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Investigation in Bonding Conditions of CF/Epoxy – PP Hybrid Structures Manufactured by Hybrid Single Shot Method

Clemson University-Hakan Kazan, Ting Zheng, Saeed Farahani, Srikanth Pilla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2595
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The hybrid single shot method is a novel manufacturing technique which allows to form and bond CF/Epoxy sheet with the injected thermoplastic in a single injection process. This process is promising to overcome the drawbacks of the traditional hybrid structure manufacturing methods by reducing the cycle time, energy consumption, tool, and machinery cost which are the concerns of automakers. In this process, polypropylene (PP) injected over the pre-heated CF/Epoxy prepreg insert. PP is widely used in automotive applications such as bumpers, dashboards, side-sills while CF/Epoxy prepreg has a great potential to enhance the mechanical properties of the hybrid component. Insert material is formed by the pressure of PP and bonded with the thermoplastic part by taking the advantages of polymer heat and the tackiness of prepreg. The final part is promising to combine the inherent properties of these two material while enhancing their weaknesses. However, there is a requirement to identify the bonding capability of this hybrid component to ensure the final part quality. Therefore, a peel test carried out to evaluate the bonding strength…

Characterization of Areca and Tamarind fiber reinforced hybrid polymer composites for structural applications

Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College-Binoj Joseph Selvi, Manikandan Natarajan, Bhanu Prakash Palampalle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0168
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, natural fibers reinforced composites are used in various engineering arenas owing to its specific rewards like biodegradable, low cost, readily available, easy processing, less toxic and eco-friendly physiognomies. However, the commonly used E-glass fiber polymer composite was just inverse to the properties of the reported natural fibers. Therefore, in the present work discarded areca and tamarind fibers was collected, extracted, fabricated and evaluated for its overall performance and to implement it as an alternative for synthetic fiber composites. Composite specimens are fabricated with different proportions of fiber/matrix and investigated for their potentiality by exploring its mechanical, physical, chemical, water absorption and thermal properties as per standard test procedures. Moreover, the obtained areca and tamarind hybrid composite results are better than their individual based composites and in par with the existing synthetic fiber products. In addition, the fractography study of the fractured composite specimens are examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for inspecting the failure of the material. Hence, the tested results shown that the fabricated hybrid composites exhibits better specific properties and…

Analogy of thermal properties of polyamide 6 reinforced with glass fiber and glass beads through FDM process

Sri Krishna College of Engg and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Hari Nishok Rangasamy Suguna Thangaraj, Aravind Kumar Vasudevan, Dharshan Karthick Shanmugan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0137
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The essential target of this examination is to compare the thermal properties of two different polyamide composite blends with inventive thermal properties. The two combination of specimen was prepared by using polyamide-6 (PA6) reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 wt% glass fiber (GF) and glass beads (GB) respectively and these composite blends were extruded in form of wire through twin screw extrusion process. The experimental study illustrates to print the specimens by means of a commercial FDM three dimensional (3D) printer. The measure the responses like morphology, thermal conductivity and heat distortion temperature of composites was observed. The results associate that SEM morphology shows high dense homogeneous distribution and fine arrangement of particles in the printed samples. Moreover it reveals that increasing thermal properties of the printed specimen like TC and HDT with the enhancement of 30% glass fiber and bead content in PA6 composites than lower weight percentage composites. The glass fibers are highly crystalline material that can even improve the thermal properties of the polymer matrix and the glass beads are dimensionally stable…

Application of Response Surface Method to optimize Waterjet cutting process parameter of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer matrix laminates

VIT-Savitoj Singh Aulakh, Dhanush Patil, Renold Elsen, Sangeet Aggarwal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0153
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Waterjet machining is an advanced machining technique because of its versatile unconventional cutting for wider range of materials. Waterjet machining is especially useful in precise cutting of advanced materials like Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) comparative to conventional machining methods. The conventional machining methods results in release of high amount glass fiber dust which leaves the work environment unsafe for the workers. If the material dust inhaled can lead to respiratory diseases as well. An analysis of the cutting performance of Waterjet machining is presented based on an experimental investigation on fiberglass reinforced laminates fabricated using hand layup technique. It is shown that with a good combination of cutting parameters such as nozzle traverse speed, waterjet pressure and Stand-off distance a cutting performance can be achieved. Plausible trends of kerf quality and machining time with respect to the waterjet pressure, nozzle traverse speed and nozzle stand-off distance are analyzed. The kerf quality and machining time will be optimized using DOE techniques for achieving a proper machining characteristics and faster completion of the work. The RSM a…

Banana Stem Based Activated Carbon as Filler in Polymer Composites for Automobile Applications

Hindustan Institute of Tech. and Science-John Presin Kumar Ayyaswamy, Sivakumar Sattanathan, Balaji Ramachandran, Mukesh Nadarajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0093
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Activated carbon was produced from a new part of banana plant namely true stem in this current research and used as fillers in polymer composites for automobile application. True stems of banana plants are the main wastes in banana or fruit markets which refer to the remains after banana fruits are removed from the supporting stems. Conversion of raw material into activated carbon particles is done by chemical and heat activation. The raw material used here were dried samples of banana plant’s true stem. This material was heated in a crucible at 400°C and then powdered. These crushed samples were activated using hydro-chloric acid at 120°C for 5 hours and finally in a furnace for thermal activation at 700°C for 1 hour. These particles were incorporated as fillers in composites at proportions of 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The activated carbon samples were characterized by determining its fixed carbon content and bulk density. Scanning electron microscopy was done to analyze the morphology of particles. Mechanical tests were conducted for tensile strength, modulus of rupture and…

Development and Investigation of Jute/Linen fibre Reinforced polymer composite.

BSA Crescent Institute of Science & Technology-Arvinda Pandian, Siddhi Jailani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0171
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, hybrid composite with natural fabrics reinforcements and with mineral powder as filler to matrix material is developed. The hand lay-up methodology is employed to fabricate the composite. The composites with and without mineral filler material are developed. The mechanical properties of the composites are assessed. The mechanical properties of composites with and without mineral filler are compared and their result shows that with addition of filler material, the mechanical properties of the composite are affected. Optical microscope is utilized to observe the composite’s morphology.

Exploration of dry sliding wear behaviour of sisal fiber-reinforced Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and epoxy polymer matrix composite as an alternative friction material in automobiles

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Shanthosh Gopal, Tharunkumar Magudeeswaran, Ramamoorthi Rangasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0173
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Brake pad is one of the foremost imperative part in the vehicle. Due to the environmental requirement, natural material/composites were the alternate source for component manufacturing. The composite made using hot press techniques by mixing ingredients such as natural fiber (treated sisal), cashew nut filler, graphite and alumina with resin (cashew nut shell liquid - CNSL and epoxy). Two formulas and four samples of each set were composed by varying the resin type and prepared the test samples with attain better hardness. The main intern of this proposed work is to appraise the dry sliding wear and friction performance of the prepared composites. The composites are taken for tribo test by varying the load of 10,20,30,40 N and sliding distance of 1000, 2000 m respectively. Experiments were performed at stated process parametric conditions to record the responses. The result shows that the CNSL resin composites specific wear resistance and frictional coefficients are found better than epoxy resin composites. The addition of filler element cashew nut shell particular shows a better wear resistant and friction coefficient.…

Thermal Conductivities of Some Polymers and Composites

Aerospace & Defense Technology: August 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP08_09
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

Assessing the performance of polymers used in structural armor and filament winding applications.

Thermoset polymers are good electrical insulators that are used in applications ranging from electronics to composite armor. They are rather poor thermal conductors, however.

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Tuning Material Color and Thermal Properties Separately

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34898
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The color of a material can often tell how it handles heat. With clothing, for example, the darker the pigment, the warmer you're likely to feel on a hot day. Likewise, the more transparent a glass window, the more heat it can let through. A material's responses to visible and infrared radiation are often naturally linked.


Introduction to Advanced Manufacturing

Ramy Harik, Thorsten Wuest
  • Book
  • R-463
Published 2019-07-24 by SAE International in United States

Introduction to Advanced Manufacturing was written by two experienced and passionate engineers whose mission is to make the subject of advanced manufacturing easy to understand and a practical solution to everyday problems. Harik, Ph.D. and Wuest, Ph.D., professors who have taught the subject for decades, combined their expertise to develop both an applied manual and a theoretical reference that addresses many different needs.

Introduction to Advanced Manufacturing covers the following topics in detail:

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