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EMC challenges & solutions for Electric Buses

ICAT-Enoch Eapen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2503
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
EMC challenges & solutions for Electric Buses Enoch Eapen, Devender Kumar and Madhusudan Joshi International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Electric buses are talk of the town in India with Government pushing the implementation of E-mobility in general and for public transportation in particular. However due to high voltages and complex power electronics design, it often becomes difficult to deal with EMC related non-compliances. ICAT being largely experienced in the EMC testing and validation of E-buses, would like to present the various EMC challenges and the solutions related to E-buses. In this paper we would share three case studies where the EMC issues related to E-buses were mitigated by either introducing simple changes to the existing design or through large/small modification. We believe that the proposed case studies would help the bus manufactures to understand the real EMC issues closely and implement the solutions accordingly prior to submitting for final certification to the test agencies leading to lesser cost impact and shorter validation time.
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Low Voltage Powertrain in Light Electric Vehicles

Deki Electronics-Shubham Rai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2467
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engineering objective Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) with Li-ion batteries suffer from short battery life and poor efficiency, due to low grade electronics. Battery management systems (BMS) cannot always keep the pack in balance, and after cell voltages drift, capacity of the pack diminishes and some cells may destruct, causing a fire. The paper describes a novel approach to LEV powertrains using parallel connected battery cells & control methodology that keep cells in balance naturally, thereby eliminating BMS and hence safer to use. Li-Ion cells with different chemistries can be used and superior thermal management reduces temperature rise, resulting in longer battery life. Methodology Based on the original invention by the author, the system circuit schematics was designed and simulated using OrCAD PSpice. After obtaining results from the simulation, the first prototype device was constructed and tested in laboratory. Heat mapping and thermo couples were used to find hot spots and improve the efficiency, at the same time creating a thermal pattern that was easy to cool. Different components were tested to find the most efficient…
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EV Charging Concept for the Indian Market

Robert Bosch Engineering & Business Solutions, Ltd.-Tarang Garg, Viswanatha Lingala, Prabhakar G
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2502
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Predominantly the biggest question that haunts the EV Market is the charging infrastructure that should eventually ease the nervousness of the consumers and allowing EV to penetrate the Indian market with changes done within urban areas and highways. There are multitude of options available ranging from onboard charging via home charging point to a Fast DC off board charger that can be used to charge an EV. There are multiple factors that can be used to evaluate the options and their pros / cons. Some of these factors are: • Cost, time to charge, health of battery, charging and discharge rate of the battery, etc… • Convenience and availability of charging point • Ease of operation including payment • Safety and Security • Ambient temperature in which charging is done There are mainly these categories of charging options: • Residential charging based on a home charging point. The charger is mounted on the vehicle (onboard) and the EV cable can be connected to the home plug point. This method of charging could result in heating…
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Research on Test Method for Shielding Effectiveness to Cable of Vehicles

CATARC-Li Jiang, Xichen Chen, Haiming Liu, Zaiyuan Wu, Yun Wang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
With the development of electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVS), high voltage and large-current are applied to cables. Therefore, it is important to avoid electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems of cables, and a measurement methods is necessary for the shielding effectiveness of shielding cables. This paper discusses the existing test methods of cable shielding effectiveness and summarizes the main problems and deficiencies. Then, according to the practical requirements of high voltage cable testing, the direct injection method based on the national standard GB/T 18655-2018 (modified international standard CISPR 25) is proposed. The test method is verified by constructing a practical test platform. The test result show that the platform built can meet the test requirements of the new energy vehicles (NEVs) GB/T 18387 test frequency band 150k~30MHz, and can also meet the test requirements of the 150k~108MHz frequency band of the key component conducted emission of NEVs.
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Inline Optical Power Monitoring, Network End-to-End Data Link Evaluation System

AS-3 Fiber Optics and Applied Photonics Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6552/1
  • Current
Published 2019-10-02 by SAE International in United States
This document establishes methods to obtain, store, and access data about the health of a fiber optic network using commercially available inline optical power monitoring sensors. This document is intended for: Managers Engineers Technicians Contracting officers Third party maintenance agencies Quality assurance
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Halogen Light Source Performance Requirements for Motor Vehicle Forward Lighting

Lighting Standard Practices Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2560_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-04 by SAE International in United States
This document establishes performance, material, and design requirements and design guidelines for halogen replaceable light sources used in road illumination devices for forward lighting. Non-halogen filament light sources suitable for forward lighting are specified in SAE J573. The terms “high beam filament” and “low beam filament” used throughout this document refer only to typical use, not to a mandatory, exclusive, or universal function of the filaments. This SAE Recommended Practice is periodically updated to keep pace with experience and technical advances.
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GM underway with plan to build U.S. electric-vehicle charging infrastructure

Automotive Engineering: September 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP09_10
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

Tesla has its coveted Supercharger network of high-voltage fast chargers, but despite a widely-discussed goal of contributing to a future with zero vehicle emissions, Mike Abelson, General Motors' vice president of EV infrastructure, admitted at the 2019 CAR Management Briefing Seminars conference that his company doesn't “wish to spend our capital to build (DC) fast chargers-we wish to spend our capital to build more electric vehicles.”

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Microscale Electro-Hydrodynamic (EHD) Modular Cartridge Pump

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34929
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The EHD pump uses electric fields to move a dielectric fluid coolant in a thermal loop to dissipate heat generated by electrical components with a low-power system. The pump has only a few key components and no moving parts, increasing the simplicity and robustness of the system. In addition, the lightweight pump consumes very little power during operation and is modular in nature. The pump design takes a modular approach to the pumping sections by means of an electrically insulating cartridge casing that houses the high-voltage and ground electrodes along with spacers that act as both an insulator and flow channel for the dielectric fluid.

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Measurement Procedures for Short Pulse Width Strobe Anticollision Lights

A-20B Exterior Lighting Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5029B
  • Current
Published 2019-07-30 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides the user with standardized guidelines for the measurement of effective intensity of short pulse width strobe anticollision lights for aircraft in the laboratory, in maintenance facilities, and in the field. A common source of traceability for calibration of the measurement systems, compensation for known causes of variation in light output such as the use of colored lenses, and recommendations which minimize sources of errors and uncertainties are included in this document. Estimates of uncertainty and error sources for each class of measurement are discussed.
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Hybrid and EV First and Second Responder Recommended Practice

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2990_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-29 by SAE International in United States
xEVs involved in incidents present unique hazards associated with the high voltage system (including the battery system). These hazards can be grouped into three categories: chemical, electrical, and thermal. The potential consequences can vary depending on the size, configuration, and specific battery chemistry. Other incidents may arise from secondary events such as garage fires and floods. These types of incidents are also considered in the recommended practice (RP). This RP aims to describe the potential consequences associated with hazards from xEVs and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred with an electrified vehicle. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement. Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries used for vehicle propulsion power are the assumed battery system of this RP. This chemistry is the prevailing technology associated with high voltage vehicle electrification today and the foreseeable future. The hazards associated with Li-ion battery chemistries are addressed in this RP. Other chemistries and alternative propulsion systems…
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