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Protecting high-voltage circuits

Automotive Engineering: June 2019

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP06_07
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Yazaki readies a new solution for arc suppression in circuits of 48V or more.

As OEMs develop their next-generation electrical architectures aimed at new hybrid, EV and autonomous vehicles, engineers are focused on delivering systems that are even more robust and “fail-safe” than those used today. Handling more power safely is a given, experts say, as more power-gobbling heated seats, electric turbos, active suspensions, lidars, on-board data processors and other safety sensors are added.

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Conceptual Design and Analytic Assessment of 48V Electric Hybrid Powertrain Architectures for Passenger Cars

Magneti Marelli SpA-Matteo De Cesare, Enrico Brugnoni
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0353
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To meet the requirements in relation to pollutants, CO2-emissions, performances, comfort and costs for 2025 timeframe, many technology options for the powertrain, that plays a key role in the vehicle, are possible. Beside the central aspect of reducing standard cycle consumption levels and emissions, consumer demands are also growing with respect to comfort and functionality. In addition, there is also the challenge of finding cost efficient ways of integrating technologies into a broad range of vehicles with different levels of hybridization. High degrees of electrification simultaneously provide opportunities to reduce the technology content of the internal combustion engines (ICE), resulting in a cost balancing compromise between combustion engine and hybrid technology. The design and optimization of powertrain topologies, functionalities, and components require a complex development process. To face the complexity of goal, in this work a methodology of powertrain conceptual definition has been proposed with the aim of the design, objective assessment and optimization of the key parameters of an hybridized powertrains. A methodology able to define ICE, Transmission and Electric Traction Drive specifications has…
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Development of Electric Oil Pump Controller in Hybrid Vehicle Based on PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) and the AUTOSAR Platform

ETAS Korea-Hojeong Yoo
Hyundai & Kia Motor Corp.-Gyeongcheol Kim
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Traditional hybrid vehicles operated two types of oil pump, mechanical for combustion engine and electrical for electric motor, to supply oil pressure for automatic transmission in each power source. New hybrid vehicles has only one electrical pump to reduce system volume and to improve fuel efficiency. Purposes of this study are to make standardization of firmware development process for oil pump unit (OPU) and electric oil pump (EOP) and to apply permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) instead of brushless DC (BLDC) motor. In old-fashioned non-operating system (OS) firmware, it was convenient to calculate control timing for motor control, however the firmware was deeply dependent to specific microcontroller Unit (MCU). In other words, much of efforts and time are needed if new MCU were applied. In this study, new standard development process for MCU firmware can be built up based on automotive open system architecture (AUTOSAR) platform by developing specific motor complex device driver (CDD). In existing system, the OPU supplied with high-voltage from battery drives the BLDC motor driven with six-step block commutation method through…
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Pushing the Energy Limits of Lithium Ion Batteries through Fluorinated Materials

Daikin America Inc.-Joseph Sunstrom, Alec Falzone, Michael Gilmore, Ron Hendershot, Chad Meserole, Abundio Sandoval, Emily Grumbles, Melissa Costa, Arsela Haque
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The use of electrolytes containing small fluorinated molecules to enable stable high voltage (>4.3 V) battery operation is the focus of this project. Previously, it has been shown that it is possible to operate lithium ion batteries utilizing several different cathode chemistries up to 4.5 V. Energy gains of 30-50% have been demonstrated when the battery is cycled at 4.5 V. High voltage cycling is accomplished by reducing the gas generation originating from electrolyte decomposition at high voltage. The primary mechanism for this is not completely understood, but the hypothesis is that the fluorinated molecules form a film on the highly oxidizing cathode. The protective film formation allows stable cycle life during high voltage operation. In addition, fluorinated electrolytes have the added benefit of being less flammable which increases safety performance of lithium ion batteries.Highly fluorinated binder materials offer a variety of advantages (lower modulus, higher chemical resistance, better temperature stability) over the conventional PVDF binders used in current lithium ion batteries. Use of these highly fluorinated binder additives has a direct impact on battery…
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Development of Fuel Cell (FC) System for New Generation FC Bus

Toyota Motor Corp.-Tomohiro Ogawa, Kenji Umayahara, Yoshihiro Ikogi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0372
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Toyota Motor Corporation has been actively pursuing the development of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to respond to global environmental concerns and demands for clean energy. Toyota developed the first fuel cell (FC) bus to receive vehicle type certification in Japan. Subsequently, a new FC bus has been developed, which adopts two FC systems and four high-voltage batteries to achieve the required high power performance and durability. For enhanced durability, the FC system is controlled to maximize usage of the high-voltage batteries and to reduce the number of electric potential changes of the fuel cell. To accomplish this, the voltage of the FC stack must be kept high and FC power must be kept low. The high-voltage batteries were used to actively minimize FC power during acceleration. When the high voltage battery cannot supply power because of a low battery state of charge (SOC), such as during a long hill climb, the lower limit voltage of the FC is temporarily reduced to increase the FC power. A lifetime durability test was carried out, including conditions under…
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Design and Implementation of a Distributed Thermal Control System for Power Electronics Components in Hybrid Vehicles

General Motors LLC-Xiaowen Luo, Jinming Sun, Jeanette Kurnik
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles (BEV) use power electronics (PE) devices to convert between high voltage DC power of the battery and other formats of power. These PE components requires operation within certain temperature range, otherwise, overheating causes component as well as vehicle performance degradation. Therefore, a thermal management system is required for PE components. This paper focuses on the design and development of such a PE components thermal control system. The proposed control system is a distributed thermal control system in which all the PE components are placed in series within one cooling loop. The advantage of the proposed control system is its reduced system complexity, energy efficiency and flexibility to add future PE components. In addition, electric control unit (ECU) are utilized so that complex control algorithms can be implemented. From theoretical perspective, the proposed control system is proved to have sufficient thermal capacity under extreme hot ambient environment. The proposed control system is implemented and tested in various conditions. Test results show that the maximum coolant temperature reached 73.71°C which…
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Green Electric Monopropellant (GEM)-Fueled Pulsed Plasma Thruster

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33909
Published 2019-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

NASA required a rocket thruster able to produce a number of pulses at high specific impulse at a relatively low voltage (~300 to 400V). The key problem was that existing propellants for liquid-fueled pulsed plasma thrusters (LPPTs) required high voltages to ablate and accelerate the propellant. The Green Electric Monopropellant (GEM)-fueled Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) is a rocket thruster that is able to produce a number of pulses at high specific impulse at a relatively low voltage (~300 to 400V).


High-Voltage Power Line Multi-Sensor System

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33694
Published 2019-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Government infrastructure facilities such as water treatment facilities, power plants, laboratories, and the like may be targets for terrorist attacks. Similarly, oil pipelines, power grids, warehouses, factories, laboratories, and the like in the commercial sector may be targeted by terrorists or persons engaging in industrial espionage and sabotage. When these facilities are remotely located, the limited or nonexistent power sources in the area may prevent or severely restrict the employment of cameras, sensors, and other intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) devices. Thus, there is a need to overcome these limitations while providing around-the-clock persistent support and similar capabilities.


Optional Pass-Thru Features

Vehicle E E System Diagnostic Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2534/2_201901
  • Current
Published 2019-01-16 by SAE International in United States
SAE J2534-1 defines a standard vehicle network interface that can be used to reprogram emission-related control modules. However, there is a need to support vehicles prior to the 2004 model year, as well as non-emission related control modules. The SAE J2534-2 document meets these needs by detailing extensions to an SAE J2534-1 specification. It is not required for an interface to be fully compliant with SAE J2534-1 specification to implement some of the features specified in this document. Together, these extensions provide the framework for a common interface to protect the software investment of the Vehicle OEMs and Scan Tool manufacturers. Only the optional features will be described by this document and are based on the December 2004 publication of SAE J2534-1.
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Electron-Beam Welding For Fatigue Critical Applications

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2680C
  • Current
Published 2019-01-14 by SAE International in United States
This specification defines the procedures and requirements for joining metals and alloys using the electron beam welding process.
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