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Vision based solution for auto- maneuvering of vehicle for emerging market

General Motors Tech Center-Ashwani Kumar Singh, D V Ram Kumar Singampalli
General Motors Tech. Center-Souvik Bose
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2517
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Vision based solution for auto- maneuvering of vehicle for emerging market: Author/Co-Author: Singh Ashwani, SDV Ram Kumar, Bose Souvik, Lalwani Chandraprakash General Motors Technical Centre India Key words: Image Processing, Gap finding, virtual/Imaginary lines, Advance Driver Assist System (ADAS), Vehicle to vehicle(V2V)/Vehicle to Infrastructure(V2I/V2X) Research & Engineering Objective: For the various levels of autonomous, the current perception algorithms involve considerable number of sensor inputs like cameras, radars and Lidars and their fusion logics. The planning route for the vehicle navigation is done through map information which is highly volatile and keep changing many at times. Existing steering assist feature during a curve is available by combining additional driver monitoring camera & 360 degree camera. The complexity is very high in the implementation and computation of these algorithm. These solutions are not cost-effective for emerging markets. Non-availability of required infrastructure in developing countries is one of the additional constrain. Feature unavailability due to road infrastructure (ex: poor or no lane markings), bad weather will lead to higher customer dissatisfaction. The objective is to develop a logic/study…

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Saravanan Muthiah
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Divyanshu Joshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2397
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement. In the current work, a GUI based post-processing tool is developed for automated evaluation of ride, handling and steering performance. Methodology This work is about development of a centralized platform for quantification, visualization and comparison of ride, handling and steering performance metrics from testing and…

Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injector End of Injection Spray Characteristics

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Mark Meinhart
Michigan Technological University-Robert A. Schroeter, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2600
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work. Additionally, the impact of the test fuel used will also be evaluated. This work will present the large influence of fuel…

Vision Based Surface Roughness Characterization of Flat Surfaces Machined with EDM.

BSA Crescent Institute of Science & Technology-Mahashar Ali, Siddhi Jailani, Mangalnath Anandan, Vignesh Pavithran
Vellore Institute of Technology-Murugan Mariappan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0148
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Controlling and measuring the surface roughness is an important issue in quality manufacturing. Conventional method of measuring the surface roughness using stylus instrument is an intrusive and contact type hence it is not suitable for online measurement which result, there is an increasing need for a reliable, non-contact method of surface roughness measurement. Over the few years, advances in image processing techniques have provided the basis for developing image based surface roughness measuring techniques. In this investigation, a vision system and image processing tools were used to develop reliable surface roughness characterization technique for Electrical Discharge Machined surfaces. A CMOS camera fitted with zoom 6000 lens system having optical magnification up to 45X and red LED light source were used for capturing images of machined surfaces with different surface roughness values. A signal vector can be generated from image pixel intensity and can be processed using MATLAB software. From the signal vector, the mean and the standard deviations were obtained. The mean of the images signal vector correlates well with the stylus measured roughness parameters…

Assessment of Numerical Cold Flow Testing of Gas Turbine Combustor through an Integrated Approach using Rapid Prototyping and Water Tunnel

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-Ssheshan Pugazhendhi
SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundararaj Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0051
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the present work, it is aimed at developing an integrated approach for combustor modeling involving rapid prototyping and water tunnel testing to assess the cold flow numerical simulations; the physical model will be subjected to cold flow visualization and parametric studies and CFD analysis to demonstrate its capability for undergoing rigorous cold flow testing. A straight through annular combustor is chosen for the present study because of it has low pressure drop, less weight and used widely in modern day aviation engines. Numerical Analysis has been performed using ANSYS-FLUENT. Three dimensional RANS equations are solved using k-ɛ model for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.64 x 10^5- 1.5 x 10^5 based on the annulus diameter. Post processing the results is done in terms of jet penetration, formation of re-circulation zone, effective mixing, flow split and pressure drop for different cases. Physical combustor models are fabricated using Rapid prototyping with Poly Lactic Acid material and approximated 2D combustor model is used for capturing important flow patterns using high speed camera in 2D water tunnel, and…

Parametric Calculation and Significance of Engine Dynamic Torque in Performance Benchmarking of a Vehicle

Mahindra Research Valley-Praveen Kumar Ramani, Bharathraj Jayaraman, Sangeetha Ramasamy Thiruppathi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0028
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industries around the globe is undergoing massive transformation towards technological capability to meet stringent legislative norms on fuel economy and emission. It is a challenging process to meet the regulatory standards without compromising on performance. The torque delivered by the engine at wide open throttle position in a transient condition from low idle to higher engine rpm is known as dynamic torque, which always need not to follow the defined FTP curve. The engine dynamic torque plays a crucial part in performance benchmarking of a vehicle as a visualization parameter to set the project targets. There exist a few methodologies to measure the engine brake torque like direct measurement using torque transducer which adds complexity and cost to the vehicle, ECU measured torque based on amount of fuel injection and empirical calculation using known engine speed. Since every method is having their own capabilities, limitations and none of them are efficient to capture real transient torque behavior of an engine. This work elaborates about the role of dynamic torque on performance improvement and…

Optical Investigation of Mixture Formation in a Small Bore DISI Engine by Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF)

Technische Univ. Braunschweig-Alexander Pauls, Peter Eilts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0133
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Legislative and customer demands in terms of fuel consumption and emissions are an enormous challenge for the development of modern combustion engines. Downsizing in combination with turbocharging and direct injection is one way to increase efficiency and therefore meet the requirements. This results in a reduction of the displacement and thus the bore diameter. The application of direct injection with small cylinder dimensions increases the probability of the interaction of liquid fuel with the cylinder walls, which may result in disadvantages concerning especially particulate emissions. This leads to the question which bore diameter is feasible without drawbacks concerning emissions as a result of wall wetting. The emerging trends towards long-stroke engine design and hybridization make the use of small bore diameters in future gasoline engines a realistic scenario. In the previous project “GDI Boundary Bore” the feasibility of an SI engine with direct injection and small bore diameter was shown by the analyses of two different cylinder head concepts (3V and 4V). For the acquirement of deeper understanding of the mixture formation in such engines…

Experimental Characterization of Methane Direct Injection From an Outward-Opening Poppet-Valve Injector

Istituto Motori CNR-Maurizio Lazzaro, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0135
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The in-cylinder direct injection of natural gas represents a further step towards cleaner and more efficient internal combustion engines (ICE). However, the injector design and its characterization, either experimentally or from numerical simulation, is challenging because of the complex fluid dynamics related to gas compressibility. In this work, the underexpanded flow of methane from an outward-opening poppet-valve injector has been experimentally characterized by Schlieren and Shadowgraph high-speed imaging. The jet evolution was also followed through Mie-scattering imaging using n-heptane droplets as a tracer. The investigation has been performed at ambient temperature and pressure and different nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 10 to 17. The gaseous jet has been characterized in terms of its macroscale parameters.

Imaging and Vibro-Acoustic Diagnostic Techniques Comparison for a GDI Fuel Injector

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi Allocca, Daniela Siano, Alessandro Montanaro, Maria Antonietta Panza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0058
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This work presents the results of an experimental investigation on a GDI injector, in order to analyze fuel injection process and atomization phenomenon, correlating imaging and vibro-acoustic diagnostic techniques.A single-hole, axially-disposed, 0.200 mm diameter GDI injector was used to spray commercial gasoline in a test chamber at room temperature and atmospheric backpressure. The explored injection pressures were ranged from 5.0 to 20.0 MPa. Cycle-resolved acquisitions of the spray evolution were acquired by a high-speed camera.Simultaneously, the vibro-acoustic response of the injector was evaluated. More in detail, noise data acquired by a microphone sensor were analyzed for characterizing the acoustic emission of the injection, while a spherical loudspeaker was used to excite the spray injection at a proper distance detecting possible fuel spray resonance phenomena. In order to monitor vibration throughout the injection event, the injector was also equipped with an accelerometer sensor, adhesively mounted on the holder. Tests in both dry and fuel injection conditions allowed to distinguish the pure mechanical operation of the injector related to the needle opening and closing, and the effects…

Optical Evaluation of Directly Injected Methane Using a Newly Developed Highly Repetitive Laser Diagnostics System

Bayreuth Engine Research Center-Mirko Geiger, Lukas Schroeder, Christian Zoellner, Dieter Brueggemann
Goldlücke GmbH-Juergen Goldluecke lng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0134
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
New certification procedures like WLTP and RDE, as well as more stringent emission regulations in general, demand for further improvements in engine research and development. In order to meet the challenges of reducing pollutants while maintaining high performance and high efficiency many different approaches are discussed. Beside various concepts for new combustion strategies and alternative fuels, gaining detailed knowledge about the ongoing processes inside engines and combustion chambers during the different operation modes is of major importance. With their influence on combustion and emission formation, fuel injection and mixture formation are playing an important role for further improvements in modern propulsion systems. With the help of optical measurement systems based on laser induced (exciplex) fluorescence (LIF/ LIEF), an advanced understanding of these mechanisms can be obtained. However, additional challenges arise when it comes to analyzing transient engine operation and cyclic fluctuations as well as rating their contribution to the formation of emissions. This study contains the evaluations of the injection and mixture formation inside a rapid compression machine (RCM) with directly injected methane. Equipped with…