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Optimization of Diesel Engine and After-treatment Systems for a Series Hybrid Forklift Application

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Yinyan Huang, Thaddaeus Delebinski
IAV GmbH-Reza Rezaei, Rico Möllmann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0658
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates an optimal design of a diesel engine and after-treatment systems for a series hybrid electric forklift application. A holistic modeling approach is developed in GT-Suite® to establish a model-based hardware definition for a diesel engine and an after-treatment system to accurately predict engine performance and emissions. The used engine model is validated with the experimental data. The engine design parameters including compression ratio, boost level, air-fuel ratio (AFR), injection timing, and injection pressure are optimized at a single operating point for the series hybrid electric vehicle, together with the performance of the after-treatment components. The engine and after-treatment models are then coupled with a series hybrid electric powertrain to evaluate the performance of the forklift in the standard VDI 2198 drive cycle. In addition, the thermal management strategies like retarding injection timing and late post-injection of fuel during cold start are analyzed in this work. The results show the reduction of tailpipe- NOx emission is possible by properly retarding the injection timing without a significant effect on unburned hydrocarbon emissions.The designed series…
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Investigations Regarding Deposit Formation on Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

FEV Europe GmbH-Bernhard Lüers
Technical University of Braunschweig-Kevin Friese, Peter Eilts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1432
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Catalyst fouling by deposit formation on components in the exhaust aftertreatment system is critical since RDE limits must be obtained at any time. Besides, uncontrolled oxidation of carbonaceous deposits might damage the affected exhaust aftertreatment component. To comply with current and future emission standards, diesel engines are usually operated with high EGR rates leading to increased soot and hydrocarbon emissions, which increases the likeliness of the formation of carbonaceous deposits on EAT components. With this background, a research project investigating the influencing parameters and mechanisms of deposit formation on DOCs was carried out. In a follow-up project, the results will be used in order to compare different deposit removal strategies. Within the scope of the presented project, a reference driving cycle was developed in order to create deposits within a short time. The driving cycle was modified during further endurance runs and analyzed for changes in the deposit’s properties. Furthermore, the engine was operated using different fuels and under various operating modes. The stability of the deposits was highly affected by the engine operation mode…
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Numerical Investigation of Diesel-Spray-Orientated Piston Bowls on Natural Gas and Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion Engine

Zhaojie Shen
Brunel University-Xinyan Wang, Hua Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0311
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Low combustion efficiency and high hydrocarbon emissions at low loads are key issues of natural gas and diesel (NG-diesel) dual fuel engines. For better engine performance, two diesel-spray-orientated (DSO) bowls were developed based on the existing diesel injector of a heavy-duty diesel engine with the purpose of placing more combustible natural gas/air mixture around the diesel spray jets. A protrusion-ring was designed at the rim of the piston bowl to enhance the in-cylinder flame propagation. Numerical simulations were conducted for a whole engine cycle at engine speed of 1200 r/min and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 0.6 MPa. Extended coherent flame model 3 zones (ECFM-3Z) combustion model with built-in soot emissions model was employed. Simulation results of the original piston bowl agreed well with the experimental data, including in-cylinder pressure and heat released rate (HRR), as well as soot and methane emissions. Turbulence kinetic energy, IMEP and methane emissions of the DSO piston geometries were compared with that of the original piston geometry. The results showed that both in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate…
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Computational Modeling of Diesel Spray Combustion with Multiple Injections

Eindhoven University of Technology-Noud Maes, Bart Somers
Politecnico di Milano-Qiyan Zhou, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1155
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Multiple injection strategies are commonly used in conventional Diesel engines due to the flexibility for optimizing heat-release timing with a consequent improvement in fuel economy and engine-out emissions. This is also desirable in low-temperature combustion (LTC) engines since it offers the potential to reduce unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. To better utilize these benefits and find optimal calibrations of split injection strategies, it is imperative that the fundamental processes of multiple injection combustion are understood and computational fluid dynamics models accurately describe the flow dynamics and combustion characteristics between different injection events. To this end, this work is dedicated to the identification of suitable methodologies to predict the multiple injection combustion process. Two different approaches: Representative Interactive Flamelet model (RIF) and Tabulated Flamelet Progress Variable (TFPV) are compared and multiple n-dodecane Spray A injections from the Engine Combustion Network are simulated using the RANS methods with both standard k − ε and k − ω SST models. Evaluations of different turbulence and combustion models are carried out by comparing computed and measured data in terms of the mixing, penetration,…
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Development of Quantitative Fuel Film Distribution Measurement by LIEF Technique and Application to Gasoline Spray

Toyota Motor Corporation-Sachio Mori, Hiroyuki Sakai, Shinichiro Nogawa, Koichiro Nakatani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1159
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
From the point of global and local environment, internal combustion engine is facing the need for significant improvement of exhaust emission. Especially, important is the reduction of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) from fuel film on liner under cold condition. In this study, at first, quantitative fuel film measurement technique by using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF) was developed. For the light source, 4th harmonic pulse yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser (266nm) was used. For the tracer, the combination of N,N-Dimethylaniline (DMA) and naphthalene was used and quantitative concentration was decided by calibration test. With LIEF, the distribution of fuel film can be obtained by measuring the fluorescence only from the liquid phase. In order to evaluate the effect of fuel film on exhaust HC emission from engine, the film distribution was measured using quartz glass liner. For the injector, a prototype 6-hole gasoline injector was used. For the evaluation of total amount of fuel film on liner, the film distribution image was taken from both the exhaust and front side. The effect of fuel pressure (between…
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High resolution global NOx sub-model for embedded system application with low calibration effort

Exothermia GmbH-Konstantinos Michos
Technische Hochschule Nuernberg-Georgios Bikas, Peter Weigand, Marina Brilz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0246
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The starting point is a global model of NOx formation for stoichiometric and lean combustion of hydrocarbons developed on the basis of a single non-linear algebraic equation. The latter is the analytical solution of a system of differential equations describing the main kinetic reaction schemes of NOx formation. These take into account the thermal (Zeldovich) and the N2O reaction paths. The model has been validated in another study and proved to be suitable, on the one hand to be embedded in 1D and 3D simulation platforms, on the other hand for direct data evaluation and post-processing of engine testbench data. The non-linear algebraic equation for the calculation of the NOx concentration requires a numerical iterative solution method. This makes the model less attractive for a real-time application based on crank angle resolved information. However, its implementation on embedded systems for "in-situ" and "in memory" analysis of engine process data, or even its application as a virtual sensor, is of great importance due to its global nature and low calibration effort. Beside robustness, fast running times…
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Analysis of Polar Organic Compounds Condensed on Engine Particulate Matter Formed during Advanced Compression Ignition Combustion

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Sam Lewis, John Storey, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran, Melanie Moses-DeBusk
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0395
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Advanced compression ignition (ACI) combustion has been the subject of many recent studies due to the high thermal efficiencies that can be achieved in internal combustion engines. ACI can also be used in multi-mode combustion engines, which combine spark ignition (SI) operation at high loads with ACI operation at low loads. ACI can limit the emissions of both soot carbon and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from engines due to lower peak temperatures of combustion, but hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) tend to increase. While all ACI combustion strategies are lean, fuel-air stratification levels span a range from completely homogeneous mixtures to highly stratified mixtures. The presence of fuel aromatic compounds and the lean, low temperature combustion environment provide the opportunity for the formation of carboxylic acids and nitro-aromatic compounds. These polar species tend to be non-volatile and condense on exhaust particles. To better understand these polar species, a capillary electrophoresis /electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI MS) method has been developed to identify nitrophenols and carboxylic acids on exhaust PM extracted from sample filters. Results…
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Effect of Oil Viscosity and Driving Mode on Oil Dilution and Transient Emissions Including Particle Number in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Shell (Shanghai) Technology Limited-Weizi Li, Tian Jia, Bin Zheng
Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Robert Taylor
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0362
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) has a promising prospect to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and optimize engine operating in high-efficiency region. According to the maximum electric power and all-electric range, PHEVs are divided into two categories, including “all-electric PHEV” and “blended PHEV” and the latter provides a potential for more rational energy distribution because engine participates in vehicle driving during aggressive acceleration not just by motor. However, the frequent use of engine may result in severe emissions especially in low state of charge (SOC) and ahead of catalyst light-off. This study quantitatively investigates the impact of oil viscosity and driving mode (hybrid/conventional) on oil dilution and emissions including particle number (PN). Two cycles, WLTC (World-wide Harmonized Light Duty Driving Test Cycle) and continuous ECE 15 (European Driving Cycle), were adopted and initial SOC was controlled in the range of 10-13%, which can induce more engine start events. Oil dilution is detected through method of ASTM D3525-04 to identify dilution rate under different conditions. Results show that both in WLTC and ECE 15, frequent engine start…
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A Demonstration of High Efficiency, High Reactivity Gasoline Compression Ignition Fuel in an On & Off Road Diesel Engine Application

Doosan Infracore Co., Ltd.-Youngdeok Han, Dockoon Yoo, Woong Gun Lee
Saudi Aramco-Jaeheon Sim, Junseok Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1311
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The regulatory requirements to reduce both greenhouse gases and exhaust gas pollutants from heavy duty engines are driving new perspectives on the interaction between fuels and engines. Fuels that reliefs the burden on engine manufacturers to reach these goals are of particular interest. A low carbon fuel with a higher volatility and heating value than diesel is one such fuel that reduces engine-out emissions and carbon footprint from the entire hydrocarbon lifecycle (well-to-wheel) and improves fuel efficiency, which is a main enabler for gasoline compression ignition (GCI) technology. The present study investigated the potential of GCI technology by evaluating the performance of a low carbon high efficiency, high reactivity gasoline fuel in Doosan’s 6L medium duty diesel engine. In the experimental test, it was found that the fuel could provide the same performance in power and torque with the same calibration strategy as diesel, while the fuel efficiency was improved by maximum 4.3%. Overall total hydrocarbon (THC) and particulate matter (PM) emissions were decreased, but nitrogen oxides (NOx) was increased by average 6%. Computational fluid…
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Analysis of Unburned Hydrocarbon Generated from Wall Under Lean Combustion

Toyota Motor Corporation-Hiroyuki Sakai, Sei Sato, Sachio Mori, Shinichiro Nogawa, Koichiro Nakatani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0295
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The location and cause of unburned HC is analyzed by CFD and LIEF. Under lean combustion, the surface flame quenching occurs over a wide range of walls and large amount of HC is generated. The quenching distance and HC can be organized by laminar combustion speed and boost pressure, those are related to thermal boundary layer thickness.