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Unsettled Domains Concerning Autonomous System Validation and Verification Processes

EllectroCrafts Aerospace-Fabio Alonso da Silva
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019012
To be published on 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Transportations' (DOT's) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) face similar challenges regarding the regulation of autonomous systems powered by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms that replace the human factor in the decision-making process. The validation and verification (V&V) processes contribute to the implementation of the correct system requirements. The V&V process is one of the steps of a development lifecycle starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. They define what a product is, and they flow down into lower level requirements defining control architectures, hardware, and software. The industry is attempting to define regulatory requirements and a framework to gain safety clearance of such products. This report suggests a regulatory text and a safety and V&V approach from an aerospace engineering perspective assessing the replacement of the human driver from the decision-making role by a computational system. This article suggests an approach where aerospace guidelines can be used alongside ISO 26262 in order to define a viable and valuable framework for autonomous…
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Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Online Driving Pattern Classification

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

University of Alabama, USA-Zhengyu Yao, Hwan-Sik Yoon
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-02-0006
Published 2019-12-04 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are gaining popularity these days mainly due to their high fuel economy. While conventional HEV controllers can be classified into rule-based control and optimization-based control, most of the production vehicles employ rule-based control due to their reliability. However, once the rule is optimized for a given driving pattern, it is not necessarily optimal for other driving patterns. In order to further improve fuel economy for HEVs, this article investigates the feasibility of optimizing control algorithm for different driving patterns so that the vehicle maintains a high level of optimality regardless of the driving patterns. For this purpose, a two-level supervisory control algorithm is developed where the top-level algorithm classifies the current driving pattern to select optimal control parameters, and the lower level algorithm controls the vehicle power flow using the selected control parameters in a similar way to conventional supervisory controllers. To study the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a HEV model with a rule-based control algorithm is modified such that the control parameters are optimized for different driving patterns, and…
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Electronic Differential Control of Rear-Wheel Independent-Drive Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

China-Hang Yun
Jiangsu University, China-Ren He
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-01-0004
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
To track desired slip ratios and desired longitudinal speeds at the centers of driving wheels in the curve, this article proposes a hierarchical structured electronic differential control (EDC) of rear-wheel independent-drive electric vehicle (EV). In the high-level control, a fuzzy algorithm-based coefficient is computed according to the driver’s emotional intention of acceleration. The fuzzy algorithm-based coefficient is used to correct the desired driving torque of vehicle transmitting to the medium-level control. In the medium-level control, an optimization algorithm is developed to allocate the desired torques with requirement of as much accurate yaw moment as possible by the desired driving torque of the vehicle and yaw moment. And the desired longitudinal speeds at the centers of the rear left and right wheels are corrected twice, respectively, by Ackermann steering principle, considering the slip angle of the wheel and yaw moment. Based on the desired torques and desired longitudinal speeds at the centers of the rear left and right wheels from the medium-level control, desired slip ratios and desired angular speeds of the rear left and right…
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A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

Mahindra and Mahindra, Ltd.-Ranga Srinivas Gunti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2424
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains. In the present work, lightweigting of the vehicle structure is achieved, considered the vehicular hardpoint locations and the gages of the vehicle structures as the design variables and performance parameters pertaining to vehicle dynamics, structural durability, front-end intrusions during an IIHS offset impact test and the modal frequencies of few critical structural members as the constraint variables. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based algorithms were used for developing the predictive models of various performance parameters. The predictive models were then used to…
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Ride-Comfort Analysis for Commercial Truck Using MATLAB Simulink

ARAI Academy-Sarnab Debnath
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2428
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Ride Comfort forms a core design aspect for suspension and is to be considered as primary requirement for vehicle performance in terms of drivability and uptime of passenger. Maintaining a balance between ride comfort and handling poses a major challenge to finalize the suspension specifications. The objective of this project it to perform ride- comfort analysis for a commercial truck using MATLAB Simulink. First, benchmarking was carried out on a 4x2 commercial truck and the physical parameters were obtained. Further, a mathematical model is developed using MATLAB Simulink R2015a and acceleration- time data is collected. An experimentation was carried out on the truck at speeds of 20 kmph, 30 kmph, 40 kmph and 50 kmph over a single hump to obtain actual acceleration time domain data. The model is then correlated with actual test over a single hump. This is followed by running the vehicle on Class A, B & C road profiles to account for random vibrations. Similarly, a simulation is done on MATLAB Simulink and a correlation is established between simulated and actual…
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Non-linear dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Five-Phase 10/8 Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

College of Engineering Pune-Rahul Muley
Hella India Automotive Private Limited-Ravi Marravula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2473
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The SRM is gaining much interest for EVs due to its rare-earth-free characteristic and excellent performance. SRM possess several advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, high power density, fault-tolerant and it can produce extended constant power region, and this makes SRM as viable alternative over conventional PM drives. Objective: The objective of this paper is to establish proof of theoretical concepts related to SRM. The key to achieve an effective SRM modeling is to use a methodology that allow the nonlinearity of its magnetic characteristics to be represented while maximizing the simulation speed. This paper represents how magnetization data obtained from FEA in the form of look up tables is most appropriate way to represent SRM model. In this paper, performance analysis of SRM is done with the help of Open loop and Closed loop MATLAB simulations. These dynamic simulations of SRM will assist in understanding behavior of SRM in various loading and speed conditions. Methodology: The machine geometry and design are first completed in ANSYS Maxwell 2-D software. Then Non-linear magnetization data is…
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Analysis of Pressure Variation in Wheel Using Statistical Methods

College of Engineering-Pune-Ravindra Dattatray Marwadi, Rajiv Basavarajappa
HELLA India Automotive Pvt Ltd.-Abhishek Mandhana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2450
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Tire is one of the significant components of the vehicle, and so its characteristics for proper functioning of vehicle. Tire characteristics relies on number of factors including pressure in tire, construction of the tire and thread pattern. Of these, the factor of our interest is tire pressure. Maintaining proper tire pressure becomes necessity, as it causes several undesired effects which in turn affect the motorcycle performance. Hence, pressure variations should be detected as one of the safety measures.Wheel speed based detection of tire pressure is not observed before in motorcycles. In this approach only, software algorithm is needed to complete the system to measure pressure, no extra hardware is required.The paper presents a method to analyze variation in tire pressure by using the wheel speed sensor. The idea is to detect pressure variations in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from wheel speed sensor. The data is captured by varying pressure in two tires and measuring the wheel speed based on Design of Experiments (DoE). The method compares the wheel speed…
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Vision Based Solution for Auto-Maneuvering of Vehicle for Emerging Market

General Motors Technical Center-Souvik Bose, Ashwani Kumar Singh, D V Ram Kumar Singampalli
General Motors Technical Center India-Chandraprakash lalwani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2517
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Advance Active Safety Systems play a preventive role in mitigating crashes and accidents by providing warning, additional assistance to the driver and maneuverability of vehicle by itself. Some of the features include forward collision warning system and lane departure warning system activate a warning alert when potentially dangerous situations are detected. These active safety features present in developed markets work with Fusion based algorithm combining Radar, Lidar, Camera, Ultrasonic sensor’s input. Application of these algorithms are Intelligent Cruise Control, Collision avoidance, parking assistance, identify pedestrian etc. The complexity of the algorithm, cost of the control unit and road infrastructure are hindrance to emerging market. The solution presented in this paper is towards camera-based solution, describing the method to determine the predictive path, that is obstacle free space and use the predictive space to navigate or steer. This paper focuses on vehicle maneuverability in poor road infrastructure (lane irregularities or no lane marking) by using only cameras.
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Self-Expressive & Self-Healing Closures Hardwares for Autonomous & Shared Mobility

General Motors Technical Center India-Vijayasarathy Subramanian, Biju Kumar, Masani Sivakrishna, Anandakumar Marappan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2525
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Shared Mobility is changing mobility trends of Automotive Industry and its one of the Disruptions. The current vehicle customer usage and life of components are designed majorly for personal vehicle and with factors that comprehend usage of shared vehicles. The usage pattern for customer differ between personal vehicle, shared vehicle & Taxi. In the era of Autonomous and Shared mobility systems, the customer usage and expectation of vehicle condition on each & every ride of vehicle will be a vehicle in good condition on each ride. The vehicle needs systems that will guide or fix the issues on its own, to improve customer satisfaction. We also need a transformation in customer behavior pattern to use shared mobility vehicle as their personal vehicle to improve the life of vehicle hardwares & reduce warranty cost. We will be focusing on Vehicle Closure hardware & mechanisms as that will be the first and major interaction point for customers in vehicle. This gives us an opportunity to improve product life and customer experience in ride share and shared mobility…
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Design and Development of Automotive Battery Management System

Dipali Dange, Radhika Ballal
Assistant professor, COE, Pune-Meera Murali
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2498
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Battery operated vehicle needs accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of Charge (SoC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for the safe working. The main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SoC, balance individual cells, thermal management, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Coulomb Counting as well as Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SoC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery. Also performing Inductive Active Balancing on cells to equalize the charge. The study aims on deploying the model-based system on embedded platform which would help industry to reduce the model development time and focus on development of controlling algorithms for high end users. Active Balancing Architecture proposed here reduces the complexity of algorithm and at the same time decreases the balancing time.
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