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Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with different contaminations such as engine oil…
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The precipitation of biodiesel impurities at low temperature and its effect on fuel filter

DENSO CORPORATION-Minoru Funahashi
DENSO INTERNATIONAL ASIA CO., LTD.-Sareewan Suwannamit, Jaratpong Ngammoh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2188
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Biofuels are expanding continuously in global market as one of renewable options to replace fossil fuels. Biodiesel is the most commonly used biofuel that can be blended into conventional diesels in any proportion. However, higher biodiesel blends may cause problems. One of its problems is precipitation formation arise from biodiesel may clog fuel filter at low temperature. This study focuses on fuel and environment factors on biodiesel precipitation and their influence degree on fuel filter clogging. The results indicate that monoglycerides and temperature have strong correlation with precipitate weight. Moreover, quantitative effect of precipitate weight on filter clogging was clarified.
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Aircraft Fuel System Design Guidelines

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR7975
  • Current
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
This document describes the major design drivers and considerations when designing a fuel system for a large commercial aircraft. It discusses the design at a system/aircraft level, and is not intended as a design manual for individual system components, though it does refer out to other SAE specifications where more detail on specific components and sub-systems is given. It does include examples of a number of calculations associated with sizing of fuel systems, based on those given in NAV-AIR-06-5-504, as well as an appendix summarizing basic fluid mechanical equations which are key for fuel system design. It is acknowledged that most of these calculations would today be performed by modelling tools, rather than by hand, but it is considered important for the designer to understand the principles. It is intended that later issues of this document will include appendices which give specific considerations for military aircraft, smaller commercial aircraft, and rotorcraft.
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Optimization of Bio-Diesel Fuel Filter Size Media and Configuration for Longer Service Interval

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Gaurav Soni, Aashish Bhargava, Sujit Gavade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2391
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Adaptation of Bio diesel comes with reduced maintainability and high maintenance cost. Blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel are most commonly used in automotive diesel engines. Biodiesel is most popular choice as an alternate fuel of fossil diesel due to its easy availability, eco-friendly nature and minimum change in existing diesel engine for retro fitment.In this paper efforts have been taken to optimize the life of Fuel filter for bio diesel application. For improving Fuel filter life, modifications carried out in Fuel filter media, size and configuration. Further, Fuel filter tested on Engine test bed and Vehicle to establish the life of filter in real world usage condition. Testing Results were compared with existing diesel fuel filter.
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Fuel Systems and Components - Electrostatic Charge Mitigation

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1645_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice deals with electrostatic charge phenomena that may occur in automotive fuel systems and applies to the following: Fuels that are in a liquid state at ambient temperatures and atmospheric pressures and are contained in vehicle fuel tanks that operate at or near atmospheric pressure. This includes gasoline and diesel fuels, as well as their blends with additives such as alcohols, esters, and ethers, whether the additives are petroleum based or bio-fuel based. The group of components that comprise the fuel system (in contact and not in contact with fuels). Other components in proximity to the fuel system that may be affected by electrostatic fields caused by the fuel system. Electrostatic phenomena that arise from, or are affected by, the following aspects of vehicle or fuel system operation: ○ Flowing fuel in the fuel delivery system. ○ Flowing fuel being dispensed to the vehicle while it is being fueled.
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Characterization of Deposits Collected from Plugged Fuel Filters

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Hanna Bernemyr, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
Scania CV AB-Oscar Forsberg, Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Fuel filters serve as a safety belt for modern compression ignition engines. To meet the requirements from environmental regulations these engines use the common rail injection system, which is highly susceptible to contamination from the fuel. Furthermore, the public awareness towards global warming is raising the need for renewable fuels such as biodiesel. An increased fuel variety brings a higher requirement for fuel filters as well. To better understand the process of filtration, awareness of the different possible contaminants from the field is needed. This study used several chemical characterization techniques to examine the deposits from plugged fuel filters collected from the field. The vehicle was run with a biodiesel blend available on the market. The characterization techniques included X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) joined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and lastly thermal gravimetric analyzer combined with FTIR and a GC-MS (TGA/FTIR/GC-MS). In addition the remaining ash from TGA was measured in energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Deposits were scraped from the used filter, and prepared for the different…
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Test Procedure to Determine the Hydrocarbon Losses from Fuel Tubes, Hoses, Fittings, and Fuel Line Assemblies by Recirculation

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1737_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-26 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for the determination of the losses of hydrocarbon fluids, by permeation through component walls, as well as through "microleaks" at interfaces of assembled components while controlling temperature and pressure independently of each other. This is achieved in a recirculating system in which elements of a test fuel that permeate through the walls of a test specimen and migrate through the interfaces are transported by a controlled flow of dry nitrogen to a point where they are measured. That measurement point is a device, such as a canister containing activated charcoal or other means of collection or accumulation where the hydrocarbon losses are then measured by weight change or analyzed by some other suitable means.
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High Strength Elevated Temperature Bolting Practice

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP700C
  • Current
Published 2019-05-03 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides general information on the design and installation of threaded fasteners in high strength and high temperature applications in propulsion systems. Some of the more common definitions of fastener terminology are also provided.
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Assessing the Impact of FAME and Diesel Fuel Composition on Stability and Vehicle Filter Blocking

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

BP Formulated Products Technology-Christopher Roy-Smith
University of Bath-Kesavan Gopalan, Christopher J. Chuck, Christopher D. Bannister
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0049
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, there has been an impetus in the automotive industry to develop newer diesel injection systems with a view to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. This development has led to hardware capable of higher pressures, typically up to 2500 bar. An increase in pressure will result in a corresponding increase in fuel temperature after compression with studies showing changes in fuel temperatures of up to 150 °C in 1000-2500 bar injection systems.Until recently, the addition of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, FAME, to diesel had been blamed for a number of fuel system durability issues such as injector deposits and fuel filter blocking. Despite a growing acceptance within the automotive and petrochemical industries that FAME is not solely to blame for diesel instability, there is a lack of published literature in the area, with many studies still focusing on FAME oxidation to explain deposit formation and hardware durability.The majority of studies into diesel degradation are conducted under non-representative laboratory conditions, or are extrapolated from the deposits found in filters from vehicles with failed injectors.…
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Contaminants Affecting the Formation of Soft Particles in Bio-Based Diesel Fuels during Degradation

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Richard Alim, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania AB-Henrik Hittig, Mayte Pach
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels are essential in the field of heavy duty transportation if we are to reach a fossil-free society in the foreseeable future. However renewable diesel fuels based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) might face problems with degradation and with cold flow properties. From the perspective of an engine, this may cause problems in the fuel injection system, such as fuel filter clogging and injector deposits. These phenomena, especially fuel filter clogging, can be connected to gel-like soft particles, which could originate from degradation products as well as from byproducts created during biodiesel refining. In this study, soft particles from the degradation of bio-based diesel fuel were examined. The tested fuels included hydrogenated vegetable oils (HVO), rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and 10% blend of rapeseed methyl ester with standard diesel (B10). To test their potential to increase the formation of soft particles, contaminants such as water, metals and engine oil were included in the degradation methods. The formed insoluble products were analyzed with gravimetric means, scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) and spectroscopy methods (FTIR). The…
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