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Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for different Hybrid Architectures using 1-D Simulation technique

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2496
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve fuel economy of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict engine fuel consumption using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. There is good agreement within 10% deviation between simulated cumulative fuel consumption and experimental cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying series hybridization, parallel P1 type and Parallel P2 type of hybridization. A design of experiment (DOE) model is run for different electric motor sizes, battery capacity and battery state of charge condition, to understand their effects on overall engine fuel consumption and cycle soot emission. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and soot emission. Lower soot emission will leads to smaller exhaust after-treatment size. There is trade-off between higher cost due to hybridization and lower cost due to lower after-treatment size. A cost…


Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Boobala Krishnan D, T Vijayan, Apurbo Kirty
Mahindra Research Valley-Himanshi Dua
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2571
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP J-case fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively. Similarly, micro relay and mini relay were replaced with Ultra micro and High current micro relay respectively. Results We took MPV segment vehicle for our initial testing and validation…

Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

ARAI-Rakesh Vilasrao Mulik
VIT Universtity-Senthil Kumar Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2509
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options. This paper presents a comprehensive review on various control strategies and Energy Management Systems (EMS) proposed and developed for HEVs. This paper revisits architecture of HEVs and different types of HEVs. An optimum control strategy for…

Effect of variable payload on Vehicle dynamics of Passenger buses in Indian usage conditions

VE Commercial Vehicle-Abhishek pyasi
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-ABHOY CHANDRA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2411
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A high impetus from Government on road infrastructure development, is giving a fillip to passenger CV space. This has resulted in making the passenger CV segment lucrative enough, thereby pulling in many operators in the business. The quality of road has immensely improved over a decade, as a result of which the average speed and hence the quantum of distance covered by passenger buses has increased significantly. People are preferring to travel in buses over trains, owing to at par ticket cost, high availability, reduced travel time and also improved level of comfort. Aligned to the market need and the trend, OEM's are offering buses with capable powertrains to cater the need of speed, reduced trip time as well as a lot of attention is also being paid to tune in the comfort level for long hauls. A big chunk of passenger travel is catered by the bus operators especially during major festivals in India. However, the passenger demand is not so consistent in this industry due to seasonality and hence is the operator earnings,…

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra-Karthikeyan N Krishnan
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was run to simulate the high-speed exhaust temperature & low speed knock intensity, this is…

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

Tata Technologies Ltd-Gaurav Soni, Aashish Bhargava, Vivek Anami, Tushar Warkhade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2381
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction. Further Cooling system performance of engine is evaluated along with Fuel efficiency; results are compared with present configuration.

Equivalent Radiated Power driven optimization for driveline housings using simulation tools to cut-down the project time

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Hemant Nishad, Dheeraj Singh, Kunal Kamal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2533
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In the field of Automotive industry, being competitive makes you succeed. Industry is moving towards advancement day by day. New technologies to improve fuel efficiency, crash resistance, vehicle noise levels have been trending. At VECV, we have traditionally worked on CAE of driveline housings (clutch housing & transmission housing) based on static, dynamic and transient loadings. Currently, weight optimization technique depends on the structural and dynamic loading conditions, but do not consider acoustic concerns. Powertrain housings are highly prone to vibrations and leads to high level of noise. Noise has been constant issue in the casting components associated to driveline. There have been lot of research going on to reduce the level of noise and vibrations in the vehicle driveline, which ultimately leads to fuel efficiency and ergonomic benefits. Low noise generation can also lead to saving of lot of resources deployed to dampen the noises. In order to capture the acoustic responses of the system and to improve the design based on acoustic responses, a comprehensive analysis of newly developed driveline housings (clutch housing…

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for better fuel Economy

Tata Technologies Ltd-Aashish Bhargava, Gaurav Soni
Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Sujit Gavade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2431
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it not only accounts for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, improved volumetric efficiency, improved thermal efficiency etc. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include; combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected. Further Engine testing carried out with selected Compression ratios and parameters such as Fuel efficiency, In cylinder pressure, Brake thermal efficiency and Ignition delay were compared.

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

AVL LIST GmbH-Franz Murr, Ernst Winklhofer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2504
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains. The focus will be on solutions which have potential for the Indian market, i.e. solutions which can be implemented with moderate application effort for currently available compact and medium size cars. The possibilities of 12/24 & 48V technologies for fuel economy and emission reduction will be discussed. Simultaneously, tools for testing and calibration at power train testbed…

Evaluating the Effect of Light Weighting Through Roll Stiffness Change on Vehicle Maneuverability and Stability

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd-Eric Pranesh Reuben, Sreeraj N
Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.-Raghav Budhiraja
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2406
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective To achieve better fuel economy and reduced carbon footprint, OEMs are reducing the sprung and unsprung mass. This translates into a reduction in stiffness which profoundly deteriorates the handling/road holding characteristics of the vehicle. To model these changes in stiffness, modifications are made to suspension roll stiffness at the front and rear. This study compares different configurations of roll stiffness and evaluates vehicle behavior using frequency response characteristics and phase change of Yaw Gain recorded. The present work associates acquired data with subjective feedback to outline the shift in vehicle balance emerging from a variation of sprung and unsprung mass ratio. Methodology To study the frequency response characteristics of the vehicle, the pulse input is chosen for this. An ideal pulse input’s Fourier transform represents constant amplitude over all the frequency ranges. By giving a single input, the system is subjected to a range of frequencies. The changes in roll stiffness at the front and rear axles are achieved through addition of Stabilizer Bars of different diameters and stiffness. The test is conducted using…