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Delivery of Mixed Reality Tools Training in the Modern Production Environment

Boeing Co.-Mark Friesen, Lorrie Sivich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0052
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Since the early development of Mixed Reality (MR) technologies for the gaming industry, Boeing Research and Technology has been a leader in applying the technology to the production environment. Mixed Reality technologies have matured in size reduction and cost enabling a wide variety of visualization tools into the factory today. They include: tablets, Microsoft’s HoloLens, Google Glasses, Vive, and Oculus to name a few. These digital productivity tools allow the factory worker to perform work through installation, quality inspection, and trouble shooting.
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In-Process Hole and Fastener Inspection Using a High-Accuracy Laser Sensor

Electroimpact Inc.-Zachary Luker, Erin Stansbury
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0015
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Electroimpact has produced a new in-process inspection system for use on drilling and fastening systems. The system uses a high-accuracy, non-contact, laser system to measure the flushness of installed fasteners. The system is also capable of measuring part normality and providing feedback to the machine for correction. One drawback to many automatic inspection systems is measurement error. Many sources of measurement error exist in a production environment, including drilling chips, lubrication, and fastener head markings. Electroimpact’s latest system can create a visualization of the measured fastener for the operator to interpret. This allows the operator to determine the cause of a failed measurement, thus reducing machine downtime due to false negatives. Electroimpact created a custom C# WPF application that queries the point-cloud data and analyzes the raw data. A custom “circle Hough transform” scoring algorithm is used to find the center of the nosepiece (pressure foot). A best fit plane is calculated from the point cloud data to find the panel surface. This plane is then used to output panel normality in the A and…
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Design of the Control Surfaces for an Aircraft Destined to the Competition SAE BRAZIL AERODESIGN

Yoko Lucila Takano e Silva, Antonio Claudio Kieling, Emile Diana Mendes de Azevedo, Neilson Luniere Vilaça, Renan Araújo Janzen, Sanches Ismael de Oliveira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0214
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This work aims to present a methodology for the design of conventional control surfaces for light aircraft. Based on renowned aeronautical engineering references and standards, the theoretical framework presents the concepts of calculation for each flight phase particularity for each control surface in addition to a database with intervals of surfaces and their respective deflections of various aircraft. The methodology used takes into account the suggested steps for the aircraft design, where the dimensions are present in the preliminary design, according to the characteristics intended in the conceptual stage to develop conventional control surfaces aiming at the simplicity of design and the optimal response of control. The use of MATLAB and CFD software for data calculation and iterations are essential for the correct observance and evaluation of the obtained results. A comparative table and graphs will be elaborated for better visualization of the efficiency and behavior of each dimensioned model aiming at the best levels of acceptability according to the norms used in the design of aircraft, observing their occurrence through flight analysis and direct…
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Influence of Component Proportion on Multi-Component Surrogate Fuel Spray Characteristics under Subcooled and Superheated Conditions

Nissan Motor CO., LTD. 560-2, Okatsukoku, Atsugi-shi, Kanaga-Ryo Uchida, Taisuke Shiraishi
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univers-Shangze Yang, Xuesong Li, Min Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2250
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Good comprehension of multi-component fuel spray behavior is essential for the improved performance of GDI engines. In this study, the spray characteristics of three distinct multi-component surrogate fuels with various proportions of n-pentane, iso-octane, and n-decane were investigated using multiple diagnostics including macroscopic imaging, planar laser Mie-scattering, and phase doppler interferometry (PDI). These surrogate fuels were used to mimic different distillation characteristics of regular unleaded gasoline with different vaporization behaviors. Test measurements show that under subcooled test conditions, the spray geometry is mainly influenced by dynamic viscosity. On the contrary, under superheated test conditions, spray geometry is controlled by the specific component of fuel which has the highest vapor pressure. A triangular methodology is created to evaluate the influence of component proportion on spray characteristics. A hierarchical model is then developed to illustrate the macroscopic behavior of multi-component fuel spray which explains well the effect of each component's proportion on the overall spray characteristics.
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Combined Scattering and Imaging Diagnostics to Detect and Quantify Fuel Contaminants

Artium Technologies, Inc.-Julien Manin, William D. Bachalo, Reza Karami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2347
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Contamination from water and particulate matter in diesel or aviation fuel can cause complications even under normal operating conditions. Fuel contamination becomes a major problem in air transportation, where engine flame-out due to injection system blockage or malfunction might have catastrophic consequences. The presence of contaminants in fuel has been linked to several incidents including commercial and military aircraft over the past decade. Unless they are detected and separated from the fuel, water or solid particles have several ways to reach the engine and cause troubles. Aviation fuel is commonly stored in large tanks and transferred frequently before it reaches the aircraft, increasing the risk for contamination. At the same time, gas bubbles may be present in the system. While harmless to the aircraft, gas bubbles have been the reason why contamination monitoring systems would fail, as the system would be triggered by gas bubbles, instead of detrimental contaminants. We developed a set of optical diagnostics to detect the presence of contaminants in fuel, and quantify their size and concentration. The system consists of a…
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Measurement of Oil Transport Phenomena around Piston in Optical Engine Using Photochromic Visualization Technique (Visualization and Quantification of Oil Film Behavior under Low Speed and Low Oil Temperature Condition)

TPR CO., LTD-Seiji TAMAKI, Tetsuya NANGOU
Tokai University, Graduate School of Engineering-Kazaki KURATSUJI
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2365
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
To elucidate the behavior of oil film on the piston land, the visualization experiments around the piston using an optical engine with a glass liner was conducted. The photochromic visualization technique was successfully applied. The oil film above the top ring gap moved toward the piston head under each throttle condition. The oil film velocity in each engine stroke was successfully calculated from the image processing, and it was confirmed that the direction of movement and the velocity is different with the throttle condition and the engine stroke. The rapid transport of oil film on the 2nd land under the engine brake like condition was captured and it was supposed that this type of oil transport phenomena is the cause of high oil consumption under engine brake condition.
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OH, soot and temperature distributions of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray under different wall temperatures

Tianjin University-Lei Feng, Yu Wang, Beiling Chen, Chao Geng, Wentao Yi, Yanqing Cui, Haifeng Liu, Zunqing Zheng, Hu Wang, Mingfa Yao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2184
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
OH, soot and temperature distributions of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray were investigated in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume combustion vessel. The ambient temperature (Ta) was set as 773 K, and the wall temperature (Tw) was set as 523 K, 673 K, 773 K, respectively. Three different injection pressures (Pi) of 60 MPa, 100 MPa, 160 MPa, and the ambient pressures (Pa) of 4 MPa were applied. The OH spatial distributions of wall-impinging spray were measured by the method of OH chemiluminescence imaging. Two-color pyrometry was applied to evaluate the spatial distributions of KL factor and flame temperature of wall-impinging spray. The results reveal that, OH chemiluminescence is observed in the region near the impingement point firstly. The regions of high OH chemiluminescence intensity and high KL factor appear in the location near the wall surface along the whole combustion process. As the wall temperature increases, the appearance time of the OH moves up, the intensity and area of OH chemiluminescence increase. Besides, KL factor and the average flame temperature, the soot formation and oxidation rates…
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Vaporization and Turbulence Characteristics of High Pressure Gasoline Sprays Impinging on a Wall

Mazda Motor Corporation-Wu Zhang, Ryosuke Hara, Tatsuya Fujikawa, Masahisa Yamakawa
University of Hiroshima-Tomohiro Watanabe, Yukihiko Ichikawa, Keiya Nishida, Yoichi Ogata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2247
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
To get a better understanding of the characteristics of the high pressure gasoline sprays impinging on a wall, a fundamental study was conducted in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume vessel under the simulated engine conditions of in-cylinder pressures, temperatures, and wall temperatures. The injection pressure was varied from 20 to 120 MPa. The spray tip penetration, vapor mass distribution, and vaporization rate were quantitatively measured with the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique. The velocity fields of the wall-impinging sprays under vaporizing conditions were measured with the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique using silicone oil droplets as tracers. The effects of injection pressure and spray/wall interactions on spray characteristics were investigated. The results showed that the increased injection pressure improved penetration, vaporization, and turbulence of the sprays.
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Application Study of Blind Spot Monitoring System Realized by Monocular Camera with CNN Depth Cues Extraction Approach

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Jiangsu Chaoli Electric Co., Ltd., China-Chuyo Kaku
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan-Yuxiang Guo, Itsuo Kumazawa
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-04-0016
Published 2019-12-17 by SAE International in United States
The image from monocular camera is processed to detect depth information of the obstacles viewed by the rearview cameras of vehicle door side. The depth information recognized from a single, two-dimensional image data can be used for the purpose of blind spot area detection. Blind spot detection is contributing to enhance the vehicle safety in scenarios such as lane-change and overtaking driving. In this article the depth cue information is inferred from the feature comparison between two image blocks selected within a single image. Convolutional neural network model trained by deep learning process with good enough accuracy is applied to distinguish if an obstacle is far or near for a specified threshold in the vehicle blind spot area. The application study results are demonstrated by the offline calculations with real traffic image data.
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Aerospace & Defense Technology: December 2019

  • Magazine Issue
  • 19AERP12
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States
Engineered Solutions for Enclosure Sealing and InsulationTips for Reducing Error When Using Eddy Current Measuring TechniquesReducing the High Cost of TitaniumStreamlining Post-Processing in Additive ManufacturingSoftware-Defined Analog Filters: A Paradigm Shift in Radio Filter Performance and CapabilitySDR Interface for the NeXtRAD Multistatic Radar SystemElectrodeposition of Metal Matrix Composites and Materials Characterization for Thin-Film Solar Cells Metal matrix composites, which consist of silver-multiwalled carbon nanotube-silver, layer-by-layer stacks, can electrically bridge the cracks (>40 μm) that appear in semiconductor substrates and the composite grid lines.Sensing Applied Load and Damage Effects in Composites with Nondestructive Techniques Comparing and correlating piezoelectrically induced guided waves, acoustic emission, thermography, and X-ray imaging to determine the effects of applied load on a composite structure.Technology Impact Forecasting for Multi-Functional Composites Multi-functional composites offer a possible solution to the conflicting design goals of making new aircraft lighter, stronger, faster, and more environmentally sustainable.Molecular Engineering for Mechanically Resilient and Stretchable Electronic Polymers and Composites Establishing the design criteria for elasticity and ductility in conjugated polymers and composites by analysis of the structural determinants of the mechanical…