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Simplified Approach to Model a HEV/PHEV/Battery Vehicle Cooling System in 1D and validating using DFSS methodology

Detroit Engineered Products (DEP), Inc.-Toukir Islam
FCA Engineering India Pvt,, Ltd.-Tharunnarayanan Arthanari, Amit Kumar, Vaibhav Patil, Dhananjay Autade, Kamalakannan J
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1386
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
ABSTRACT Improving fuel economy and to satisfy more restrictive emission legislation the Vehicle electrification becomes more important one. Compared to the combustion engine a Hybrid electric vehicles / Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles will use energy from the grid to recharge their high voltage battery and this is converted with much higher efficiency, and less CO2 emission so they will have a significant role in the present transition from conventional to electric vehicles. The addition of new components, such as power electronics, electric machine and high voltage battery, increases the maximum torque available and the energy stored on-board, but increases the weight as well. In addition, although they have really high efficiency, they produce a significant amount of heat that has to be removed. Another thermal management issue in PHEV and BEV is cabin heating, since the engine heat is not available. To guarantee system efficiency and reliability, a completely new thermal management layout has to be designed. The time and cost spent on a real time model of new cooling system will be more which…
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Co-simulation Methodology for PHEV Thermal System Development

FCA US LLC-Rezwanur Rahman, Auvi Biswas, Craig Lindquist, Masuma Khandaker, Sadek Rahman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1392
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Thermal development of automotive applications is a lot more complex than it used to be in the past. Specifically, for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), all the sub-systems are so intertwined that it’s hard to analyze them as sub-systems only. A system level solution is needed for proper sizing of components. For early thermal development, a co-simulation method can ensure that we take into account the inter-dependency of all the thermal features in the car. As for example a large PHEV battery may need to be passively cooled by refrigerant, which is in turns associated with the interior HVAC cooling system. For proper sizing of the condenser, chiller etc., one has to account for the battery cooling and cabin cooling as one system. There are also many thermal actuators on a PHEV, e.g. control valves, pulse-width-module (PWM) pumps, electric compressor, electric coolant heaters etc. Smart controls and calibration development early in the product development can impact sizing of front end cooling modules and other heat exchangers significantly. The design of hardware and software has to…
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Virtual Verification of Wrecker Tow Requirements

Ford Motor Company-Majid Tabesh, Steven Foster, Sethuprasant Boomipaulraj, Arthur Gariepy, Jim Alanoly
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0766
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Under various real world scenarios, vehicles can become disabled and require towing. OEM’s allow a few options for vehicle wrecker towing that include wheel lift tow using a stinger or towing on a flatbed. These methods entail multiple loading events that need to be assessed for damage to the towed vehicle. OEMS have several testing and evaluation methodologies in place for those scenarios with majority requiring physical vehicle prototypes. Recent focus to reduce product development time and cost has replaced the need for prototype testing with analytical verification methods. In this paper, the CAE method involving multibody dynamic simulation (MBS) as well as finite element analysis (FEA) of vehicle flatbed operation, winching onto a flatbed and stinger-pull towing methods are discussed. The simulations evaluate and address events such as bumper and underbody parts impact with the ground, subframe impact with the stinger arm, chain loading on the body, as well as winch cable contact with underbody parts. MBS-FEA co-simulations appear to be computationally expensive and, more importantly, target only a specific vehicle configuration and loading…
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Electrical Heated Epoxy Tool for Rotational Molding Application

John Deere India Pvt., Ltd.-Sorna Rajendran Gandhi, Amit S Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0234
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The conventional method of making rotational molding part is by heating the cast aluminum mold or sheet metal mold by hot air medium which has its own limitation on energy loss, the other means is by direct heat and cold of mold by passing hot oil/water in the mold to have better energy efficiency but leakage and safety problems associated with pumping pressurized hot oil / Water. There is no solution available for prototyping rotational molding parts using design intended material. The current practice of prototyping with conventional method is expensive and time-consuming. In this work, a simple method is presented to produce a rotational molded part with breakthrough in mold construction, which is Composite Mold Technology (CMT) with glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin built-in with electrical heaters. Project focuses is on proving CMT in comparison with the current production method. CMT reduce the cost by 90% and time to build Protomold by 30%. This electrical heated CMT can be used for new product development (NPD) and very low volume production as the cycle time of the part development was observed very high and life mold is yet to be tested. Deeper study of the life…
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Customer Perception of Road Induced Structural Feel

General Motors LLC-Mark Stebbins, John Cafeo, Mark Beltramo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1080
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A vehicle program’s timing and viability can be affected by subjective assessments made by engineering teams predicting customer perceptions of many different attributes. In this paper we explore the relationship of those assessments to match customer perceptions for the attribute of structural feel. The eventual goal of work like this is to develop an objective metric that could be used by the product development organization. The first step in developing a metric is to assess whether road induced structural feel can be sensed by the customer. An internal drive clinic was an effective approach for obtaining customer perception of structural feel. Vehicles which spanned excellent structural feel to poor structural feel were chosen as part of the experimental design. The participants, which comprised three groups (panelists, experts, and executives) were able to rank order the vehicles’ structural feel performance essentially the same and in the order determined a priori. This clinic study indicates that structural feel is strongly related to vehicle ride. Experts are good predictors of both panelists and executive responses. Results from objective…
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Pedestrian Head Impact, Automated Post Simulation Results Aggregation, Visualization and Analysis using d3VIEW

FCA Engineering India Pvt. Ltd.-Sreenath Mallela
FCA US LLC-Milind Shivaji Parab
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1330
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Pedestrian head impact regulation mandates the reduction of head injuries, measured using Head-Impact-Criteria (HIC). Virtual tools driven design comprises of simulating the impact on the hood and post processing the results. Due to the high number of impact points, engineers spend a significant portion of their time in manual data management, processing, visualization and score calculation. Moreover, due to large volume of data transfer from these simulations, engineers face data bandwidth issues particularly when the data is in different geographical locations. This deters the focus of the engineer from engineering and also delays the product development process. This paper describes the development of an automated method using d3VIEW that significantly improves the efficiency and eliminates the data volume difficulties there by reducing the product development time while providing a higher level of simulation results visualization. This method significantly reduces post-simulation analysis time and completely eliminates the effort of manual data management and visualization. d3VIEW is tightly integrated with LS-DYNA and since raw LS-DYNA data is processed on HPC, the resulting output data stored in d3VIEW server…
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Robust and optimum design selection for crank train dampers

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Anup Bhattacharya, Vivek Yadav, Abhijit Londhe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0603
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reduced engine noise and vibrations is a key challenge in product development which leads to better comfort for end customer. Cranktrain is a major contributor in the transfer path of gas oscillations. The noise and vibrations induced by cranktrain torsional resonances are reduced by providing torsional dampers. Dampers are also important for avoiding resonant failures. The requirements from dampers is high reliability, lesser sensitivity for manufacturing variability in rubber properties with respect to desired performance. The requirement from a cranktrain damper is to achieve minimum crankshaft vibratory torque. Also, damper heat dissipation and torsional oscillations need to be within acceptable limits. This depends on selection of damper dimensions, damper hub inertia, ring inertia and rubber stiffness. There is a non-linear dependence of these parameters on damper performance. Hence, it needs an optimizer with better design space exploration capabilities. This paper presents, reliability based optimization process starting with generation of RSM followed by NSGA-II evolutionary search algorithm to achieve robust optimum damper design in early phase of product development through simulation. The process reduced number of…
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Finite Element Analysis Technique To Roll Crimp Solenoid’s Can

BorgWarner Inc.-Chandreshwar Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0749
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Roll forming assemblies are generally neat and robust, but there are structural integrity risks involved too if the forming procedures and design features do not complement each other. Specifically, in solenoid valves, an imprecised roller crimping (or forming) adversely affect the desired magnetic performance of the valves. Furthermore, in-depth evaluations of the formed shape using hardware and lab testing are extremely challenging cost wise and time consuming as well. However, utilizing simulation technique such as finite element analysis (FEA) to understand the in-sights of roller formed assemblies of a solenoid valve (or other products) could be an effective way to minimize overall cost and time involved in the product development. Therefore, a three-dimensional non-linear FEA model of roller crimping simulation was established in ANSYS Workbench Mechanical, and the predicted results were correlated with real hardware data to prove the technique & process adopted. Then the design was improved computationally to eliminate the magnetic Core's flux-bridge distortion issue of a solenoid valve, and finally the design was validated through hardware testing.
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Automotive Wheel Metamodeling using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) Technique

FCA Engineering India Pvt. Ltd.-Gurumoorthy S, Muthukumar Arunachalam, Sundaravadivelu Mohan
FCA US LLC-Thomas Oery
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1234
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Computational cost plays a major role in the performance of scientific and engineering simulation. This in turn makes the virtual validation process complex and time consuming. In the simulation process, achievement of appropriate level of accurate models as close as physical testing is the root for increase in the computational cost. During preliminary phase of product development, it is difficult to identify the appropriate size, shape and other parameters of the component and they will undergo several modifications in concept and other stages. An approximation model called metamodel or surrogate model has developed for reducing these effects and minimizing the computational cost. Metamodel can be used in the place of actual simulation models. Metamodel can be an algorithm or a mathematical relation representing the relations between input and output parameters. The scope of this paper is to generate approximate models (metamodels) for the automotive wheel with help of response surface methodology (RSM) using Isight commercial tool and to arrive at the optimum shape, size and weight of the wheels by considering all necessary loading conditions.…
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Classification of Time Series Measurement Data for Shift Control of Automatic Transmission of Vehicles Using Machine Learning Techniques

Aisin AW Co., Ltd.-Yusuke Morikawa, Yasuhiro Ishihara, Taku Akita, Takanori Ide, Noriyuki Miyake, Eiji Moriyama
RIKEN AIP-Hiroshi Nakagawa, Yasuo Tabei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0260
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An efficient approach to classify time series physical measurement data of shift control for automatic transmission of vehicles is presented. Comfortable acceleration is the essential factor of today’s vehicle. Shift control of automatic transmission of vehicles directly contributes to the comfortable acceleration. Since calibration of automatic transmission of vehicles is time consuming task for expert engineers, the development of autonomous calibration is desired to reduce product development time in today’s competitive automobile market. In the stage of product development, it is difficult to obtain a large amount of physical measurement data. Therefore, we need to develop machine learning method for limited amount of data. For this purpose, we develop the method to classify time series measurement data of shift control for automatic transmission of vehicles. We use support vector machine (SVM) as a machine learning technique. Features, used by SVM, of time series measurement data of shift control of automatic transmission of vehicles is selected by expert engineers. In addition, the computation is too heavy to explore the optimal value of the high dimensional parameter…