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The Effect of Ethanol Fuels on the Power and Emissions of a Small Mass-Produced Utility Engine

University of Wisconsin-Madison-Saager Paliwal, Glenn R. Bower
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0607
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The effect of low level ethanol fuel on the power and emissions characteristics was studied in a small, mass produced, carbureted, spark-ignited, Briggs and Stratton Vanguard 19L2 engine. Ethanol has been shown to be an attractive renewable fuel by the automotive industry; having anti-knock properties, potential power benefits, and emissions reduction benefits. With increasing availability and the possible mandates of higher ethanol content in pump gasoline, there is interest in exploring the effect of using higher content ethanol fuels in the small utility engine market. The fuels in this study were prepared by gravimetrically mixing 98.7% ethanol with a balance of 87 octane no-ethanol gasoline in approximately 5% increments from pure gasoline to 25% ethanol. Alcor Petrolab performed fuel analysis on the blended fuels and determined the actual volumetric ethanol content was within 2%.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance and emissions of a small utility engine across several load points. Compared to previous works, this study concentrated on engine operation at wide open throttle as any decrease in engine power output…
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Intermittent Injection for a Two-Stroke Direct Injection Engine

Università degli Studi di Firenze-Francesco Balduzzi, Luca Romani, Lorenzo Bosi, Giovanni Ferrara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0524
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Cycle-to-cycle variation is one of the main factors for high fuel consumption and emissions of a two-stroke engine during the low-load and low-speed running. The increase of residual gas ratio due to the lower delivered amount of fresh scavenging air leads to a lower flame front speed and, therefore, to a slow combustion or even misfiring. The consequence is a very high level of unburnt hydrocarbons, since a large amount of fuel does not take part in the combustion process.The use of a direct injection system allows a more flexible management of the injection of fuel over subsequent engine cycles. Under a low-load condition, the low request in terms of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) can be achieved by performing a load control based on an intermittent injection, thus reducing the need for intake throttling and avoiding the loss of fresh fuel resulting from cycles without combustion. In more detail, the supply of fuel to the combustion chamber can be skipped for one or more cycles, thus performing a number of consecutive scavenging cycles with…
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The effective use of ethanol for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in a diesel engine

Brunel University London-Wei Guan, Hua Zhao
General Motors-Ian May
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0157
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Regulations have been established for the monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption from the transport sector. Low carbon fuels combined with new powertrain technologies have the potential to provide significant reductions in GHG emissions while decreasing the dependence on fossil fuel. In this study, a lean-burn ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion strategy has been used as means to improve upon the efficiency and emissions of a conventional diesel engine. Experiments have been performed on a 2.0 dm3 single cylinder heavy-duty engine equipped with port fuel injection of ethanol and a high-pressure common rail diesel injection system. Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption have been measured at a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm and various steady-state loads between 0.3 and 2.4 MPa net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Compared to a baseline diesel-only operation, the ethanol-diesel dual-fuel engine yielded up to 57% lower well-to-wheels GHG emissions. Moreover, the dual-fuel combustion strategy attained higher net indicated efficiency than the conventional diesel mode from 0.6 to 2.4 MPa IMEP, with a maximum value of 47.2%…
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Effect of exhaust gas composition on EGR deposit formation

Ibaraki University-Satoshi Sakaida, Shogo Kimiyama, Takumi Sakai, Kotaro Tanaka, Mitsuru Konno
The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Te-Koichi Kinoshita
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2358
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Serious problems occur in an exhaust gas recirculation system due to an adhesive hard deposit. It is important to clarify the mechanism of the hard deposit formation to suppress it. In this study, the effect of exhaust gas composition on hard deposit formation was investigated. The amount of the hard deposit formed under various operating conditions while keeping the total hydrocarbon concentration constant was different. The component analyses of the exhaust gas and the hard deposit clarified that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the exhaust gas strongly affected the hard deposit formation.
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Impact of Viscosity Index Improvers (VII) on the formation of piston deposits in fuel economy engine oils

Evonik Oil Additives Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd., 2019-Kien-Wee Tan,
Evonik Resource Efficiency GmbH-Boris Eisenberg, Philip A. Hutchinson, Frank Lauterwasser
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2202
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In the recent years, the achievement of fuel economy through lower viscosity engine oil has been a topic of wide discussions among experts in the industry. Along this journey of engine oil evolution, new classes of Viscosity Index Improver (VIIs) have been developed in order to meet the challenges arising from either hardware re-engineering, environmental protection or both. In relation to this, the continuous tightening of the CO2 emission level from the authorities has made the situation even tougher for many OEMs and formulators worldwide. While the fuel economy performance in an engine has been intensively investigated, little has been published on the durability aspects of these VIIs nor other aspects such as cleanliness and piston deposits. In this paper, we will present no-harm test results for deposit formation comparing novel comb polymers and conventional hydrocarbon VIIs such as OCPs. The formation of coke like deposits has been studied on low viscosity engine oils in both engine and bench tests. The results from the TDI engine test are compared with test results on the same…
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Effect of a split-injections strategy on the atomisation rate for charge stratification using a high pressure gasoline multi-hole injector

Brunel University London-Meghnaa Dhanji, Hua Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2248
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Some of the challenges of optimising the gasoline direct-injection engines are achieving high rates of atomisation and evaporation of fuel sprays for effective fuel-air mixture formation. This is especially important for the stratified charge when operating under cold-start and part-load conditions. Poorly mixed charge results in the increased production of total Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Oxides.Many studies have previously focused on improving the spray characteristics of a single fuel injection strategy from direct-injection gasoline injectors, with fuel rail pressures of up to 20MPa. The current study focuses on a split injections strategy and its influence on the spray's structure, fuel-air mixing and atomisation rates. Short pulse widths in the range of 0.3ms to 0.8ms are employed. In particular, the effects of dwell times between the two injections on the second injection's spray characteristics are evaluated.The experiments are carried out inside a constant volume spray chamber with a latest high pressure multi-hole piezo injector. The fuel rail pressures range between 5MPa and 35MPa. The effect of increasing fuel rail pressures on the evaporation and mixing rates of…
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Investigation of Particulate Matter Formation in a Diesel Engine Using In-Cylinder Total Sampling and Thermal Desorption-GCMS/Carbon Analysis

Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd.-Shinya Furukawa, Hirotaka Suzuki, Keiko Shibata, Hiroaki Saito, Kazuya Miyashita, Yoshinori Ishii, Naoki Shimazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2276
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In-cylinder total sampling technique utilizing a single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with hydraulic valve actuation system has been developed. In this study, particulate matter (PM) included in the in-cylinder sample gas was collected on a quartz filter, and the polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) component and soot were subsequently quantified by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) and a carbon analyzer, respectively. Cylinder-averaged histories of PAHs and soot were obtained by changing the sampling timing. It was found that decreasing intake oxygen concentration suppresses in-cylinder soot oxidation, and the fuel with higher aromatic and naphthenic contents accelerates soot production.
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Development of an Oil Degradation Sensor Based on Detection of Free Radicals

DENSO CORPORATION-Fan Cheng, Takayuki Shibata
TOYOTA CENTRAL R&D LABS., INC. HOKKAIDO UNIVERSITY-Yoshifumi Aoki, Hiroshi Hirata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2299
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes an oil degradation sensor that informs the best time for oil replacement to achieve the right balance with oil conservation and engine protection. We found that free radicals in the engine oil generate by chain decomposition reactions of hydrocarbons by heat and the amount of them increases with an increase in running distance. Based on theoretical analysis and experiment results, the free radical concentrations have high correlations with pH and base number. The sensor using the principle of electron spin resonance (ESR) can measure the amount of free radical molecules in a non-contact method. The sensor successfully detected free radicals produced by the degradation of actual engine oil.
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Effects of Piston Bowl Diameter on Combustion Characteristics of a Natural gas/Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Kyoto University-Keigo Takizawa, Hidetake Tanaka, Naoto Horibe, Takuji Ishiyama
Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.-Takahiro Sako
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2173
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas/diesel dual fuel engines have potential for a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. However, they have the disadvantages of high unburned species emissions and lower thermal efficiencies at low loads (at low equivalence ratio). A way to solve this problem is to properly distribute the pilot fuel vapor in a natural-gas premixture. The combustion chamber geometry affects the combustion process since it influences the distribution of the pilot fuel vapor. This study investigates the influence of injection conditions and the piston bowl geometry on the performance and emissions of a dual fuel engine. Experiments were carried out using two pistons with different bowl diameters, 52 mm and 58 mm, at single-and two-stage diesel-fuel injection. The results show that the larger bowl provides lower hydrocarbon emissions at a lower equivalence ratio in the case of single-stage injection. For two-stage injection, the influence of the bowl diameter depends on the timing of the first injection. To elucidate the effects of pilot fuel distribution, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations were conducted for non-reacting pilot fuel…
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Development of Non-equilibrium Plasma and Combustion Integrated Model for Reaction Analysis

Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University-Yohei Kon
Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University-Hidemasa Takana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2349
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Control of self-ignition timing in a HCCI engine is still a major technical issue. Recently, the application of a non-equilibrium plasma using repetitively discharge has been proposed as the promising technology. However, non-equilibrium plasma reaction in higher hydrocarbon fuel mixture is very complicated. Hence, there have been few calculation reports considering a series of reactions from non-equilibrium plasma production to high temperature oxidation process. In this study, 0-dimensional numerical simulation model was developed in which both reactions of plasma chemistry and high temperature oxidation combustion was taken into account simultaneously. In addition, an ODEs solver has been applied for the reduction of calculation time in the simulation. By comparing calculation results with experiment such as self-ignition timing, the validity of the developed numerical model has been evaluated.
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