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LOW COST ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIAL BASED ON POLYPYRROLE-BIO WASTE COMPOSITES

Dongguk University-Ganapathi Nagarajan PhD
Hindustan University-Sheeba Rathina Selvi, Srimathi Krishnaswamy PhD, Puspamitra Panigrahi PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a crucial need of Electromagnetic interference shielding in many of the applications in this digital world with low cost and high efficient shielding materials. Electrically conducting heterocyclic polymer polypyrrole has found its application as an EMI shielding materials due to its conducting property. Electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) coated on coconut fibres (coir) with different morphology, were prepared through in-situ chemical polymerization of PPy using strong oxidizing agent like ammonium per sulfate. The synthesized PPy on coconut fibre were characterised using UV-Visible spectrophotometer(UV-VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the product formation. The morphology was done using Scanning electron Microscopy(SEM).Thermal studies were performed by Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of PPy morphology and content in composite with coir on the DC conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) were investigated. The shielding effectiveness was calculated theoretically and well matched with the experimental values.
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Material development for low viscosity oil

NOK Corporation-Keita Otani, Kenichi Kunieda, Yuki Sato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0232
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, it is a big trend to decrease oil viscosity as regards in the drive-train system in order to progress the fuel efficiency by reducing frictional loss of each mechanical unit. However, we found that the oil-seal performance get worse in cold environment with applying the low viscosity oil, and it leads to oil leakage. The presumed mechanism is that the rubber material used in the oil-seal loses its flexibility at a low temperature to deteriorate the shaft runout followability, while the low viscosity oil can flow even such environment. Concerning rubber material, acrylic rubber (ACM) is widely used as a seal component for automobiles including drive-train system because it has a good balance of heat resistance, cold resistance, and oil resistance. As results of investigation low viscosity oil under development using our lineup ACM which has excellent low temperature property (TR-10:-37℃), we confirmed that the shaft runout limit deteriorates with decrease oil viscosity, and this result shows the need of further enhanced rubber material. In this study, we describe the improvement in…
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Investigation of the operating conditions on the water and thermal management for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by one-dimensional model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
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Generalized Maxwell Model Parameter Estimation of a Viscoelastic Material from High Frequency Direct Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) Test

The University of Akron-Roja Esmaeeli, Haniph Aliniagerdroudbari, Siamak Farhad
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1074
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Polymers as viscoelastic material grab a grate attention in industry due to their high strength, light weight and low manufacturing cost. Therefore, studying the properties of polymers has a great importance. In several applications the analytical tools are used to simulate the situation due to its lower cost and time consumption than experiments. In order to simulate the viscoelastic material properties in analytical tools, theoretical models such as such as Generalized Maxwell Model (GMM) are used. Usually the viscoelastic constitutive parameters for GMM are calculated by fitting the model to the master curve obtain from a Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) test. DMA is a testing method for viscoelastic material characterization by applying the stress or strain to a viscoelastic material and measure the response. Commercial DMAs are not able to operate accurately at high frequency thus they use the time temperature superposition principle and Williams, Landel and Ferry (WLF) shift factor to obtain the high frequency results from the low frequency tests. Several limitations and problems for the WLF equation are reported. The procedure of…
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Fatigue Life Prediction of Short Fiber Composites using FEA Methodology

Ford Motor Company-Sushil Singh, Dennis Wys
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1308
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In automotive industry light weight composite materials improve the fuel economy, vehicle mobility and, increase towing capacity. In this paper, static and fatigue analysis of oil-pan made of short fiber reinforced polymer composite have been studied. FEA methodology has been established to predict the life of short fiber reinforced polymer composite accurately. Oil-pan is made of Zytel 75LG50HSL which is 50% PA66 and 50% glass fiber by weight. The stiffness and fatigue life of oil-pan estimated from FEA simulation is compared to physical test. In order to simulate the fatigue life in FEMFAT, we require accurate fiber orientation, composite fatigue properties from 0°/45°/90° short fiber composite coupon test and stress based on anisotropic material properties. Fiber orientation of oil-pan is predicted using Moldflow by providing gate locations and flow properties. Anisotropic material properties generated using MDS by providing matrix and fiber properties. Stress analysis is performed in Abaqus using anisotropic material properties. Cyclic load is applied at the center of oil-pan with stress ratio R =0 at frequency 2 Hz. FEA prediction is in very…
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Design Optimization of Sandwich Composite Armors for Blast Mitigation using Bayesian Optimization with Single and Multi-fidelity Data

Indiana Univ. Purdue Univ. Indianapolis-Andres Tovar
Purdue University-Homero Valladares
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0170
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The most common and lethal weapon against military vehicles is the improvised explosive device (IED). In an explosion, large cabin’s penetrations injure the lower body, and high accelerations harm the spine. Critical penetrations and accelerations can cause the death of the vehicle’s occupants. In the military industry, there is an increasing interest to improve the blastworthiness of their vehicles. This investigation presents a multi-fidelity Bayesian optimization (BO) approach to design sandwich composite armors for blast mitigation. BO is an efficient methodology to solve optimization problems that involve black-box functions. The black-box functions of this work are the responses of the finite element (FE) simulations of the composite armor. The main two components of BO are the surrogate model of the black-box function and the acquisition function that guides the searching process. In this investigation, the surrogate models are Gaussian Process (GP) regressions and the acquisition function is the multi-objective expected improvement (MEI) function. Information from low and high fidelity FE models trains the GP surrogates. The low fidelity FE model assumes elastic behavior of the…
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Effects of Helical Carbon Nanotubes on Mechanical Performance of the Composite Bonded Joints

Wichita State University-Ramanan Sritharan, Davood Askari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0029
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Most composite assemblies and structures generally fail due to the poor performance of their bonded joints that are assembled together with an adhesive layer. Adhesive failure and cohesive failure are among the most commonly observed failure modes in composite bonded joint assemblies. These failure modes occur due to the lack of reinforcement within the adhesive layer in transverse direction. The overall performance of any composite assembly largely depends on the performance of its bonded joints. Various techniques and processes were developed in recent years to improve mechanical performance of the composite bonded joints, one of which includes the use of nanoscale reinforcements within the adhesive layer in between the adherends. However, most prior research have been focused on use of straight carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other nanomaterials in particle forms. The goal was to improve the properties of the adhesive film and their interfacial bonding effectiveness. Because CNTs are inert in nature, they should be covalently functionalized, before incorporating them into adhesive resins. CNTs can be functionalized using different chemicals to improve their interactions with…
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The Influence of the Content and Nature of the Dispersive Filler at the Formation of Coatings for Protection of the Equipment of River and Sea Transport

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine-Liubov Poberezhna
Kherson State Maritime Academy, Ukraine-Oleksandr Sapronov, Andriy Buketov, Anna Sapronova, Vitalii Sotsenko, Mykola Brailo, Serhii Yakushchenko, Serhii Smetankin, Andriy Kulinich, Viacheslav Kulinich
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0006
Published 2020-01-23 by SAE International in United States
To protect ship equipment of river and sea transport, it is suggested to use polymeric protective coatings based on epoxy diane oligomer ED-20, polyethylene polyamine (PEPA) curing agent and filler, which is a departure from industrial production. Thus the purpose of the work is analysis of major dependency of the properties on the content of fillers that allowed to revealed the critical filler content (furnace black) in composites to form a protective coating with the required set of characteristics. The infrared (IR) spectral analysis was used to investigate the presence of bonds on the surface of particles of the PM-75 furnace black, which allows us to assess the degree of cross-linking of the polymer. The influence of the content of dispersed furnace black on the physicomechanical and thermophysical properties and the structure of the protective coating is investigated. For the formation of the coating with increased adhesive properties, the optimum content of the additive is q = 25 parts by weight (pts.wt.), due to the increase in the number of C—O, C—C, C═O, C═C, C═O,…
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Chromium Removal from PVC Filters

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35787
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Chromium metals and hexavalent chromium are known health hazards monitored in workplace environments. Occupational health professionals use polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in disc filters to monitor total chromium present in a workplace. If chromium background is present in the filters, the interpretation of the results can be problematic. Current analytical analysis methods can't discern environmentally harvested chromium materials from chromium that is present as a result of manufacturing byproducts in the filters. A need exists for a non-destructive method of removing the background concentration of chromium metals and hexavalent chromium that is present in the PVC filters.

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Thin Heat Shield for Superfast Aircraft

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35791
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The world of aerospace increasingly relies on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites to build the structures of satellites, rockets, and jet aircraft. But the life of those materials is limited by how they handle heat. Researchers have developed a heat shield that better protects those extremely fast machines.