Your Selections

Show Only


File Formats

Content Types











Comparative Experimental Investigation of Thumba and Argemone oil Based Dual Fuel Blend in a Diesel Engine for its Performance and Emission Characteristics

Kashmir University-Shahid Qayoom
Lovely Professional University-Sumit Kanchan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2375
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the possibility of using the Thumba oil (Citrullus Colocyntis) and Argemone Mexicana (non-edible and adulterer to mustard oil) as a dual fuel blend with diesel as an alternative of using pure diesel for its performance and emission characteristics. The work was carried on a single cylinder, four strokes, In-line overhead valve, direct injection compression ignition engine. The argemone and thumba biodiesel were produced using the transesterification process and thereafter the important physio-chemical properties of produced blends were investigated. Four dual biodiesel blends like ATB10 (5% Argemone, 5% Thumba and 90% Diesel), ATB20, ATB30 and ATB40 were prepared for investigation process. The operating conditions adopted for the study was the entire range of engine loads and speed (1000-1500 r/min) keeping the injection pressure and injection timing at the OEM settings. In this exertion, performance and emission parameters were evaluated. The performance parameters like brake thermal efficiency (BTE), indicated power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake mean effective pressure, indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency were studied and…

Development of low cost closed crankcase ventilation with oil mist separation system on light duty diesel engine.

Tata Technologies Ltd-Vishal Kailas Walhekar, Sujit Gavade, Gaurav Soni, Aashish Bhargava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2578
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Currently automotive industry is facing bi-fold challenge of reduction in Greenhouse gases emissions as well as low operating cost. On one hand Emission regulations are getting more and more stringent on other hand there is major focus no customer value proposition. Engine blow by gases are one of the source of Greenhouse gases emission from engine. Blow by gases not only consist of unburn hydrocarbons but also carry large amount of oil. If oil is not separated from these gases, it will led to major oil consumption and hence increase total operating cost of Vehicle. In this paper, effort has been taken to develop a low cost closed crank case ventilation with oil mist separation system on diesel engine. For cost effective solution, two different design and configuration of oil mist separation system has been developed Further, engine with two different above said configuration has been tested for blow by gasses and oil consumption measurement on Engine test bed and vehicle to understand the behavior in real environment. Further results has been compare for both…

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

Manav Rachna International University-Sunny Bhatia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2382
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly. The catalysts used are Rhodium Palladium and platinum, these make a…

Assessing the Combined Outcome of Rice Husk Nano Additive and Water Injection Method on the Performance, Emission and Combustion Characters of the Low Viscous Pine Oil in a Diesel Engine

M.I.T. Campus, Anna University Chennai.-Mebin Samuel P, Devaradjane Gobalakichenin
University College of Engg Villupuram-Gnanamoorthi V PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2604
To be published on 2019-10-28 by SAE International in United States
The research work intends to assess the need and improvement of using a low viscous bio oil, RH (Rice Husk) Nano Particles and water injection method in enhancing the performance, emission and combustion characters of a diesel engine. One of the major setbacks for using biodiesel was its higher viscosity. Hence, a low viscous oil (Pine oil) which doesn’t need transesterification process was used as a biofuel in this study. To further improve its characteristics a non-metallic Nano additive produced from rice husk was added at 3 proportions (50, 100, 200 ppm) and the optimal quantity was found as 100ppm based on the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) value of 30.2% at peak load condition. This efficiency value was accompanied by a considerable decrease in pollutants like HC (Hydrocarbon), Smoke, CO (Carbon monoxide). On the contrary NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) emission was found to be increased for all load values. At peak load, when compared with diesel, pine oil with RH has 19.2% increased NOx emission. To reduce this increased NOx emission, water was injected along…

Ultra-Lean Pre-Chamber Gasoline Engine for Future Hybrid Powertrains

FEV Europe GmbH-Knut Habermann
IFP Energies nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-David Serrano, Jean-Marc Zaccardi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0104
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Lean burn gasoline spark-ignition engines can support the reduction of CO2 emissions for future hybrid passenger cars. Very high efficiencies and very low NOx raw emissions can be achieved, if relative air/fuel ratios (lambda) of 2 and above can be reached. The biggest challenge here is to assure a reliable ignition process and to enhance the fuel oxidation in order to achieve a short burn duration and a good stability for the combustion. This article aims at introducing an innovative combustion system fully optimized for ultra-lean operation and very high efficiency. Thereto, a new cylinder head concept has been realized with high peak firing pressure capability and with a low surface-to-volume ratio at high compression ratios. 1D and 3D simulations have been performed to optimize the compression ratio, charge motion and intake valve lift. Numerical calculations also supported the development of the ignition system. Stable ignition and fast flame propagation were achieved thanks to a centrally located active pre-chamber which allows to control the air/fuel ratio independently of the air/fuel ratio in the main combustion…

Effect of Methane Number in a Diesel Engine Converted to Natural Gas Spark Ignition

Universita degli Studi di Perugia-Luca Ambrogi, Michele Battistoni, Lorenzo Gasbarro
West Virginia Univ-Jinlong Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0008
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas (NG) is an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines. In addition to its cleaner combustion, recent breakthroughs in drilling technologies increased its availability and lowered its cost. NG consists of mostly methane, but it also contains heavier hydrocarbons and inert diluents, the levels of which vary substantially with geographical source, time of year, and treatments applied during production or transportation. To investigate the effects of NG composition on engine performance and emissions, a 3D CFD model of a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted to spark ignition operations simulated engine operation under lean-combustion, low-speed, and medium load conditions. To eliminate the effect of different gas energy density, three NG blends of similar lower heating value but different H/C ratio have been investigated at fixed spark timing. The results indicated that a lower H/C ratio increased flame propagation and thus increased in-cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure. In addition, the lower H/C ratio increased thermal efficiency despite the higher heat transfer, most probably due to the more advanced combustion phasing. Also, a higher H/C ratio reduced…

Impact of Ethanol and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Content on Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Vehicle

IFP Energies Nouvelles, France-Toni Tahtouh, Arij Ben Amara, Patricia Anselmi, Laurie Starck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0160
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The impact of transport on global and local pollution have resulted in stricter emission limits. More specifically, increasing attention is being paid to particulate emissions at the exhaust gases in spark ignition engines. The particulate formation is mainly affected by: 1-fuel properties, 2-engine and fuel system characteristics and 3-Exhaust after-treatment system. In order to estimate the influence of fuel characteristics on particulate emissions, several research works have proposed fuel indices that correlate some of the fuel physical and chemical properties with engine particulate emissions. This work investigates the impact of fuel composition on particulate emissions and evaluates the Particulate Matter Index (PMI) proposed by Aikawa et. al, and other fuel indices, in terms of agreement with vehicle test bed results for a passenger car. Vehicle tests were performed on New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) by using an E10 euro6 reference fuel and five different fuel blends with 10% to 20% of ethanol and 23% to 35% of aromatic hydrocarbons content by volume. Results illustrate a good correlation…

Computational Chemistry Consortium: surrogate fuel mechanism development, pollutants submechanisms and components library.

Convergent Science Inc.-Kuiwen Zhang, Mandhapati Raju, Peter Kelly Senecal
Lawrence Livermore National Lab-Scott Wagnon, William Pitz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0020
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The Computational Chemistry Consortium (C3) is dedicated to leading the advancement of combustion and emissions modeling in internal combustion engines. The C3 cluster combines the expertise of different groups involved in combustion research aiming to refine existing chemistry models and to develop more efficient tools for the generation of surrogate and multi-fuel mechanisms, and suitable mechanisms for CFD applications. In addition to the development of more accurate kinetic models for different components of interest in real fuels’ surrogates and for pollutants formation (NOx, PAHs, soot), the core activity of C3 is to develop a tool capable of merging high fidelity kinetics from different sources (i.e. different partners), resulting in a high-fidelity model for a specific application. We are developing a core mechanism which forms the basis for a gasoline surrogate containing larger surrogate components including n-heptane, iso-octane, n-dodecane, toluene and other larger hydrocarbons. Moreover, poly-aromatic hydrocarbon modules are developed in addition to a NOx formation module. This work describes the approach and challenges for merging the different modules, discussing and analyzing the results from the…

Potential to Reduce Nano-Particle Emission in SG-DISI Engine with Normal Butane

Korea Advanced Inst of Science & Tech-Sangjae Park, Sanguk Lee, Yonghyun Na, Choongsik Bae
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0022
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Under lean stratified combustion, differed from the stoichiometric homogeneous charge combustion, flame could propagate through extremely rich air-fuel mixture. The rich mixture causes considerable amount of particulate matter, but, due to large effect of efficiency improvement, the attractive point is on fuel economy compare to homogeneous charge SI combustion. The easiest way to reduce particulate matter is changing fuel to gaseous hydrocarbon, to minimize evaporating and mixing period. In this study, to reduce the particulate emission and to develop the way to mitigation of emission, the emission data of particulate under low and medium-low load conditions from normal butane fueled research engine are dealt to optimize combustion strategies, with respect to injection and ignition. Especially, particulate number density were collected in the research engine, and the causes of particulate formation were speculated with visualized combustion data. Through visualization data, the sources of particulate emission were collected through sooting flame position, and the characteristics. In the results of analysis, large amount of small particle source in combustion could be caused even in longer mixture formation time,…

Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds From a Combined Dual Port Injection/Direct-Injection Technology Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle

Southwest Research Institute-Robert Fanick, Svitlana Kroll
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0051
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has changed the exhaust composition in comparison with the older port fuel injection (PFI) systems. More recently, light-duty vehicle engine manufactures have combined these two technologies to take advantage of the knock benefits and fuel economy of GDI with the low particulate emission of PFI. These dual injection strategy engines have made a significant change in the combustion emission composition produced by these engines. Understanding the impact of these changes is essential for automotive companies and aftertreatment developers. A novel sampling system was designed to sample the entire exhaust generated by a dual injection strategy gasoline vehicle using the United States Federal Test Procedure (FTP). This sampling system was capable of measuring the regulated emissions as well as collecting the entire exhaust from the vehicle for unregulated emissions. The unregulated emissions included hydrocarbon speciation and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH). This novel sampling system allowed the quantification of the particulate-phase SVOC trapped as particulate on filters and the semi-volatile…