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Impact of Multiple Injection Strategies on Performance and Emissions of Methanol PPC under Low Load Operation

ISAE-ENSMA-Clarisse Pinto Dos Santos
Lund University-Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0556
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is growing global interest in using renewable alcohols to reduce the greenhouse gases and the reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Recent studies show that methanol combined with partially premixed combustion provide clear performance and emission benefits compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. Nonetheless, high unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions can be stated as the main PPC drawback in light load condition when using high octane fuel such as Methanol with single injection strategy. Thus, the present experimental study has been carried out to investigate the influence of multiple injection strategies on the performance and emissions with methanol fuel in partially premixed combustion. Specifically, the main objective is to reduce HC, CO and simultaneously increase the gross indicated efficiency compared to single injection strategy. The work was performed with a single cylinder heavy duty engine, operated at 4 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure, and an engine speed of 1200 rpm. Double and triple injections were implemented with varying dwells, injection timings and fuel mass proportions. The experimental results were analyzed with…
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Experimental Investigation of Multiple Injection Strategies on Combustion Stability, Performance and Emissions in a Methanol-Diesel Dual Fuel Non-Road Engine

Indian Institute of Technology-Kasinath Panda, A. Ramesh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0308
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this work methanol was port injected while diesel was injected using a common rail system in a single cylinder non-road CI engine. Experiments were conducted with single (SPI) and double (DPI - pilot and main) injection of the directly injected diesel at 75% load and at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The effects of methanol to diesel energy share (MDES) and injection scheduling on combustion stability, efficiency and emissions were evaluated. Initially, in the SPI mode, the methanol to diesel Energy Share (MDES) was varied, while the injection timing of diesel was always fixed for best brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Increase in the MDES resulted in a reduction in NOx and smoke emissions because of the high latent heat of vaporization of methanol and the oxygen available. Enhanced premixed combustion led to a raise in brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Coefficient of variation of IMEP, peak pressure and BTE were deteriorated which limited the usable MDES to 43%. DPI of diesel i.e. early pilot for enhancing the reactivity of the charge along with main…
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Comparison and Evaluation of Engine Wear, Performance, NOx Reduction and Nano Particle Emission of Diesel, Karanja and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Biodiesel in a Military720kW, heavy duty CIDI Engine Applying EGR with Turbo Charging.

CVRDE-Suresh S
College of Engineering-Milankumar Nandgaonkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0618
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rapid depletion of petroleum crude oil reserves,stringent pollution legislations and global warming, has given us the opportunity to work on bio fuels. Biodiesel can be produced from edible and non-edible vegetable oils,waste bio mass and animal fats.Biodiesel is renewable,bio gradable,sulphur free, non-toxic, oxygenated and green alternative fuel. Karanja and Jatropha oils are non- edible vegetable oils. Karanja and Jatrophaoil methyl ester biodiesel are prepared by transesterification process, using methanol. JOME and KOME have comparable performance with low gaseous emission characteristics, except higher NOx emission, in comparison to mineral diesel fuel. Recent emission legislations also restrict nano particle emission in addition to particulate matter, due to their adverse impact on health.In the present study, performance, combustion and emissions of CO, CO2, UHC, NOx and PM including nano particle emission characteristics, along with engine wear were compared for KOME, JOME and diesel fuels by applying 20% EGR with turbo charging, in a 12 cylinders, 720 kW, 38.8 liters heavy duty CIDI military diesel engine.Both KOME and JOME biodiesel fuel exhibit the ASTM standard properties within acceptable limits.…
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Waste Egg shell as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimization and Engine Characteristics study.

CK College of Engineering & Technology-R Krishnamoorthy
Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Sriram Kamaraj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0341
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of our present work is preparation of low cost heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst from egg shell for the waste cooking oil biodiesel production and optimization. The egg shell catalyst was prepared by calcination at the temperature range of 300-900 and characterized using scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The transesterification process was catalyzed by calcinated egg shell catalyst and the biodiesel yield% was optimized by varying parameters such as reaction temperature and time, catalyst weight and methanol to oil molar ratio. The L9 orthogonal array was selected for the Taguchi optimization. Among the selected parameter's temperature and methanol to oil ratio were found to be maximum influencing parameters. The maximum biodiesel yield% was 94.3% and this was obtained at temperature of 60 ºC, 6wt% catalyst weight%, and 4 hrs. time and 12:1 methanol to oil ratio levels. The egg shell catalyst calcinated at 900ºC has shown good regeneration capacity. The biodiesel %yield was 76% even after the five transesterification cycles. This is an additional advantage…
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Microscopic and Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Gasohols Using a Port Fuel Injection System

Indian Institute of Technology-Utkarsha Sonawane, Ankur Kalwar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0324
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Depleting fossil-fuels and increasing harmful emissions by the combustion of fossil fuels in IC engine is a matter of great concern. It is necessary to explore solutions complying with the prevailing emission norms in different sectors. Methanol has the potential amongst all primary alcohols for widespread use in transport sector due to its clean-burning, high octane rating, sources of production like high ash coal, and biomass. The addition of methanol to gasoline can significantly reduce engine-out emissions. Gasoline-Methanol blends (Gasohols) can be used to reduce dependence of the transport sector on fossil fuels. This study deals with investigation of spray characteristics of methanol-gasoline blends as it affects engine performance and emissions characteristics to a great extent. Macroscopic and microscopic spray characteristics of different gasohols such as M15 (15% methanol blended with 85% gasoline, v/v), M85 (85% methanol blended with 15% gasoline, v/v), M100 (100% methanol), and G100 (100% Gasoline) were experimentally investigated using a port fuel multi-hole solenoid injector. A Constant Volume Spray Chamber (CVSC) having glass windows was used for the experiments at a…
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Aerospace Standard Test Methods for Aerospace Sealants Two-Component Synthetic Rubber Compounds

AMS G9 Aerospace Sealing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5127/1D
  • Current
Published 2020-03-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) describes test methods to determine the application and performance properties of two-component sealing compounds. It shall be used in conjunction with AS5127 and the applicable material specification. When modifications to these test methods are called out in material specifications, the material specification shall take precedence.
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CI Methanol and Ethanol combustion using ignition improver

Chalmers University of Technology-Saccullo Michael, Benham Timothy, Denbratt Ingemar
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology-Johansson Bengt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2232
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
To act on global warming, CO2 emissions must be reduced. This will require a reduction in the use of fossil fuels for transportation. Because of the large quantities of fossil fuels used in transportation, sources of renewable fuels other than biomass will have to be explored, such as electrofuels synthesized from CO2 using renewable electricity. Potential electrofuels include methanol and ethanol, which have shown promising results in SI engines. However, their low cetane numbers make these fuels unsuitable for CI engines because of their poor auto-ignition qualities. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of using methanol and ethanol in CI engines at compression ratios of 16.7 and 20 with a pilot-main injection strategy in the PPC/CI regime. Single cylinder engine tests on a heavy duty engine were performed under medium load conditions (1262 rpm and 172 Nm). The higher compression ratio generated significantly better indicated thermal efficiencies, lower brake-specific NOx emissions, and less combustion noise. Soot emissions were well below current tailpipe emission limits in all cases.
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Numerical Optimization of Compression Ratio for a PPC Engine running on Methanol

Lund University-Erik Svensson, Sebastian Verhelst
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2168
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown to produce high gross indicated efficiencies while yielding lower pollutant emissions, such as oxides of nitrogen and soot, than conventional diesel combustion. Gasoline fuels with a research octane number (RON) of 60-70 have been proposed as optimal for PPC as they balance the trade-off between ensuring good combustion stability at low engine loads and avoiding excessive peak pressure rise rates at high loads. However, measures have to be taken when optimizing the engine operating parameters to avoid soot emissions. In contrast, methanol has a much lower propensity for soot formation. However, due to a higher RON of methanol the required intake temperature is higher for the same engine compression ratio to ensure auto-ignition at an appropriate timing. Increasing the compression ratio allows a lower intake temperature and improves combustion stability as well as engine brake efficiency. Nevertheless, a higher compression ratio generally increases in-cylinder heat losses and peak pressure. These effects were investigated in a simulation study, which combined 0-D and 1-D models, of a multi-cylinder heavy-duty Scania D13…
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Numerical Simulations of Methanol Engine Performance for High-altitude, Non-road Applications

Guangxi Yuchai Machinery Co. Ltd-Zan Zhu
Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen-Guang Yao, Lei Zhou, Zeyu Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2233
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Ambient pressure and temperature are two main factors affecting the engine performance. As altitude increases, the air volume and air temperature entering the cylinder per cycle decrease due to the lowering of atmospheric pressure and temperature, which directly affects the engine performance. As a result, engine performance in the plateau environment degrades while the power, economy, and emission performance of the engine significantly deteriorate.This paper focuses on the simulation and parameter optimization of the combustion process of non-road methanol engines, and 1D simulation is for BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) prediction while 3D simulation is for soot and NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) predictions. Discusses, analyzes and predicts the feasibility of non-road methanol engines for high altitude conditions. Especially the application of high proportion of methanol in non-road methanol engines at high altitudes. It provides numerical simulations based on the Yuchai YC6M series heavy-duty direct-injection ignition engine and corresponding engine bench test data which elucidate the effects of oxygen-containing methanol fuel on engine performance. The role of methanol in the blend as well as resulting changes in…
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Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder CRDI Engine Fueled with Diesel-Methanol Blend

Sridhar Sahoo, Chinmay Nayak, Srinibas Tripathy, Dhanajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2380
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuel as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuel produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blend fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this paper, we study the effect of diesel-methanol blends and injection parameters in particular, start of injection (SOI) and fuel injection pressure (FIP) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and Iso-butanol to get a stable blend. Experiments were performed at an engine speed and load of 1500 rpm and 15 Nm, respectively. FIP governs air-fuel mixture preparation and fuel atomization which control combustion behavior of the engine,…
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