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Simplified Approach to Model a HEV/PHEV/Battery Vehicle Cooling System in 1D and validating using DFSS methodology

Detroit Engineered Products (DEP), Inc.-Toukir Islam
FCA Engineering India Pvt,, Ltd.-Tharunnarayanan Arthanari, Amit Kumar, Vaibhav Patil, Dhananjay Autade, Kamalakannan J
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1386
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
ABSTRACT Improving fuel economy and to satisfy more restrictive emission legislation the Vehicle electrification becomes more important one. Compared to the combustion engine a Hybrid electric vehicles / Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles will use energy from the grid to recharge their high voltage battery and this is converted with much higher efficiency, and less CO2 emission so they will have a significant role in the present transition from conventional to electric vehicles. The addition of new components, such as power electronics, electric machine and high voltage battery, increases the maximum torque available and the energy stored on-board, but increases the weight as well. In addition, although they have really high efficiency, they produce a significant amount of heat that has to be removed. Another thermal management issue in PHEV and BEV is cabin heating, since the engine heat is not available. To guarantee system efficiency and reliability, a completely new thermal management layout has to be designed. The time and cost spent on a real time model of new cooling system will be more which…
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A novel design of engine misfire detection system suitable for small capacity S.I. engine for two wheeled vehicle

TVS Motor Co., Ltd.-Monika Jayprakash Bagade, Himadri Bhushan Das, Arjun Raveendranath Sr, S Jabez Dhinagar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0267
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As per the OBD II regulations, it is essential to detect and monitor the misfire event in an I.C. engine. Misfiring of an I.C. engine affects the quality of combustion and degrades the performance of catalyst convertor which can lead to an increase of emissions. Misfire event can be categorized as partial or full, based on amount of combustion occurred during that particular engine cycle. Most of the production engine for non-two wheeler vehicle identifies misfire by monitoring angular acceleration of the engine crank-shaft. However, single cylinder engine with lower capacity (less than 200 cubic centimetre) provides challenges to identify misfire due to low mechanical inertia of the I.C. engine using the same approach. The problem of misfire identification for this category of I.C. engine turn out to be more challenging due to presence of various load disturbances on the powertrain. Ion current sensing is one of the alternate method to detect misfire, which received good attention during the last decade of the previous century. When the air-fuel mixture ignites inside the I.C. engine cylinder,…
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Vehicle Design Considerations Enabling High-Performance Charging

Magna Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co. KG-Christian Josef Paar, Helmut Martin Waser, Heimo Kreimaier, Inés Cuenca-Jaen, Florian Eibler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1440
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Customer requirements such as range anxiety are the driver for increasing the charging power of battery-electric vehicles. High-performance charging theoretically enables time targets of faster than 30 kilometers (19 miles) recharging per minute. Due to physical limitations (i.e., current limits of the components available) a charging power of greater than 200 kilowatt arises the question of the voltage level required to fulfill the power demand. One possible approach to achieve high charging power is increasing the battery voltage, i.e., increasing the voltage level from 400 V to 800 V is one simple measure. This publication discusses the main aspects of charging by incorporating all high-voltage components in the vehicle. An increase of the voltage level and charging power affects all high-voltage components, especially the thermal management of the battery needs special consideration. High-voltage vehicle architecture design considerations are discussed including thermal-management and battery-design aspects. Different charging curves from existing vehicles are compared with a generic fast charging profile which is defined using theoretical background of available cells including consideration of physical and chemical limits (e.g.,…
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Development of New Power Control Unit with Small Size and Low Cost for Small Hybrid Vehicle with two-motor Hybrid System

Honda R & D-Yuichiro Ueno, Yasuhiko Kondo
Keihin Corp.-Kenichi Nonaka, Kenichi Takebayashi, Yukiya Kashimura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0458
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A new power control unit (PCU) has been developed for 2020 Honda small hybrid vehicle with a 2-motor hybrid system. For small hybrid vehicles, downsizing and reducing costs of hybrid systems are main challenges. As such, the newly developed PCU was strongly required to be small and affordable. To satisfy the requirements for the PCU, new technologies and components have been introduced such as an all-in-one type intelligent power module (IPM) with integrated functions and reverse conducting IGBT (RC-IGBT), a new control sequence for voltage control unit (VCU), and PCU packaging to improve cooling performance. The new IPM has a printed-circuit board (PCB) equipped with an electric control unit (ECU) and gate drive circuits, 7 current sensors, and a power module with RC-IGBTs. This functional integration led to a reduction in the number of main electrical PCU assembly components from 9 in the previous PCU to 2 in the new PCU. In addition, the number of mounted parts on PCBs was reduced from 2,200 to 1,300 by means of the integration of ECU and gate…
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The Gasoline Engine in hybrid powertrains – modular approach between Cost and Efficiency optimization

AVL LIST GmbH-Wolfgang Schoeffmann, Michael Howlett, Alois Fuerhapter, Paul Kapus, Christoph Sams, Helfried Sorger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0839
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The electrification of the powertrain is a prerequisite to meet future fuel consumption limits, while the internal combustion engine (ICE) will remain a key element of most production volume relevant powertrain concepts. High volume applications will be covered by electrified powertrains. The range will include parallel hybrids, 48V- or High voltage Mild- or Full hybrids, up to Serial hybrids. In the first configurations the ICE is the main propulsion, requiring the whole engine speed and load range including the transient operation. At serial hybrid applications the vehicle is generally electrically driven, the ICE provides power to drive the generator, either exclusively or supporting a battery charging concept. As the ICE is not mechanically coupled to the drive train, a reduction of the operation range and thus a partial simplification of the ICE is achievable. The paper shows the advances on a modular powertrain technology approach with different combinations of ICE, electrification and transmission variants, based on an engine family architecture with common parts, machining and assembly concepts, as well as the feasibility to integrate different…
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48 V High-power Battery Pack for Mild-hybrid Electric Powertrains

MAHLE International, GmbH-Martin Berger
MAHLE Powertrain, Ltd.-Jonathan Hall, Stephen Borman, Benjamin Hibberd, Michael Bassett, Simon Reader
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0441
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Mild hybridisation, using a 48 V system architecture, offers fuel consumption benefits approaching those achieved using high-voltage systems at a much lower cost. To maximise the benefits from a 48 V mild-hybrid system, it is desirable to recuperate during deceleration events at as high a power level as possible, whilst at the same time having a relatively compact and low cost unit. This paper examines the particular requirements of the battery pack for such a mild-hybrid application and discusses the trade-offs between battery power capabilities and possible fuel consumption benefits. The technical challenges and solutions to design a 48 V mild-hybrid battery pack are presented with special attention to cell selection and the thermal management of the whole pack. The resulting battery solution features a continuous-power capability of more than 10 kW and a peak-power rating of up to 20 kW. The paper will present the results from testing of the prototype pack which is currently underway.
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An experimental study on the failure behavior of high voltage cables (HVCs) under mechanical loading

Changan Automobile Co. Ltd.-Huili Yu, Fangyuan Shi
Tsinghua University-Yuanjie Liu, Yong Xia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0199
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Electrical vehicles have shown a promising future, but the crash safety of high voltage cables (HVCs) used in electrical vehicles has not been given enough attention. This paper presents an experimental study on the failure behaviors of HVCs under different mechanical loadings. Compression tests with three different shapes of indentation head and two loading velocities were conducted. Short circuit between the indentation head and the conductor inside HVCs was monitored. It was found that HVCs exhibited different failure tolerances and failure evolutions when indentation head was different. Indentation head with sharp edges could prematurely induce short circuit severely. Strain rate had a positive effect on the force response. But the influence of strain rate on the failure behavior of HVCs depended on the shape of indentation head.
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Development of Online Fuel Cell High Frequency Resistance Monitor Controller

Tongji University-Tiancai Ma, Weikang Lin, Jiajun Kang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1177
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system is expected to be the next generation vehicle powertrain. However, water management is still the main problem which directly effects the performance, reliability and durability in PEMFC system. To ensure the accurate water content estimation, High Frequency Resistance (HFR) is the most representative indicator in laboratory. The HFR is calculated by detecting the AC voltage response of fuel cell under the excitation of 1kHZ AC current. In general, a AC voltage about 5mV should be measured accurately at a DC voltage of 0.6V-1V. So, online HFR monitor is a big challenge for vehicle application, due to its low Signal/Noise (S/N) ratio, poor EMC environment, high common mode voltage and numerous cells. In this work, an online fuel cell HFR monitor controller is developed. Firstly, in order to amplify the weak AC voltage signal, the high voltage and high precision operational amplifier and active filter are used. High precision Analog-to-Digital Convertor (ADC) and high speed processor are used to process the signal. The measuring circuit can withstand a 600V…
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Eco-vehicle Battery System Big-data Analysis and Fault Mode & Fault Tree Analysis Related Robust System Development

Hyundai Motor Company-Jeong-Hun Seo, Yong Jae Kim, Woo Jin Shin, Hee Yae Yang, Yuseok Kim, Kang Ju Cha, Mi Seon Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0447
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High-voltage battery system plays a critical role in eco-friendly vehicles due to its effect on the cost and the electric driving range of eco-friendly vehicles. In order to secure the customer pool and the competitiveness of eco-vehicle technology, vehicle electrification requires lowering the battery cost and satisfying the customer needs when driving the vehicles in the real roads, for example, maximizing powers for fun drive, increasing battery capacities for achieving appropriate trip distances, etc. Because, these vehicle specifications have a critical effect on the high-voltage battery specification, the key technology of the vehicle electrification is the appropriate decision on the specification of the high-voltage battery system, such as battery capacity and power.These factors affect the size of battery system and vehicle underfloor design and also the profitability of the eco-friendly vehicles. In this work, the big data of Sonata HEV/PHEV battery system has been analyzed in term of four categories: cell, thermal management, 12V battery, and power electronics part. Analysis results shows that the ratio of CD/CS mode driving in real roads well matches the…
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Development of RC-IGBT with a new structure that contributes to both reduced size of Power Control Unit and low loss in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Toyota Central R&D Labs, Inc.-Hiroko Iguchi, Sachiko Kawaji
Toyota Motor Corporation-Koichi Murakami, Tasbir Rahman, Keisuke Kimura, Masaki Konishi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0596
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve the fuel efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), it is necessary to reduce the size and electric power loss of the HEV Power Control Units (PCUs). The loss of power devices (IGBTs and diodes) used in a PCU accounts for approximately 20% of total electric loss of an HEV. Therefore, it is important to reduce the electric power loss while reducing the size of the power devices. In order to achieve the newly developed PCU target for compact vehicles, the development goals of the power device were to achieve low electric power loss which is equivalent to its previous generation while reducing the size by 25%. As for downsizing, it was achieved by developing a new RC-IGBT (Reverse Conducting IGBT) with an IGBT and a diode integration. As for the electric power loss aggravation, which was a major issue due to integration, we optimized some important parameters like the IGBT and diode surface layout and backside diode pattern. As a result, it was possible to avoid the snapback characteristic (loss aggravation…