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Model Reference Control for Active Suspension System

Benha University, Egypt-Aref M.A. Soliman, Sayed A. Abdallah, Fomel F. Amien
Minia University, Egypt-Mina M.S. Kaldas
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study is to develop a Model Reference Control (MRC) strategy for active suspension System. The MRC strategy employs both the suspension look-ahead preview and wheelbase preview concepts, and the methodology of the MRC based on the ideal hybrid skyhook-groundhook concept. The study performed using a 13 degree-of-freedom (DoF) vehicle vertical dynamics model including the active suspension actuators masses. The engine mass, driver seat and anti-roll bar are considered in the model. The MRC strategy uses eight Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers for both body and wheel control. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is applied to obtain the controller parameters using a cost function including both ride comfort and road holding performance. Comparison between the active suspension system provided with proposed MRC strategy, the ideal hybrid skyhook-groundhook suspension system, and the passive suspension system in terms of ride comfort and road holding is performed. The obtained results showed that, the proposed MRC strategy with the PID controllers are able to track the performance of the ideal hybrid skyhook-groundhook system, and provided significant improvements in both…
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Study and Analysis of the Behavior of a Seated Human Body in a Vehicle by the Influence of an Active Suspension System

Anna University-Arivazhagan Anandan, Arunachalam K
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to study the influence of a suspension system on the human body with the effect of the controller behavior. For this work, 2-Degree of Freedom (DoF) quarter car suspension system with 4 DoF seated human body is modeled. The mathematical equation is developed by using a lumped mass parameter method. Governing equations of motions are generated by Newton’s Law of motion. Random road profile is also considered for this study. MATLAB/SIMULINK software is used to simulate the system results and system analysis is limited to a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller with hydraulic actuator. Seat to Head transmissibility ratio of the active suspension system is analyzed and compared with the passive suspension system. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed active system, simulated results are compared with ISO 2631 comfort curves. Therefore the result shows that the PID based active suspension system improves the ride comfort of the occupant when compared with passive suspension.
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Application of a Preview Control with an MR Damper Model Using Genetic Algorithm in Semi-Active Automobile Suspension

Helwan University-Ahmed Shehata Gad, Helmy El-Zoghby, Walid Oraby, Samir Mohamed El-Demerdash
Published 2019-02-05 by SAE International in United States
A non-linear mathematical model of a semi-active (2DOF) vehicle suspension using a magnetorheological (MR) damper with information concerning the road profile ahead of the vehicle is proposed in this paper. The semi-active vibration control system using an MR damper consists of two nested controllers: a system controller and a damper controller. The fuzzy logic technique is used to design the system controller based on both the dynamic responses of the suspension and the Padé approximation algorithm method of a preview control to evaluate the desired damping force. In addition, look-ahead preview of the excitations resulting from road irregularities is used to quickly mitigate the effect of the control system time delay on the damper response. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) inverse model without preview, ANFIS inverse model with preview, and ANFIS inverse model with preview and optimization strategies are used to design the damper controller to evaluate different values of the command voltage based on the tracking of a desired damping force to compare which of them gave the best behavior of the MR damper.…
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Development of semi-active suspension for Formula SAE vehicle

Coventry University-Georgios Chrysakis
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-Marcos Gabriel Diodato dos Santos, Ramiro Britto Willmersdorf, Luiz Otávio Ferrão Teixeira Alves
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
The design of passive suspension systems is being improved since the early days of the automotive industry in order to obtain the best tradeoff between ride comfort and handling. In this context, passenger cars tend to prioritise ride comfort whilst racing cars tend to focus on handling. On the other hand, Formula SAE is a series of undergraduate competitions in which the students design, build and compete with small, formula-style, mono-seated vehicles. As part of the competition events, the vehicle experiences tight corners and short-length slaloms. The minimum turning diameter and the shortest length of slalom period conducted by Formula SAE prototypes are 9 m and 7.6 m, respectively. Therefore, high controllability of vehicle dynamic behaviour is required in order to enhance the cornering speed, this is achievable by working on the dampers to optimise the rates of load transfer in cornering. This paper describes the development of semiactive control algorithms to optimise the handling performance of a Formula SAE vehicle by reducing the non-suspended mass displacements and tyre load variations, which are meant to…
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Optimized Proportional Integral Derivative Controller of Vehicle Active Suspension System Using Genetic Algorithm

Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport-W. Abbas
Helwan University-H. Metered, A. S. Emam
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Proportional integral derivative (PID) control method is an effective, easy in implementation and famous control technique applied in several engineering systems. Also, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a suitable approach for optimum searching problems in science, industrial and engineering applications. This paper presents the usage of GA for determining the optimal PID controller gains and their implementation in the active quarter-vehicle suspension system to achieve good ride comfort and vehicle stability levels. The GA is applied to solve a combined multi-objective (CMO) problem to tune PID controller gains of vehicle active suspension system for the first time. The active vehicle suspension system is modeled mathematically as a two degree-of-freedom mechanical system and simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. The performance of the proposed suspension system controlled using the optimized PID GA is compared to both controlled system using the classical PID (C PID) controller and the passive suspension systems. Systems performance criteria are evaluated in both time and frequency domains, in order to quantify the success of the proposed suspension system. The theoretical results reveal that the proposed…
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A Comparative Study of Lumped Parameter Models for Assessing the Performance of Vehicle Suspension Systems

Indian Institute of Science-Manoj Mahala, Anindya Deb
Wayne State Univ-Clifford Chou
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Idealized mathematical models, also known as lumped parameter models (LPMs), are widely used in analyzing vehicles for ride comfort and driving attributes. However, the limitations of some of these LPMs are sometimes not apparent and a rigorous comparative study of common LPMs is necessary in ascertaining their suitability for various dynamic situations. In the present study, the mathematical descriptions of three common LPMs, viz. quarter, half and full car models, are systematically presented and solved for the appropriate response parameters such as body acceleration, body displacement, and, pitch and roll angles using representative passive suspension system properties. By carrying out a comparison of the three stated LPMs for hump-type road profiles, important quantitative insights, not previously reported in the literature, are generated into their behaviors so that their applications can be judicious and efficient.
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Vibration Control of MR-Damped Vehicle Suspension System Using PID Controller Tuned by Particle Swarm Optimization

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Czech Tech. Univ Prague and Helwan Univ.-H. Metered, A. Elsawaf
Czech Technical University-T. Vampola, Z. Sika
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0622
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Proportional integral derivative (PID) control technique is the most common control algorithm applied in various engineering applications. Also, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is extensively applied in various optimization problems. This paper introduces an investigation into the use of a PSO algorithm to tune the PID controller for a semi-active vehicle suspension system incorporating magnetorheological (MR) damper to improve the ride comfort and vehicle stability. The proposed suspension system consists of a system controller that determine the desired damping force using a PID controller tuned using PSO, and a continuous state damper controller that estimate the command voltage that is required to track the desired damping force. The PSO technique is applied to solve the nonlinear optimization problem to find the PID controller gains by identifying the optimal problem solution through cooperation and competition among the individuals of a swarm. A mathematical model of a two degree-of-freedom MR-damped vehicle suspension system is derived and simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. The proposed PSO PID controlled suspension is compared to both the conventional PID controller and the passive suspension…
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Rule Optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller for Full Vehicle Semi-Active Suspension

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

IAE, TU Braunschweig-Mina M.S. Kaldas, Kemal Çalışkan, Roman Henze, Ferit Küçükay
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0991
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a new and effective control concept for semi-active suspension systems. The proposed controller uses a Fuzzy Logic scheme which offers new opportunities in the improvement of vehicle ride performance. The Fuzzy Logic scheme tunes the controller to treat the conflict requirements of ride comfort and road holding parameters within a specified range of the suspension deflection. An eleven degree of freedom full vehicle ride dynamics model is constructed and validated through laboratory tests performed on a hydraulic four-poster shaker. A new optimization process for obtaining the optimum Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the optimum rule-base of the proposed semi-active suspension controller is proposed. Discrete optimization has been performed with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find the global optima of the cost function which considers the ride comfort and road holding performance of the full vehicle. The proposed Fuzzy Logic semi-active controller is compared to the optimum Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) semi-active controller and the optimum passive suspension system in terms of ride comfort and road holding. The results showed that the proposed…
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Improvement of Bus Ride Comfort via Active Suspension and Connected Dampers

IAE, TU Braunschweig-Mina M.S. Kaldas
South Valley University-Aref M.A. Soliman
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The paper deals with a theoretical study to present a new sort of the buses suspension systems employs a hydraulic connection between the front and rear dampers together with active suspension actuator at the front axle. The theoretical investigation based on a half vehicle model of the bus suspension system includes the engine mounting system. The hydraulic connection between the front and rear dampers is created according to the capillary tubes theory. Furthermore, the active suspension system control algorithm based on the optimal control theory is derived. The Genetic Algorithm optimization routine is applied to generate the active suspension control algorithm parameters. A comparison between the connected dampers suspension system, active suspension system, active-connected dampers suspension system, and the passive suspension system in terms of ride comfort and road holding at constant suspension working space is performed. The results showed that, the proposed active-connected dampers suspension system and active suspension system provides significant improvements in both ride comfort and road holding. Furthermore, the connected dampers suspension system has a preview control effect on the rear…
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Effect of Semi-Active Front Axle Suspension Design on Vehicle Comfort and Road Holding for a Heavy Truck

Chalmers University of Technology-Viktor Berbyuk
Volvo Group Trucks Technology-Hoda Yarmohamadi
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Semi-active suspension systems for ground vehicles have been the focus of research for several years as they offer improvements in vehicle comfort and handling. This kind of suspension has attracted more interest compared to active suspension systems especially due to lower cost and energy consumption.In this paper the capabilities of a semi-active front axle suspension are investigated for a commercial vehicle. A half-truck model of a 4x2 tractor and semitrailer combination is developed in Matlab/Simulink for this purpose. Also, a 2 DOF roll plane model is considered to capture the roll motion of the vehicle body mass.Employing the above-mentioned models, results from on-off and continuous variable semi-active damping systems are compared to the ones from the passive suspension system according to ride comfort and handling safety characteristics. Simulations are performed in the time domain with realistic road-induced excitations, namely random road and single/double-sided bump inputs, applied on the wheel road contact points.Ride comfort is evaluated using the acceleration signals in the cab by studying acceleration peak values as well as PSD plots of the iso-filtered…
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