the Singhal cavitation model and the VoF-method. Despite the high spatial resolution of the calculation models the usage of a modern commercial CFD-solver and mesher (Simerics MP+) results in very short calculation times. The developed CFD-models consider the geometry of a complete clearance consisting of the friction plate, the gap between the plates, the steel plate and the flow conditions arising from the design of the inner and outer plate carrier. The full 360-degree modeling makes it possible to take…
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A Method Using FEA for the Evaluation of Tooling and Process Requirements to Meet Dimensional Objectives

FCA US LLC-Amandeep Singh Jhajj, Steven Ford, Gregory Dwyer, William Stewart
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0497
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Dimensional Engineering concentrates effort in the early design phases to meet the dimensional build objectives in automotive production. Design optimization tools include tolerance stack up, datum optimization, datum coordination, dimensional control plans, and measurement plans. These tools are typically based on the assumption that parts are rigid and tooling dimensions are perfect. These assumptions are not necessarily true in automotive assemblies of compliant sheet metal parts on high volume assembly lines. To address this issue, FEA has been increasingly used to predict the behavior of imperfect and deformable parts in non-nominal tooling. This paper demonstrates an application of this approach. The complete analysis is divided into three phases. The first phase is a nominal design gravity analysis to validate the nominal design and tooling. In the second phase, the worst case scenarios are considered based on the previous programs to see their effects on assembly. Lastly, dimensional deviations and tooling loads are estimated to determine if they meet the constraints of both the part design and the tooling design. The novelty of this approach lies…
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Application of Laminated Steels for Stamped Bumpers

FCA US LLC-Eric Edwin Herz
Material Sciences Corp.-Justin Putti, Matt Murphy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1055
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Light-weight solutions for stamped steel components that exhibit the same or similar appearance properties for purposes of authentic feel and perception to customers will play a critical role as the goal of reaching maximum fuel efficiency for large vehicles continues. This paper outlines the potential uses for laminated steel or “MSC Smart Steel®” in large stamped steel bumpers that would normally be stamped with thick sheet metal in order to meet vehicle level functional objectives. The paper presents the investigation of the one for one drop in capabilities of MSC Smart Steel® material to existing stamping dies, special processing considerations while manufacturing, vehicle level performance comparisons, and class “A” coating options and process needs. Most of all, it will highlight the significant vehicle weight saving benefits and opportunities as compared to current production stamped steel bumpers.
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Combined Experimental/Numerical Study of the Soot Formation Process in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Spray in the Presence of Laser-Induced Plasma Ignition

Sandia National Laboratories-Fabien Tagliante, Hyung S. Sim, Lyle M. Pickett, Tuan Nguyen, Scott Skeen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0291
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Combustion issued from an eight-hole, direct-injection spray was experimentally studied in a constant-volume pre-burn combustion vessel using simultaneous high-speed diffused back-illumination extinction imaging (DBIEI) and OH* chemiluminescence. DBIEI has been employed to observe the liquid-phase of the spray and to quantitatively investigate the soot formation and oxidation taking place during combustion. The fuel-air mixture was ignited with a plasma induced by a single-shot Nd:YAG laser, permitting precise control of the ignition location in space and time. OH* chemiluminescence was used to track the high-temperature ignition and flame. The study showed that increasing the delay between the end of injection and ignition drastically reduces soot formation without necessarily compromising combustion efficiency. For long delays between the end of injection and ignition (1.9 ms) soot formation was eliminated in the main downstream charge of the fuel spray. However, poorly atomized and large droplets formed at the end of injection (dribble) eventually do form soot near the injector even when none is formed in the main charge. The quantitative soot measurements for these spray and ignition scenarios, resolved…
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Fuel Properties and their Impact on Stochastic Pre-Ignition Occurrence and Mega Knock Severity in Turbocharged Direct Injection Engines

FEV North America Inc.-Patrick Haenel, Dean Tomazic, Henning Kleeberg, Joseph Ciaravino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0614
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Stochastic Pre-Ignition (SPI) or Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) is an abnormal combustion event that can occur during the operation of modern, highly boosted direct-injection gasoline engines. This abnormal combustion event is characterized by an undesired and early start of combustion that is not initiated by the spark plug. Early SPI events can subsequently lead to violent auto-ignitions that are referred to as Mega- or Super-Knock in literature and have the potential to severely damage engines in the field. Numerous studies to analyze impact factors on SPI occurrence and severity have been conducted in recent years. While initial studies have focused strongly on engine oil formulation, calibration and engine design and their respective impact on SPI initiation, the impact of physical and chemical properties of the fuel have also become of interest in recent years. There is still significant uncertainty about the best way to characterize a fuels impact on SPI occurrence and severity though. We therefore performed an experimental study that attempts to link fuel characteristics to SPI event occurrence as well as assesses their…