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Development of High Productivity and Low Cost Card-Edge Type ECU for Motorcycles

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Yuichi TAKEDA, Daisuke SUGIO, Koji INOSE
Keihin Corporation-Syuichi TAKIOKA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0516
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
To reduce global warming, Honda has been worked on emission reduction and fuel efficiency enhancement by applying fuel injection systems. The productivity enhancement and cost reduction are strongly demanded in developing countries as the market is expanding. To enhance productivity and reduce cost of ECU, application of the semiconductor production method has been started for printed circuits with edge connectors. However, products that fully meet the requirements of us have not been realized so far. The ECU developed this time has a structure shielding the whole PCB package except the edge connector terminals. Thus, the waterproofness required for an ECU has realized, as a standalone component, as the first in the world (by Honda survey). To achieve that, we developed transfer molding dies equipped with a unique mechanism never been applied. Moreover, we developed an epoxy resin that eliminates the after cure process. Thus, productivity of 5 times over conventional was realized with a multi-cavity molding capable of moldings more than 10 pieces at a time. Furthermore, a new waterproof card-edge connector was developed, in…
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Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Drag Control on Bluff Body using Synthetic Jets

Utsunomiya University-Naoto Kato, Shunsuke Watanabe, Hiroaki Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0538
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Since flow separation causes increase of the drag on bluff bodies, its control method has been studied for many years. Active control methods are currently focused as an alternative to passive ones because they impose a larger drag penalty under certain conditions. Although the effectiveness of a steady jet using suction, blowing or pulsed jets has been demonstrated, it is difficult to obtain an effect commensurate with weight increase because the mechanism is complicated.One method of solving this problem is a synthetic jet. Synthetic jets are produced by periodic ejection and suction of fluid from an orifice induced by oscillation of a diaphragm inside a cavity. Small engine powered vehicles demand less drag, a compact package and light weight because the drivers expect fuel efficiency, load capacity and economy. Synthetic jets can supply them because they contribute drag reduction and require only simple components.In this study, the influence of synthetic jets on the drag of a simple bluff body representing a road vehicle is measured. Drag measurement was performed by varying synthetic jet parameters: jet…

Study of OBD stageII Misfire Detection System for Small Motorcycles

Aisan Industry Co., Ltd.-Satoshi MIWA, Yuki IIBOSHI, Hirotaka FUKUTA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0511
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the shift to Fuel Injection (FI) system for motorcycles has been accelerated in response to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulations and the improvement of fuel efficiency for global environmental protection. In addition, On Board Diagnostics (OBD) was introduced to inform users of vehicle abnormalities and failures and prevent from emission failure in the market. OBD stageII requires enlargement of requirements and threshold detection. Seven items are presented in the EU5, Bharat Stage 6 (BS6). The misfire detection in small motorcycles has several problems.First, for the small motorcycle, a single-cylinder engine is the main and its combustion behavior cannot be compared with other cylinders. Consequently, it is difficult to detect misfire. For misfire detection, we focused on the difference in crank angular velocity during combustion stroke between normal combustion and misfire. The greatest gap was in crank angular velocity occurs at 0-180° crank angle [°CA]. With that, misfire detection control is established.We confirmed from the above control that misfire could be detected in the whole engine speed or load within the regulation.…
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Effects of Engine Speed on the Performance at Extreme Vehicle Driving Conditions

FCA LATAM, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Fabrício Thomaz, José Guilherme Coelho Baeta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0297
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, improvements in engine fuel economy and reduction in pollutant emissions have been much discussed. Downsizing and downspeeding are methods widely used in the automotive market, used to increase internal combustion engine efficiency. Fuel consumption is commonly measured through a specific cycle that could differ between countries. Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) for Latin America and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) for Europe are some examples. These cycles include normal driving conditions, low vehicle load and mild environmental conditions. The style of gear shifting is one of the main factors affecting fuel efficiency and performance of motor vehicles. At extreme diving conditions, parameters like coolant and air charge temperature could reach limit durability values of the system. In order to avoid knocking and maintain structural reliability, it becomes mandatory to control the engine speed. An increase in engine speed reduces engine load requirements and thus, turbocharger loads. Lower turbocharger requirements reduce ACT and, consequently, reduce knocking. This process allows an advanced ignition timing, enabling more chamber pressure and improving fuel conversion efficiency. However, a higher engine…
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Step-by-step correlation between calculated and measured data in order to reduce errors by vehicle simulation tools

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Escola de Engenharia, U-Fabrício J.P. Pujatti
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles - FCA-Eduardo F. Figueiredo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0285
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
In designing a new vehicle is necessary to estimate the vehicle performance, emission pollutants, and fuel consumption. Also is necessary check if the fuel economy technologies contents are attend the project goals. Therefore, simulate the vehicles on fuel consumption simulation tools, are crucial to attend the project time and cost.One of aspects more critical on simulation tools is its ability to reflect the vehicle reality accurately. The proposal of this work is to present a methodology to check the accuracy of vehicle simulation results using an analysis step-by-step process of errors between the simulated and experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under FTP-75 and HWFET cycles. The tests were performed on a Flex Fuel vehicle fueled by Brazilian's ethanol and gasoline fuels and the final fuel economy results. Good agreement between simulation and test results were obtained, demonstrating that this process is technically sound to improve the fuel consumption simulation accuracy.
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Right Shifting for Fuel Economy

VW do Brasil / Centro Universitário FEI-Fernando Fusco Rovai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0095
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is one of the main drivers of the automotive industry. This subject is becoming more and more important showing a clear upraising relevance tendency. The automotive community is researching and developing many solutions and trending technologies to improve the internal combustion engine, realizing its existence is under risk due to strong greenhouse gas impact. Some innovative technologies focus on the internal combustion engines replacement by other energy conversion systems. Other new technologies improve internal combustion engines efficiency but, in most of the cases, impacts on its costs and consequently on its viability, especially considering the entry level passenger cars. In these applications, the cost impact is hardly acceptable by the customers and this market represents a considerable part of the global automotive industry. Any opportunity to improve the vehicle efficiency with minimum cost is welcome. This paper intends to assess the development and application of a gear shift indicator in an entry level passenger car. This technology represents a very low cost impact because the engine control unit should add just an improved…
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Mass Optimization of a Front Floor Reinforcement

Ford Motor Company-Gimaezio Gomes Carvalho, Diego Freitas de Araújo, Rodrigo Silva Rodrigues
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0149
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Optimization of heavy materials like steel, in order to create a lighter vehicle, it is a major goal among most automakers, since heavy vehicles simply cannot compete with a lightweight model's fuel economy. Thinking this way, this paper shows a case study where the Size Optimization technique is applied to a front floor reinforcement. The reinforcement is used by two different vehicles, a subcompact and a crossover Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV), increasing the problem complexity. The Size Optimization technique is supported by Finite Element Method (FEM) tools. FEM in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is a numerical method for solving engineering problems, and its use can help to optimize prototype utilization and physical testing. As the component geometry was already defined, the Size Optimization becomes the most adequate technique to be used, because it defines ideal component parameters, such as material values, cross-section dimensions and thicknesses, without changing its shape [1]. The Size Optimization methodology is a procedure in which certain parameters (Design Variables) need to be determined to achieve targeted performance (Objective Function) under given…
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Understanding Base Oils and Lubricants for Electric Drivetrain Applications

Afton Chemical Corporation, Richmond, Virginia 23219, USA-Yungwan Kwak, Christopher Cleveland, Atanu Adhvaryu, Xinggao Fang
Afton Chemical Japan Corporation, Tokyo, Japan-Tsuneo Adachi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2337
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The penetration of hybridization and electrification (HEV and EV) technology into automotive powertrain designs is an evolving trend resulting from global regulations intended to reduce transportation-related emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants and to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. In many HEV and EV hardware designs, drivetrain fluids have contact with the integrated electric motor (e-motor), which requires electrical and thermal properties to be considered in addition to traditional fluid properties.This paper discusses new insights gained around electrical and thermal properties of drivetrain fluids, with a specific emphasis on understanding the critical impacts of base oils (BOs). Electrical and thermal properties data as a function of temperature for a range of BOs as well as automatic transmission fluids are shared. We found that BOs and their viscosities play a critical role in cooling performance, while additives play a critical role in electrical conductivity (EC). That being said, we also have observed that additives in BOs can modify cooling performance. We will demonstrate how each component in the additive package affects EC and in some cases…
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Development of a Sheet Metal Turbine Housing for a Diesel Engine

Calsonic Kansei Corporation-Masaaki Ashida, Satoru Yokoshima, Shunichi Mitsuishi, Hiroyuki Okamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2264
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This study presents the development of a new sheet metal turbine housing for a turbo diesel engine that improves diesel vehicle emission and fuel economy. Compared to a conventional solid casting housing, it can realize earlier catalyst light-off using less heat mass and has a longer engine stop period due to higher heat retention through its unique hollow structure constructed with sheet metal. For anticipated thermal deformation, a casting and sheet metal hybrid structure is adopted as a countermeasure to ensure concentricity of the turbine shaft. Consequently, this sheet metal turbine housing shows high environmental performance and reliability.
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Impact of Viscosity Index Improvers (VII) on the formation of piston deposits in fuel economy engine oils

Evonik Oil Additives Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd., 2019-Kien-Wee Tan,
Evonik Resource Efficiency GmbH-Boris Eisenberg, Philip A. Hutchinson, Frank Lauterwasser
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2202
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In the recent years, the achievement of fuel economy through lower viscosity engine oil has been a topic of wide discussions among experts in the industry. Along this journey of engine oil evolution, new classes of Viscosity Index Improver (VIIs) have been developed in order to meet the challenges arising from either hardware re-engineering, environmental protection or both. In relation to this, the continuous tightening of the CO2 emission level from the authorities has made the situation even tougher for many OEMs and formulators worldwide. While the fuel economy performance in an engine has been intensively investigated, little has been published on the durability aspects of these VIIs nor other aspects such as cleanliness and piston deposits. In this paper, we will present no-harm test results for deposit formation comparing novel comb polymers and conventional hydrocarbon VIIs such as OCPs. The formation of coke like deposits has been studied on low viscosity engine oils in both engine and bench tests. The results from the TDI engine test are compared with test results on the same…
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