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Studying Ignition Delay Time of Lubricant Oil Mixed with Alcohols, Water and Aromatics in IQT and CVCC

Abu Dhabi Polytechnic-Hatsari Mitsudharmadi
King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Sumit Maharjan, Ayman Elbaz, William Roberts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1422
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The auto-ignition of liquid fuel and lubricant oil droplets is considered as one of the possible sources of pre-ignition. Researchers are constantly finding new ways to form advanced lubricant oil by changing its composition and varying different oil additives to prevent the occurrence of this event. In this study, three sets of mixtures are prepared. First set of mixtures was prepared by adding different alcohols namely ethanol, methanol and propanol, to the commercial lubricant oil (SAE 15W-40) in ratio of 1 % - 5 % by volume to investigate the mixtures’ ignition delay time (IDT) following standard ASTM D6890 procedure in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) and a custom built 4 liters constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC). For the CVCC, experiments were carried out in ambient air environment at 300 °C with varying pressure ranging from 4 bar - 22 bar at 6 bar interval pressures. Second set of mixtures were prepared by mixing SAE 15W-40 with aforementioned alcohols (1 % vol.) and H2O (1 % vol.). Lastly, third set of mixtures were prepared by…
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Influence of Multiple Injection Strategies on Performance and Emissions for Methanol PPC operation in a Heavy-Duty CI Engine

ISAE-ENSMA-Clarisse Pinto Dos Santos
Lund University-Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0556
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is growing global interest in using renewable alcohols to reduce the greenhouse gases and the reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Recent studies show that methanol combined with Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) provides clear performance and emission benefits compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. Nonetheless, a narrow operating window with simultaneously low NOx and HC emissions can be stated as the main PPC drawback in light load conditions when a single injection strategy is used. Thus, the present experimental study has been carried out to investigate the influence of multiple injection strategies on the performance and emissions with methanol fuel in partially premixed combustion. Specifically, the main objective is to improve the NOx-HC trade-off, as well as the gross indicated efficiency (GIE) compared to single injection strategy results. The work was performed with a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine, operated at 4 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPg), and an engine speed of 1200 rpm. Double and triple injections were implemented with varying dwells, injection timings, and fuel mass proportions. The experimental results were analyzed with…
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Comparison and Evaluation of Engine Wear, Performance, NOx Reduction and Nano Particle Emission of Diesel, Karanja and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Biodiesel in a Military720kW, heavy duty CIDI Engine Applying EGR with Turbo Charging.

CVRDE-Suresh S
College of Engineering-Milankumar Nandgaonkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0618
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rapid depletion of petroleum crude oil reserves,stringent pollution legislations and global warming, has given us the opportunity to work on bio fuels. Biodiesel can be produced from edible and non-edible vegetable oils,waste bio mass and animal fats.Biodiesel is renewable,bio gradable,sulphur free, non-toxic, oxygenated and green alternative fuel. Karanja and Jatropha oils are non- edible vegetable oils. Karanja and Jatrophaoil methyl ester biodiesel are prepared by transesterification process, using methanol. JOME and KOME have comparable performance with low gaseous emission characteristics, except higher NOx emission, in comparison to mineral diesel fuel. Recent emission legislations also restrict nano particle emission in addition to particulate matter, due to their adverse impact on health.In the present study, performance, combustion and emissions of CO, CO2, UHC, NOx and PM including nano particle emission characteristics, along with engine wear were compared for KOME, JOME and diesel fuels by applying 20% EGR with turbo charging, in a 12 cylinders, 720 kW, 38.8 liters heavy duty CIDI military diesel engine.Both KOME and JOME biodiesel fuel exhibit the ASTM standard properties within acceptable limits.…
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Waste Egg shell as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimization and Engine Characteristics study.

CK College of Engineering & Technology-R Krishnamoorthy
Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Sriram Kamaraj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0341
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of our present work is preparation of low cost heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst from egg shell for the waste cooking oil biodiesel production and optimization. The egg shell catalyst was prepared by calcination at the temperature range of 300-900 and characterized using scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The transesterification process was catalyzed by calcinated egg shell catalyst and the biodiesel yield% was optimized by varying parameters such as reaction temperature and time, catalyst weight and methanol to oil molar ratio. The L9 orthogonal array was selected for the Taguchi optimization. Among the selected parameter's temperature and methanol to oil ratio were found to be maximum influencing parameters. The maximum biodiesel yield% was 94.3% and this was obtained at temperature of 60 ºC, 6wt% catalyst weight%, and 4 hrs. time and 12:1 methanol to oil ratio levels. The egg shell catalyst calcinated at 900ºC has shown good regeneration capacity. The biodiesel %yield was 76% even after the five transesterification cycles. This is an additional advantage…
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Microscopic and Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Gasohols in Ambient Conditions Using a Port Fuel Injection System

Indian Institute of Technology-Utkarsha Sonawane, Ankur Kalwar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0324
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy and will exhaust in foreseeable future. Harmful emissions are generated due to combustion of fossil fuels in the internal combustion (IC) engines, particularly the emissions of CO, HC, and particulate matter (PM). It is necessary to explore technical solutions for emission norms compliance in different segments of the transport sector. Methanol has highest potential for widespread use amongst all primary alcohols in the all the segments of the transport sector. Methanol is a clean-burning, high octane fuel, primarily made from natural gas, high ash coal, and biomass. Addition of methanol to gasoline can significantly reduce engine-out emissions. Gasoline-methanol blends (Gasohols) could be used to reduce dependence of transport sector on fossil fuels. Spay characteristics of the fuel affects engine performance and emissions characteristics to a great extent. The purpose of this experimental study is therefore to investigate the macroscopic and microscopic spray characteristics of different Gasohols such as M15 (15% v/v Methanol and 85% v/v Gasoline), M85 (85% v/v Methanol and 15% v/v Gasoline), M100 (100 % v/v…
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CI Methanol and Ethanol combustion using ignition improver

Chalmers University of Technology-Saccullo Michael, Benham Timothy, Denbratt Ingemar
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology-Johansson Bengt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2232
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
To act on global warming, CO2 emissions must be reduced. This will require a reduction in the use of fossil fuels for transportation. Because of the large quantities of fossil fuels used in transportation, sources of renewable fuels other than biomass will have to be explored, such as electrofuels synthesized from CO2 using renewable electricity. Potential electrofuels include methanol and ethanol, which have shown promising results in SI engines. However, their low cetane numbers make these fuels unsuitable for CI engines because of their poor auto-ignition qualities. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using methanol and ethanol in CI engines at compression ratios of 16.7 and 20 with a pilot-main injection strategy in the PPC/CI regime. Single cylinder engine tests on a heavy duty engine were performed under medium load conditions (1262 rpm and 172 Nm). The higher compression ratio generated significantly better indicated thermal efficiencies, lower brake-specific NOx emissions, and less combustion noise. Soot emissions were well below current tailpipe emission limits in all cases.
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Numerical Optimization of Compression Ratio for a PPC Engine running on Methanol

Lund University-Erik Svensson, Sebastian Verhelst
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2168
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown to produce high gross indicated efficiencies while yielding lower pollutant emissions, such as oxides of nitrogen and soot, than conventional diesel combustion. Gasoline fuels with a research octane number (RON) of 60-70 have been proposed as optimal for PPC as they balance the trade-off between ensuring good combustion stability at low engine loads and avoiding excessive peak pressure rise rates at high loads. However, measures have to be taken when optimizing the engine operating parameters to avoid soot emissions. In contrast, methanol has a much lower propensity for soot formation. However, due to a higher RON of methanol the required intake temperature is higher for the same engine compression ratio to ensure auto-ignition at an appropriate timing. Increasing the compression ratio allows a lower intake temperature and improves combustion stability as well as engine brake efficiency. Nevertheless, a higher compression ratio generally increases in-cylinder heat losses and peak pressure. These effects were investigated in a simulation study, which combined 0-D and 1-D models, of a multi-cylinder heavy-duty Scania D13…
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Numerical Simulations of Methanol Engine Performance for High-altitude, Non-road Applications

Guangxi Yuchai Machinery Co. Ltd-Zan Zhu
Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen-Guang Yao, Lei Zhou, Zeyu Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2233
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Ambient pressure and temperature are two main factors affecting the engine performance. As altitude increases, the air volume and air temperature entering the cylinder per cycle decrease due to the lowering of atmospheric pressure and temperature, which directly affects the engine performance. As a result, engine performance in the plateau environment degrades while the power, economy, and emission performance of the engine significantly deteriorate.This paper focuses on the simulation and parameter optimization of the combustion process of non-road methanol engines, and 1D simulation is for BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) prediction while 3D simulation is for soot and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) predictions. Discusses, analyzes and predicts the feasibility of non-road methanol engines for high altitude conditions. Especially the application of high proportion of methanol in non-road methanol engines at high altitudes. It provides numerical simulations based on the Yuchai YC6M series heavy-duty direct-injection ignition engine and corresponding engine bench test data which elucidate the effects of oxygen-containing methanol fuel on engine performance. The role of methanol in the blend as well as resulting changes in…
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Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder CRDI Engine Fueled with Diesel-Methanol Blend

Sridhar Sahoo, Chinmay Nayak, Srinibas Tripathy, Dhanajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2380
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuel as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuel produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blend fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this paper, we study the effect of diesel-methanol blends and injection parameters in particular, start of injection (SOI) and fuel injection pressure (FIP) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and Iso-butanol to get a stable blend. Experiments were performed at an engine speed and load of 1500 rpm and 15 Nm, respectively. FIP governs air-fuel mixture preparation and fuel atomization which control combustion behavior of the engine,…
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Effect of PODE-Diesel Blends as High-Reactivity Fuel in a Dual-Fuel RCCI Combustion

SAE International Journal of Engines

Anna University, India-Murugan Rangasamy, Ganesh Duraisamy, Nagarajan Govindan
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0011
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
To overcome the limitations such as lower combustion efficiency (CE) and higher cyclic variability in methanol/diesel (M/D) reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion, a fuel having higher reactivity than diesel (i.e., polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers, PODE) was used in our previous study. Methanol/PODE RCCI combustion resulted in improved CE and reduction in soot and unburned emissions compared to M/D RCCI combustion. However, it was noticed that the use of neat PODE as high-reactivity fuel had damaged the fuel line materials frequently due to its higher oxygen content and lower viscosity. In addition, Methanol/PODE RCCI has also resulted in higher NO emissions compared to M/D RCCI combustion. Hence to sort this out, an attempt is made in this study to investigate the effect of PODE-diesel blend on dual-fuel RCCI combustion in order to propose a suitable blend proportion which can tackle the fuel line material damage, increased NO emissions, CE, and cyclic variability. In the present investigation three PODE-diesel blends, namely, PODE10, PODE30, and PODE50, have been prepared and tested at 21 kW and 28 kW fuel…
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