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Ramped Versus Square Injection Rate Experiments in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

DAF Trucks NV-Bogdan Albrecht
Delphi Technologies-Tony Simpson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
CO2 regulations on heavy-duty transport are introduced in essentially all markets within the next decade, in most cases in several phases of increasing stringency. To cope with these mandates, developers of engines and related equipment are aiming to break new ground in the fields of combustion, fuel and hardware technologies. In this work, a novel diesel fuel injector, Delphi’s DFI7, is utilized to experimentally investigate and compare the performance of ramped injection rates versus traditional square fueling profiles. The aim is specifically to shift the efficiency and NOx tradeoff to a more favorable position. The design of experiments methodology is used in the tests, along with statistical techniques to analyze the data. Results show that ramped and square rates - after optimization of fueling parameters - produce comparable gross indicated efficiencies. For the highest engine speed tested, ramped profiles attain these efficiency values at considerably lower NOx levels. Particulate matter emissions, on the other hand, are generally lower with the use of square profiles. Heat release analysis further reveals that ignition delays in ramped rate…
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Minimizing Disturbance Detection Time in Hydraulic Systems

General Motors-Paul Otanez, Ramadityanand Bhogadi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0263
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In a hydraulic system, parameter variation, contamination, and/or operating conditions can lead to instabilities in the pressure response. The resultant erratic pressure profile produces reduced performance that can lead to hardware damage. Specifically, in a transmission control system, the inability to track pressure commands can result in various types of slip and disturbances to the driveline. Therefore, it is advantageous to identify such pressure events and take remedial actions. The challenge is to detect the condition in the least amount of time while minimizing false alarms. In this study, cross and auto-correlation techniques are evaluated for the detection of pressure disturbances. The performance of the detectors is measured in terms of speed of detection and robustness to: 1) measurement noise, and 2) disturbance parameter uncertainty (frequency and amplitude). The implications in terms of computations and memory utilization of implementing the detectors in real-time embedded systems are also discussed. Both simulation and hardware examples are presented. The hardware experiment is performed in a hydraulic system with low damping composed of a solenoid and a regulator valve…
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Data-driven framework for fuel efficiency improvement in extended range electric vehicle used in package delivery applications

Univ of Minnesota-Twin Cities-Pengyue Wang, William Northrop
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0589
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs) are a potential solution for fossil fuel usage mitigation and on-road emissions reduction. EREVs can be shown to yield significant fuel economy improvements when the proper energy management strategies (EMSs) are employed. However, many in-use EREVs achieve only moderate fuel reduction compared to conventional vehicles due to the fact that their EMS is far from optimal. This paper focuses on rule-based optimization methods to improve the fuel efficiency of EREV last-mile delivery vehicles equipped with two-way Vehicle-to-Could (V2C) connectivity. The method uses previous vehicle data collected on actual delivery routes and a machine learning method to improve the fuel economy of future routes. The paper first introduces the main challenges of the project such as inherent uncertainty in human driver behavior and in the roadway environment. Then, the framework of our practical physics-model guided data-driven approach is introduced. For vehicles with small amounts of previous data, a Bayesian method is used to adjust a control parameter in the EMS offline for each vehicle with introduced prior information derived from large numbers…
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Advancements of MEMristor Materials in Neuromorphic Computing for Autonomous Systems.

Wayne State Univ.-Kyle W. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0088
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The advancements in analog electronics has spurred the development of neuromorphic computing which can replicate bio-neurological processes using artificial synapses. Artificial synapses can process information faster and more efficiently than CPUs for specialized applications like sparse coding, graph searches, and constraint-satisfaction problems. Neuromorphic systems offset CPU’s lack of processing power to solve complex tasks and computations, higher parallelism, novel neural-inspired algorithms, and optimizations. Neural-inspired algorithms such as sparse coding, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), path planning, and object tracking event-based cameras are necessary in development of autonomous systems. As the industry and academia realizes the limitations posed Moore’s Law, new computing and performance by MEMristors has enabled continued process-node scaling. New technology like Intel’s inspired neuromorphic microchip demonstrates the benefits of a specialized architecture for emerging applications, including some of the computational problems hardest for the internet of things (IoT) and autonomous devices to support. As new complex computing workloads grow the need for specialized architectures designed for specific applications will be in demand. Specialized architectures using specific applications are ideal for real-world applications, from…
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Bench-marking Computational Performance of Dynamic Programming For Speed Profiling and Fuel Efficiency of Autonomous-capable HEV

Ohio State University-Punit Tulpule, Amit Ruhela
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0968
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Dynamic programming has been used for optimal control of hybrid powertrain and vehicle speed optimization particularly in design phase for over a couple of decades. With the advent of autonomous and connected vehicle technologies, automotive industry is getting closer to implementing predictive optimal control strategies in real time applications. The biggest challenge in implementation of optimal controls is the limitation on hardware which includes processor speed, IO speed, and random access memory. Due to the use of autonomous features, modern vehicles are equipped with better onboard computational resources. In this paper we present a comparison between multiple hardware options for dynamic programming. The optimal control problem considered, is the optimization of travel time and fuel economy by tuning the torque split ratio and vehicle speed while maintaining charge sustaining operation. The system has two states - battery state of charge and vehicle speed, and two inputs namely, total torque and torque split ratio. First, we develop a Matlab® based program to solve the optimal control problem. The Matlab® code is optimized for performance and memory…
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Routing methods considering security and real-time of vehicle gateway system

FESCARO-Daehyun Kim
Infineon Technologies AG-Karel Heurtefeux
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1294
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently, vehicle networks have increased complexity due to the demand for autonomous driving or connected devices and require high bandwidth. And vehicle manufacturers have begun applying Ethernet protocols, a new network that can replace existing vehicle network protocols. However, it is difficult to replace the entire CAN protocols with Ethernet protocols completely due to safety and reliability issues. Therefore, the vehicle manufacturer introduced a vehicle gateway system. The system uses Ethernet for the external network and the CAN network for communication between internal controllers. The vehicle gateway system provides an interface for constantly connecting and exchanging vehicle data in a heterogeneous communication environment between the existing CAN network protocol and the external Ethernet protocol. Therefore, it is necessary to design the minimum delay time considering the real time. In addition, since there is a risk of hacking due to external communication connection, a security function to ensure the integrity of the message is essential. This paper introduces routing methods considering security and real time. In the case of security, the Cipher-based message authentication code (CMAC)…
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An Experimental Investigation of Axial Cutting Under a Tension Deformation Mode

Univ. of Windsor-Anthony Gudisey, William Altenhof, John Magliaro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0206
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The most common use of tension energy absorption is found in personal fall arrest systems, however, there exist a plethora of possible applications in the automotive field for both vehicular and roadside safety hardware. During a fall, cables attached to a safety harness must not exceed a maximum arresting force over an arresting extension. The main disadvantage of the current state of the art for fall arrest is that energy dissipation is a result of tearing and failure of fabric materials which causes erratic and fluctuating loads. Axial cutting; a novel energy dissipation mechanism developed by researchers at the University of Windsor, has been shown to minimize load fluctuations while maintaining a stable load. Its capabilities have been explored in compression, but no studies have been conducted in tension. A set of test specimens were chosen for this purpose based on predictions from analytical models. These specimens were circular extrusions made from AA6061 in both T4 and T6 temper conditions. They varied in diameter from 50.8 to 63.5mm, and varied in thickness from 1.25, 1.59…
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Joint Calibration of Dual LiDARs and Camera using a Circular Chessboard

Tongji University-Zhenwen deng, Lu Xiong, Dong Yin, Fengwu Shan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0098
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Environment perception is a crucial subsystem in autonomous vehicles. In order to build safety and efficient traffic transportation, several researches have been proposed to build accurate, robust and real-time perception systems. Camera and LiDAR are widely mounted on self-driving cars and developed with many algorithms in recent years. The fusion system of camera and LiDAR provides state-of the-art methods for environmental perception due to the defects of single vehicular sensor. Extrinsic parameter calibration is able to align the coordinate systems of sensors and has been drawing enormous attention. However, differ from spatial alignment of two sensors’ data, joint calibration of multi-sensors (more than three devices) should balance the degree of alignment between each one. In this paper, we assemble a test platform which is made up of dual LiDARs and monocular camera and is the same as the sensing hardware architecture of intelligent sweeper designed by our laboratory. Meanwhile, we propose the related joint calibration method using a circular chessboard. The center of circular chessboard is respectively detected in camera image to get pixel coordinates…
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Finite Element Analysis Technique To Roll Crimp Solenoid’s Can

BorgWarner Inc.-Chandreshwar Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0749
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Roll forming assemblies are generally neat and robust, but there are structural integrity risks involved too if the forming procedures and design features do not complement each other. Specifically, in solenoid valves, an imprecised roller crimping (or forming) adversely affect the desired magnetic performance of the valves. Furthermore, in-depth evaluations of the formed shape using hardware and lab testing are extremely challenging cost wise and time consuming as well. However, utilizing simulation technique such as finite element analysis (FEA) to understand the in-sights of roller formed assemblies of a solenoid valve (or other products) could be an effective way to minimize overall cost and time involved in the product development. Therefore, a three-dimensional non-linear FEA model of roller crimping simulation was established in ANSYS Workbench Mechanical, and the predicted results were correlated with real hardware data to prove the technique & process adopted. Then the design was improved computationally to eliminate the magnetic Core's flux-bridge distortion issue of a solenoid valve, and finally the design was validated through hardware testing.
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A Methodology for Automotive Steel Wheels Life Assessment

Fraunhofer ITWM-Manfred Baecker, Axel Gallrein
MW Italia-Davide Rovarino, Luca Actis Comino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1240
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A methodology for an efficient failure prediction of automotive steel wheels during fatigue experimental tests is proposed. The strategy joins the CDTire® simulative package effectiveness to a specific wheel finite element model in order to deeply monitor the stress distribution among the component to predict damage. The numerical model acts as a Software-in-the-loop and it is calibrated with experimental data. The developed tool, called VirtualWheel®, can be applied for the optimisation of design reducing prototyping and experimental test costs in the development phase. In the first section, the failure criterion is selected. In the second one, the conversion of hardware test-rig into virtual model is described in detail by focusing on critical aspects of finite element modelling. In conclusion, failure prediction is compared with experimental test results.