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EMC challenges & solutions for Electric Buses

ICAT-Enoch Eapen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2503
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
EMC challenges & solutions for Electric Buses Enoch Eapen, Devender Kumar and Madhusudan Joshi International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Electric buses are talk of the town in India with Government pushing the implementation of E-mobility in general and for public transportation in particular. However due to high voltages and complex power electronics design, it often becomes difficult to deal with EMC related non-compliances. ICAT being largely experienced in the EMC testing and validation of E-buses, would like to present the various EMC challenges and the solutions related to E-buses. In this paper we would share three case studies where the EMC issues related to E-buses were mitigated by either introducing simple changes to the existing design or through large/small modification. We believe that the proposed case studies would help the bus manufactures to understand the real EMC issues closely and implement the solutions accordingly prior to submitting for final certification to the test agencies leading to lesser cost impact and shorter validation time.
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Low Voltage Powertrain in Light Electric Vehicles

DEKI ELECTRONICS-Shubham Rai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2467
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engineering objective Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) with Li-ion batteries suffer from short battery life and poor efficiency, due to low grade electronics. Battery management systems (BMS) cannot always keep the pack in balance, and after cell voltages drift, capacity of the pack diminishes and some cells may destruct, causing a fire. The paper describes a novel approach to LEV powertrains using parallel connected battery cells & control methodology that keep cells in balance naturally, thereby eliminating BMS and hence safer to use. Li-Ion cells with different chemistries can be used and superior thermal management reduces temperature rise, resulting in longer battery life. Methodology Based on the original invention by the author, the system circuit schematics was designed and simulated using OrCAD PSpice. After obtaining results from the simulation, the first prototype device was constructed and tested in laboratory. Heat mapping and thermo couples were used to find hot spots and improve the efficiency, at the same time creating a thermal pattern that was easy to cool. Different components were tested to find the most efficient…
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EV Charging Concept for the Indian Market

Robert Bosch Engg & Buss Soln Ltd.-Tarang Garg, Viswanatha Lingala, Prabhakar G
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2502
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Predominantly the biggest question that haunts the EV Market is the charging infrastructure that should eventually ease the nervousness of the consumers and allowing EV to penetrate the Indian market with changes done within urban areas and highways. There are multitude of options available ranging from onboard charging via home charging point to a Fast DC off board charger that can be used to charge an EV. There are multiple factors that can be used to evaluate the options and their pros / cons. Some of these factors are: • Cost, time to charge, health of battery, charging and discharge rate of the battery, etc… • Convenience and availability of charging point • Ease of operation including payment • Safety and Security • Ambient temperature in which charging is done There are mainly these categories of charging options: • Residential charging based on a home charging point. The charger is mounted on the vehicle (onboard) and the EV cable can be connected to the home plug point. This method of charging could result in heating…
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GM underway with plan to build U.S. electric-vehicle charging infrastructure

Automotive Engineering: September 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP09_10
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

Tesla has its coveted Supercharger network of high-voltage fast chargers, but despite a widely-discussed goal of contributing to a future with zero vehicle emissions, Mike Abelson, General Motors' vice president of EV infrastructure, admitted at the 2019 CAR Management Briefing Seminars conference that his company doesn't “wish to spend our capital to build (DC) fast chargers-we wish to spend our capital to build more electric vehicles.”

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Microscale Electro-Hydrodynamic (EHD) Modular Cartridge Pump

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34929
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The EHD pump uses electric fields to move a dielectric fluid coolant in a thermal loop to dissipate heat generated by electrical components with a low-power system. The pump has only a few key components and no moving parts, increasing the simplicity and robustness of the system. In addition, the lightweight pump consumes very little power during operation and is modular in nature. The pump design takes a modular approach to the pumping sections by means of an electrically insulating cartridge casing that houses the high-voltage and ground electrodes along with spacers that act as both an insulator and flow channel for the dielectric fluid.

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Hybrid and EV First and Second Responder Recommended Practice

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2990_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-29 by SAE International in United States

xEVs involved in incidents present unique hazards associated with the high voltage system (including the battery system). These hazards can be grouped into three categories: chemical, electrical, and thermal. The potential consequences can vary depending on the size, configuration, and specific battery chemistry. Other incidents may arise from secondary events such as garage fires and floods. These types of incidents are also considered in the recommended practice (RP). This RP aims to describe the potential consequences associated with hazards from xEVs and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred with an electrified vehicle. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement.

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Barkhausen Noise Inspection for Detecting Grinding Burns in High Strength Steel Parts

AMS K Non Destructive Methods and Processes Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4462B
  • Current
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States
This recommended practice establishes the requirements and procedures for Barkhausen Noise (BN) inspection of ferromagnetic steel components. Applications of the method are listed in 1.2 through 1.5.
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Protecting high-voltage circuits

Automotive Engineering: June 2019

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP06_07
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Yazaki readies a new solution for arc suppression in circuits of 48V or more.

As OEMs develop their next-generation electrical architectures aimed at new hybrid, EV and autonomous vehicles, engineers are focused on delivering systems that are even more robust and “fail-safe” than those used today. Handling more power safely is a given, experts say, as more power-gobbling heated seats, electric turbos, active suspensions, lidars, on-board data processors and other safety sensors are added.

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General Motors UART Serial Data Communications

Vehicle E E System Diagnostic Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2740_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-20 by SAE International in United States
This Technical Information Report defines the General Motors UART Serial Data Communications Bus, commonly referred to as GM UART. This document should be used in conjunction with SAE J2534-2 in order to enhance an SAE J2534 interface to also provide the capability to program ECUs with GM UART. SAE J2534-1 includes requirements for an interface that can be used to program certain emission-related Electronic Control Units (ECUs) as required by U.S. regulations, and SAE J2534-2 defines enhanced functionality required to program additional ECUs not mandated by current U.S. regulations. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements necessary to implement GM UART in an enhanced SAE J2534 interface intended for use by independent automotive service facilities to program GM UART ECUs in General Motors vehicles.
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Conceptual Design and Analytic Assessment of 48V Electric Hybrid Powertrain Architectures for Passenger Cars

Magneti Marelli SpA-Matteo De Cesare, Enrico Brugnoni
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To meet the requirements in relation to pollutants, CO2-emissions, performances, comfort and costs for 2025 timeframe, many technology options for the powertrain, that plays a key role in the vehicle, are possible. Beside the central aspect of reducing standard cycle consumption levels and emissions, consumer demands are also growing with respect to comfort and functionality. In addition, there is also the challenge of finding cost efficient ways of integrating technologies into a broad range of vehicles with different levels of hybridization. High degrees of electrification simultaneously provide opportunities to reduce the technology content of the internal combustion engines (ICE), resulting in a cost balancing compromise between combustion engine and hybrid technology. The design and optimization of powertrain topologies, functionalities, and components require a complex development process. To face the complexity of goal, in this work a methodology of powertrain conceptual definition has been proposed with the aim of the design, objective assessment and optimization of the key parameters of an hybridized powertrains. A methodology able to define ICE, Transmission and Electric Traction Drive specifications has…
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