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A Co-Simulation Platform for Powertrain Controls Development

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Shihong Fan, Yong Sun, Jason Hoon Lee, Jinho Ha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0265
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the advancement of simulation software development, the efficiency of vehicle and powertrain controls research and development can be significantly improved. Traditionally, during the development of a new control algorithm, dyno or on-road testing is necessary to validate the algorithm. Physical testing is not only costly, but also time consuming. In this study, a virtual platform is developed to reduce the effort of testing. To improve the simulation accuracy, co-simulation of multiple software is suggested as each software specializes in certain area. The Platform includes Matlab Simulink, PTV Vissim, Tass Prescan and AVL Cruise. PTV Vissim is used to provide traffic environment to PreScan. PreScan is used for ego vehicle simulation and visualization. Traffic, signal and road network are synchronized in Vissim and PreScan. Powertrain system is simulated in Cruise. MATALB/Simulink serves as master of this co-simulation, and integrates the different software together. It also includes human driver model and a powertrain control function. An ADAS-ISG (Idle Stop and Go) powertrain control algorithm is implemented in Simulink and tested by using the platform under different…
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A Stability-Guaranteed Time-Delay Range for Feedback Control of Autonomous Vehicles

Yildiz Technical University-Ahmet Kirli, Mehmet Selçuk Arslan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0090
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The vehicles with level-5 autonomy (L5AVs) have no human driver in the loop are also known as self-driving cars. L5AVs are assumed the next generation of ground transportation, which have growing attention from both industry and academia in most recent years. Most of the work related to feedback strategies of L5AVs are on developing mapping systems through a variety of sensors. These systems can be considered as an analogue to the perception and central nervous system of human drivers. For instance, innovative visualization systems are more powerful when compared to the visual perception system of a person, yet, mapping demands high computation loads. This burden causes delay in the feedback loop and thus, it might have an unfavorable influence on proper and safe control action. This study investigates the effect of time delay occurring in mapping systems on the stability of the controlled vehicle. An algorithm entitled as “Cluster Treatment of Characteristic Roots - CTCR” is used to calculate a safe delay range as a remedy for the time delay caused by mapping systems. The…
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Study of thermal efficiency improvement by multi-hole nozzle

Hino Motors Ltd.-Kazunori Yoshitomi, Yoshihiro Funayama, Mori Ishii, Hiroshi Nakajima
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0304
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A truck and bus transportation which support logistics and people, diesel engines are highly expected to have high thermal efficiency and low exhaust emissions over the next few decades. Effective methods to achieve even higher thermal efficiency are to reduce a cooling loss from combustion chamber wall. A multi-hole diesel injector has a significant impact on improving engine thermal efficiency by enhancing a combustion activity and reducing a cooling loss. In this study, two types of diesel injectors – 8-hole and 14-hole - with the same flow rate were tested under heavy-duty diesel engine condition. Heat release rate, energy balance and engine emissions were investigated using the single-cylinder engine with displacement of 1,478 cc. Furthermore, an optical engine was used to observe quantitative spray penetration and flame development from shadowgraph imaging and analyze flame temperature by a two-color method. The results of the single-cylinder engine showed that the 14-hole injector exhibited higher indicated thermal efficiency thanks to lower cooling loss than 8-hole results. However, we observed a slightly higher exhaust loss in the case of…
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An Image Recognition Application Method for Vertical Movement of Vehicles

Wuhan University of Technology-Ming Li, Gangfeng Tan, Zhenyu Wang, Haoyu Wang, Yifeng Jiang, Donghua Guo, Jiaming Feng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0733
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In ITS, image processing technology is applied to a wide variety of areas such as visual-based intelligent vehicle navigation, visual-based traffic monitoring and visual-based traffic management. In the identification system of the vehicle body characteristics, most of the recognition is the license plate and the car emblem, etc. This paper proposes an image recognition application method for the vertical motion of the car while driving, mainly including vertical height detection and vertical displacement velocity acceleration recognition. The edge detection model of the image object is established by using the gray image to obtain the car motion segmentation image. At the same time, an image length and actual length coordinate conversion model is established, which can calculate an arbitrary actual length of the image object. In this paper, the Yuejin Shangjun X500 van is selected as the test vehicle. Using camera capture the video data and the height of the vehicle is recognized for each frame. The height is compared with the actual length. The absolute error can be controlled within 40mm, and the minimum relative…
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Pedestrian Head Impact, Automated Post Simulation Results Aggregation, Visualization and Analysis using d3VIEW

FCA Engineering India Pvt. Ltd.-Sreenath Mallela
FCA US LLC-Milind Shivaji Parab
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1330
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Pedestrian head impact regulation mandates the reduction of head injuries, measured using Head-Impact-Criteria (HIC). Virtual tools driven design comprises of simulating the impact on the hood and post processing the results. Due to the high number of impact points, engineers spend a significant portion of their time in manual data management, processing, visualization and score calculation. Moreover, due to large volume of data transfer from these simulations, engineers face data bandwidth issues particularly when the data is in different geographical locations. This deters the focus of the engineer from engineering and also delays the product development process. This paper describes the development of an automated method using d3VIEW that significantly improves the efficiency and eliminates the data volume difficulties there by reducing the product development time while providing a higher level of simulation results visualization. This method significantly reduces post-simulation analysis time and completely eliminates the effort of manual data management and visualization. d3VIEW is tightly integrated with LS-DYNA and since raw LS-DYNA data is processed on HPC, the resulting output data stored in d3VIEW server…
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A Preliminary Method of Delivering Engineering Design Heuristics

Clemson University-Mohammad M. Hussain, Christiaan Paredis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0741
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper argues the importance of engineering heuristics and introduces an educational data-driven tool to help novice engineers develop their engineering heuristics more effectively. The main objective in engineering practice is to identify opportunities for improvement and apply methods to effect change. Engineers do so by applying ‘how to’ knowledge to make decisions and take actions. This ‘how to’ knowledge is encoded in engineering heuristics. In this paper, we describe a tool that aims to provide heuristic knowledge to users by giving them insight into heuristics applied by experts in similar situations. A repository of automotive data is transformed into a tool with powerful search and data visualization functionalities. The tool can be used to educate novice automotive engineers alongside the current resource intensive practices of teaching engineering heuristics through social methods such as an apprenticeship. The tool can do so by providing novices with powerful search and data visualization capabilities which will allow them to understand tradeoffs between vehicle attributes, to make assumptions from initial information, and to benchmark the vehicle design.
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Identifying the driving processes of Diesel spray injection through mixture fraction and velocity field measurements at ECN Spray A

Eindhoven University of Technology-Bart Somers
IFP Energies Nouvelles-Louis-Marie Malbec, Gilles Bruneaux
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0831
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Diesel spray mixture formation is investigated at target conditions using multiple diagnostics and laboratories. High speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the velocity field inside and outside the jet simultaneously with a new frame straddling synchronisation scheme. The PIV measurements are carried out in the Engine Combustion Network Spray A target conditions, enabling direct comparisons with mixture fraction measurements previously performed in the same conditions, and forming a unique database at diesel conditions. A 1D spray model, based upon mass and momentum exchange between axial control volumes and near-Gaussian velocity and mixture fraction profiles is evaluated against the data. The 1D spray model quantitatively predicts the main spray characteristics (average mixture fraction and velocity fields) within the measurement uncertainty for a wide range of parametric variations, verifying that a Diesel spray becomes momentum controlled and has a Gaussian profile. A required input to the model is the jet angle, which is obtained experimentally. Although an expected result for a gas jet, this is the first time that combined datasets of velocity and…
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Searching for Optimal Solutions for Motor Performance Design

Honda R&D Co.,Ltd.-Yuko Miyabe, Masahito Kakema, Toshihiro Saito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0460
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Because strength and the torque/rotational speed characteristic play a considerable role in determining the maximum speed and the acceleration force of a vehicle, they have been taken up as optimization issues. By contrast, loss and torque ripple have not necessarily been focused on in the initial search for optimal solutions. They are both linked to efficiency, comfortability, and the cost of development of the cooling system and supporting structures, however, it is necessary to reduce both parameters. For this reason, it is important to search for the Pareto front for strength, the torque/rotational speed characteristic, loss, and torque ripple at the initial stage of design. The strength constraint was set that von Mises stress in the rotor core in relation to the centrifugal force load at maximum speed would not exceed the breaking strength of a standard electromagnetic steel sheet material. The torque/rotational speed characteristic employed the maximum torque for each rotational speed when maximum torque per ampere control and field weakening control are applied, with consideration of maximum input voltage and current. Maximum torque…
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A Method for Mapping a Light Source Utilizing HDR Imagery

JS Forensic Consulting, LLC-Jeffrey Suway
Momenta, LLC-Anthony Cornetto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0566
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Mapping a light source, any light source, is of broad interest to accident reconstructionists, human factors professionals and lighting experts. Such mappings are useful for a variety of purposes, including determining the effectiveness and appropriateness of lighting installations, and performing visibility analyses for accident case studies. Currently, mapping a light source can be achieved with several different methods. One such method is to use an illuminance meter and physically measure each point of interest on the roadway. Another method utilizes a goniometer to measure the luminous intensity distribution, this is a near-field measurement. Both methods require significant time and the goniometric method requires extensive equipment in a lab. A third method measures illumination distribution in the far-field using a colorimeter or photometer. These systems utilize a CCD sensor to measure the illuminance distribution and then software can convert that illuminance distribution to an IES file for use in a Physically-Based Rendering (PBR) engine. Again, this photometer method requires extensive equipment and the measurements must be taken in a laboratory setting. The method presented in this…
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Quantifying Retroreflective Materials using Digital Imagery

JS Forensic Consulting, LLC-Jeffrey Suway
Momenta, LLC-Anthony Cornetto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0570
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Retroreflection occurs when a light ray incident on a surface is reflected back towards the light source. The performance of a retroreflective material is of interest to accident reconstructionist, human factors professionals, lighting professionals, and roadway design professionals. The retroreflective effect of a material can be defined by the coefficient of retroreflection, which is a function of the light’s entrance angle and the viewer’s observation angle. The coefficient of retroreflection of a material is typically measured in a laboratory environment or in the field with a retroreflectometer. Often the material in question cannot be taken to a laboratory for testing and commercially available portable retroreflectometers are limited to entrance angles of 45 degrees or less and may be cost prohibitive in some cases. This paper presents a methodology to capture images of a retroreflective material at entrance angles between -90 degrees and 90 degrees and observations angles between 0.2 degrees and 1.2 degrees. The process of calibrating the camera and the light source is presented and the coefficient of retroreflection is calculated from the images…