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High Strain Rate Tensile Response of Caprine Muscle Tissue using Polymeric Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

DBATU Lonere-Somnath Hanumant Kadhane
Dr. B.A. Technological University-Hemant Warhatkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0519
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Soft tissues such as muscles and skin in human body are exposed to varying strain rates under dynamic loading due to high speed automotive accidents. The prediction of impact-induced injuries during automotive accidents requires a thorough understanding of mechanical behaviour of soft tissues at high strain rates for accurate medical intervention and crash simulations. Studies on soft tissue responses under dynamic loading are limited in available literature. Uniaxial tensile tests at high strain rates (500 s-1- 4000 s-1) were conducted on caprine lower extremity muscles using polymeric tensile split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus. Polymeric bars were used in SHPB as impedance is closer to the soft tissues. The attenuation and dispersion in waves are corrected using isolated incident bar tests. The dynamic tensile test results show that stress-strain response is non-linear, concave upward and dependent on strain rate. These obtained results may further be used to develop finite element human body models and safety systems for human body in crash scenario.
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Patient demographics and injury characteristics of ER visits related to micro-mobility modes

Exponent, Inc.-Heather Watson, Christina Garman, Jeffrey Wishart, Jacqueline Zimmermann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0933
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Electric scooters (e-scooters) have become increasingly popular in the U.S. In 2018, e-scooters usage overtook other shared micro-mobility transportation modes, including bike shares; over 38 million trips were taken on e-scooters. As the popularity increases, so does the societal concern regarding the safety of these devices. To examine the types of injuries associated with e-scooters and the injury rate per trip at a national level, the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), a probability sample of US Hospitals that collects information from emergency room visits related to a consumer product, was utilized. Records from September 2017 to December 2018 were extracted, and those associated with powered scooters were identified. Injury distributions by age, sex, race, treatment, diagnosis and location on the body were explored. The number of person-trips was obtained to perform a risk analysis. Between September 2017 and December 2018, an estimated 17,772 injuries were associated with powered scooters. Nearly 45% of injuries occurred in persons aged 10-29 years and males tended to sustain a higher proportion of injuries compared to females. Almost 87%…
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Reference test system for machine vision used for ADAS functions

Texas A&M Transportation Institute-Adam Pike
Texas A&M University-Abhishek Nayak, Sivakumar Rathinam, Swaminathan Gopalswamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0096
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
LDW and LKA systems have the potential to prevent or mitigate 483,000 crashes in the United States every year which includes 87,000 nonfatal injury crashes and 10,345 fatal crashes. Studies have shown that fatalities due to unintentional roadway departures can be significantly reduced if Lane Departure Warning (LDW) and Lane Keep Assist (LKA) systems are used effectively. While LDW and LKA technologies are available, there has been low customer acceptance and penetration of these technologies. These deficiencies can be traced to the inability of many of the perception systems to consistently recognize lane markings and localize the vehicle with respect to the lane marking in a real-world environment of variable markings, changing weather and occlusions. These challenges translate to (i) inconsistent lane detection; (ii) misidentification of lane markings; and (iii) the inability of the systems to locate lane markings in some conditions. Currently, there is no available standard or benchmark to evaluate the quality of either the lane markings or the perception algorithms. This project seeks to establish a reference test system that could be…
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A Human Body Model Study on Restraints for Side-Facing Occupants in Frontal Crashes of an Automated Vehicle

Joyson Safety Systems-Maika Katagiri, Sungwoo Lee
Joyson Safety Systems, NA-Jay Zhijian Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0980
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study is to investigate kinematics and responses of side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes of an automated minivan using Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) simplified occupant models (50th%ile male and 5th%ile female), and to develop new restraint concepts to protect the occupants. The latest GHBMC M50-OS and F05-OS models (version 2.1) were further validated with the Postmortem Human Subject (PMHS) side sled tests [Cavanaugh 1990] and the PMHS far-side sled tests [Formen 2013], with detailed correlations of the kinematics and the injury measures. Robustness and biofidelity of the GHBMC human models, especially for the pelvis and knee body regions, were further improved. Using the improved M50-OS and F05-OS models, we evaluated the body kinematics and injury measures of the side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes at severities ranging from 15 mph to 35 mph. Three restraint conditions were studied: 1) no restraint; 2) lap belt only; 3) lap belt and conceptual inflatable device. An additional parametric study on the restraint design parameters of the #3 restraint concept was performed to “optimize” the restraint…
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compatibility for reducing serious injury in side impact

Toyota Motor Co., Ltd.-Satoshi Akima, Noboru Tanase, Masato Kunisada
Toyota Motor North America Inc-Jason Hallman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0982
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to the research about SUV side impact by Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), it has be found that the side impact by pickup or SUV lead to larger injury criteria at pelvis and leg as compared to the side impact by IIHS SUV MDB. The root cause of the high injury criteria is large deformation of door. Intrusion of stiff front side members deformed the door. Although IIHS SUV MDB does not have stiff front side members, many pickups and SUVs have. Toyota Motor Corporation have considered frontal characteristic of vehicle. We adopt stiff bumper reinforcement and B-pillar can receive front side members through bumper reinforcement. It leads to small door deformation. We think that not only improvement of crashworthiness about side impact but also improvement of compatibility are effective to decrease fatality by side impact. To prove this idea, car to car side impact test (Highlander to Camry) is conducted.
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A Hybrid Material Automotive Bumper Beam for Enhanced Safety of Both Occupant and Pedestrian

Dalian Univ of Technology-Yong Sun, Shu Yang
Dalian Univ. of Technology-Chang Qi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0201
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In vehicle accident, the bumper beam generally requires high stiffness for sufficient survival space for occupants while it may cause serious pedestrian lower extremity injuries. The aim of this study is to promote an aluminum-steel hybrid material double-hat bumper to meet the comprehensive requirements. The proposed hybrid bumper beam is comprised of an aluminum alloy upper hat and a high strength steel (HSS) lower hat. The two hats are riveted together by steel rivets. The hybrid bumper is designed to improve the frontal crash and pedestrian protection performances in collision accidents. In a low-velocity impact scenario with a pedestrian, the aluminum upper hat helps to reduce the lower extremity injuries of the pedestrian, while in a high-velocity impact case with a rigid object, e.g., a tree or electric pole, the HSS lower hat could prevent excessive intrusion into the engine compartment and the passenger compartment, so as to prevent occupant injury. Finite element (FE) models of the hybrid bumper was built, validated, and integrated into an automotive. The Fixed Deformable Barrier (FDB) and Transport Research…
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Update on Second-Row Children Responses in Rear and Frontal Crashes with a Focus on the Potential Effect of Stiffening Front Seat Structures

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau
ProBiomechanics LLC-David Viano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1215
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The protection of children in rear seats is an important issue, but it is a more complex than assessing front seat performance in rear impacts. 1997–2015 NASS-CDS data were analyzed to estimate the distribution and risk of seriously-to-fatally (MAIS 3+F) injured 0-7 year old children in the 2nd row by crash types with 1994+ model year vehicles. The results showed that children were frequently injured in frontal (39.3%) and in side (27.2%) crashes. The injury risk was highest in rollover (1.72% ± 0.36) followed by rear crashes (0.75% ± 0.56%). Individual rear and frontal impact cases were also reviewed to better understand injury mechanisms of children in the 2nd row. The cases were downloaded and reviewed. There were 15 injured children involved in 14 rear impact crashes. Half were associated with significant intrusion (12+ inches) intrusion of their seating area, pushing the child forward. More than half (7 out of 11 cases with known information) of the front seatbacks remained in their pre-crash position or were pushed forward. Rear crashes involving the front-seat rotating rearward…
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The Effect of Obesity on Rollover Ejection and Injury Risks

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Janine Smedley, Michael Carhart, Alan Dibb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1219
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Obesity rates are increasing among the general population. This study investigates the effect of obesity on ejection and injury risk in rollover crashes through analysis of field accident data contained in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database. The study involved front outboard occupants of age 15+ years in 1994+ model year vehicle rollover crashes. Complete and partial ejection risks were first assessed seating location relative to roll direction and belt use. The risk of serious-to-fatal injuries (MAIS 3+F) in non-ejected occupants were then evaluated. Occupants were sorted into two BMI groups, normal (18.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI <25.0 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). The overall risk for complete ejection was 2.10% ± 0.43% when near-sided and 2.65% ± 0.63% when far-sided, with a similar risk for both the normal and obese BMI groups. Complete ejection was uncommon for belted occupants with a risk of 0.2% or less for all groups. The risk of partial ejection was greater for obese compared to normal BMI occupants. For near-side occupants, the overall risk of partial…
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Accident Statistical Distributions from NASS CDS - An Update

Exponent Inc-Thomas Brown
Exponent Inc.-Jennifer L. Yaek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0518
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) contains an abundance of field accident data. As technology advances and the database continues to grow over the years, the statistical significance of the data increases and trends can be observed. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date, reference resource with respect to commonly sought-after accident statistics. Charts include up-to-date accident distributions by Delta-V and impact direction with corresponding injury severity rates. Rollover data is also analyzed, as well as historical trends for injury severity, belt usage, air bag availability, and vehicle safety technology availablility.
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Invesstigation of test method to reproduce Car-to-Car side impact

Nissan Motor Co Ltd-Ryuji Ootani, Toshiyuki Ueda, Shigeru Hirayama
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Matsuyama Takeo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1221
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Side impact is one of the severest crash modes among real-world accidents. In US market, even though most of vehicles recently have achieved top rating in crash performance assessment programs, it is reported that there is hardly any sign of decreasing trend in side-impact fatalities for the last few years. In response to this trend, IIHS is planning to introduce a new test protocol. One of clarification points on current side impact tests is whether the present side Moving Deformable Barrier (MDB) test reproduces real-world Car-to-Car (C2C) crash. Hence, this study addressed to identify key factors to reproduce C2C side impact by a series of parametric CAE study of MDB as follows: i) with and without suspension of MDB ii) change of height of Center Of Gravity (COG) of MDB ⅲ) barrier dimensions iv) barrier stiffness. Reproducibility of the MDB tests in the CAE study was evaluated by three indices of struck vehicle such as (1) kinematics, (2) body deformation modes (Plan and Front View) and (3) dummy injuries. As a result, it was found…