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Integrated Engine States Estimation Using Extended Kalman Filter and Disturbance Observer

Clemson University-Qilun Zhu, Robert Prucka
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Accurate estimation of engine state(s) is vital for engine control systems to achieve their designated objectives. The fusion of sensors can significantly improve the estimation results in terms of accuracy and precision. This paper investigates using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to estimate engine state(s) for Spark Ignited (SI) engines with the external EGR system. The EKF combines air path sensors with cylinder pressure feedback through a control-oriented engine cycle domain model. The model integrates air path dynamics, torque generation, exhaust gas temperature, and residual gas mass. The EKF generates a cycle-based estimation of engine state(s) for model-based control algorithms, which is not the focus of this paper. The sensor and noise dynamics are analyzed and integrated into the EKF formulation. To account for ‘non-white’ disturbances including modeling errors and sensor/actuator offset, the EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance state(s) estimation. Case studies demonstrate that the disturbance augmented EKF can identify the sources of estimation errors and mitigates these errors automatically within several engine cycles. This paper concludes that the number of disturbance…
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Heavy Duty Diesel Engine and EAS Modelling and Validation for a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System

AVL Italia SRL-Daniele Severi, Gabriele Lucchetti
AVL LIST GmbH-Alexander Karlon, Plamen Valchev
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Faced with the need to reduce development time and cost in view of additional system complexity driven by ever more stringent emission regulations, the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation increasingly proves itself to be an advantageous tool not only in automotive companies but also in the off-road engine industry. The approach offers the possibility to analyze new engine control systems with fewer expensive engine dynamometer experiments and test drives. Thus, development cycles can be shortened and development costs reduced. This paper presents the development of an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the correspondent Exhaust Aftertreatment System (EAS) model, its deployment on a HiL system and its application to pre-calibrate the engine for different vehicle cycles. A zero-dimensional mean value approach was chosen to guarantee adequate real-time factors for the coupling between the models and the Engine Control Unit (ECU). The main components of the airpath were parametrized according to data provided by the supplier and measurements. The combustion and NOx Engine-Out emissions were modeled using AVL-CRUISEMTM/MoBEOTM libraries, combining physical and empirical approaches, to reach an optimal trade-off…
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Misfire Generator Functional Requirements

Vehicle E E System Diagnostic Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2901_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
The intent of the specification is to present a functional set of requirements which define the user and hardware interfaces while providing sufficient capability to meet the misfire patterns for compliance demonstration and engineering development. Throughout this requirement, any reference to “ignition or injector control signal” is used interchangeably to infer that the effected spark ignition engine’s ignition control signal or the compression ignition engine’s injector control signal is interrupted, timing phased, or directly passed by the misfire generator. For spark ignition engines, the misfire generator behaves as a spark-defeat device which induces misfires by inhibiting normal ignition coil discharge. It does so by monitoring the vehicle’s ignition timing signals and suspends ignition coil saturation for selected cylinder firing events. The misfire generator will thereby induce engine misfire in spark ignited gasoline internal combustion engines; including rotary engines. For compression ignition engines, the misfire generator behaves as a fuel injection-defeat device which induces misfire by inhibiting the normal fuel injection pulses. It does so by monitoring the injection pulses signal and suspending the injection pulses…
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Development and Software in the Loop Validation of a Model-based Water Injection Combustion Controller for a GDI TC Engine

MAGNETI MARELLI SpA-Matteo De Cesare, Marco Panciroli
University of Bologna-Francesco Ranuzzi, Nicolo Cavina, Alessandro Brusa
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Turbocharged (TC) engines work at high Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), resulting in high in-cylinder pressures and temperatures, improving thermal efficiency, but at the same time increasing the possibility of abnormal combustion events like knock and pre-ignition. To mitigate knocking conditions, engine control systems typically apply spark retard and/or mixture enrichment, which decrease indicated work and increase specific fuel consumption.Many recent studies have advocated Water Injection (WI) as an approach to replace or supplement existing knock mitigation techniques. Water reduces temperatures in the end gas zone due to its high latent heat of vaporization. Furthermore, water vapor acts as diluent in the combustion process.In this paper, the development of a novel closed-loop, model-based WI controller is discussed and critically analyzed. The innovative contribution of this paper is to propose a control strategy based on an analytical combustion model that describes the relationship between the combustion phase and the Spark Advance (SA), considering also the effects of the injected water mass. Such model is calibrated with experimental data acquired during dedicated experimental tests on a GDI…
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Electronic Engine Control Specifications and Standards

E-36 Electronic Engine Controls Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR4250C
  • Current
Published 2018-12-05 by SAE International in United States
This report lists documents that aid and govern the design, development, certification, and utilization of aerospace electronic engine control systems. The report lists the military and industry specifications and standards that are commonly used in electronic engine control system design. Also included are Airworthiness Authority documents and requirements associated with certification. However, these lists are not necessarily complete. The specifications and standards section has been divided into two parts: a master list, and a categorized list that provides a functional breakdown and cross-reference of these documents. For specifications and standards, the issue available during the latest revision to this document is listed. Details of current revisions for many documents are available in the Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS). It should be noted that not all of these documents are referenced or even recognized by all certification authorities. In addition, not all revisions of these documents are recognized by all authorities. The user should confirm before assuming that a document, or its process, will be accepted for approval. Additionally, the list contains,…
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Guidelines for Time-Limited-Dispatch (TLD) Analysis for Electronic Engine Control Systems

E-36 Electronic Engine Controls Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5107C
  • Current
Published 2018-09-04 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides methodologies and approaches which have been used for conducting and documenting the analyses associated with the application of Time Limited Dispatch (TLD) to the thrust control reliability of Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) systems. The TLD concept is one wherein a fault-tolerant system is allowed to operate for a predetermined length of time with faults present in the redundant elements of the system, before repairs are required. This document includes the background of the development of TLD, the structure of TLD that was developed and implemented on present generation commercial transports, and the analysis methods used to validate the application of TLD on present day FADEC equipped aircraft. Although this document is specific to TLD analyses (for FADEC systems) of the loss of thrust control, the techniques and processes discussed in this document are considered applicable to other FADEC system failure effects or other systems, such as: thrust reverser, and propeller control systems, and overspeed protection systems.
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Aerospace Active Inceptor Systems for Aircraft Flight and Engine Controls

A-6A3 Flight Control and Vehicle Management Systems Cmt
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5764
  • Current
Published 2018-07-24 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this document is to develop the general characteristics and requirements for feel-force control systems for active cockpit controllers, also known as Active Inceptors. The document presents technical material that describes the recommended key characteristics and design considerations for these types of systems. Where appropriate, the effects of platform specific requirements (e.g., single axis/dual axis, single seat/dual seat, civil/military, rotorcraft/fixed wing aircraft, etc.) are clearly identified. The material developed will serve as a reference guide for: a Aircraft prime contractors who want to understand active cockpit controller technology and develop their own set of requirements; b Suppliers that develop active cockpit controller equipment and; c Regulatory Authorities who will be involved in the certification of these types of systems.
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Early Acquisition and Preservation of Information in a Motor Vehicle Crash

Data Collection and Archiving Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1674_201807
  • Current
Published 2018-07-12 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to offer simplified and prioritized guidelines for collecting and preserving on-scene data related to motor vehicle crashes. It is intended that these guidelines improve the effectiveness of data collection, which will assist subsequent analysis and reconstruction of a particular crash. This document is intended to guide early data collectors whose objectives include documenting information related to the crash. It may be used by law enforcement personnel, safety officials, insurance adjusters and other interested parties. This document identifies categories of scene physical features that deteriorate relatively quickly and recommends documentation task priorities. Detailed methods of collecting data are not part of this document. However, some widely used methods are described in the references in Section 2.
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Closed Loop Throttle Opening Angle Estimation Strategy by Considering Torque Demands from SI Engine

Department of ECE, SITAMS, Chittoor, AP-C Kavitha
VIT University, Vellore, India-Ashok B, S Denis Ashok
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
Electronic throttle control is extensively preferred to vary the air intake in the engine manifold for regulating the torque in order to obtain the better vehicle response, high performance in terms of improving the fuel economy and trim down the emissions of the spark ignition engines. For such type of the engine control systems the throttle angle is estimation is accomplished either by pedal follower or torque based method. This work aims to develop a throttle opening angle estimation strategy in a closed loop manner using fuzzy logic approach by considering real time internal system and driver torque demands for controlling the SI engine. In present work the torque demand from internal system such as catalyst heating, cold start assist and battery voltage compensation is estimated using fuzzy logic strategy. Such intelligent system aims to replace the lookup tables associated with those systems and reduces the calibration effort. For the estimated throttle angle the electronic throttle body is evaluated in an engine test bed simulation on Matlab Simulink platform for the various accelerator pedal inputs…
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Guidelines for Preparing Reliability Assessment Plans for Electronic Engine Controls

E-36 Electronic Engine Controls Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5890B
  • Current
Published 2018-05-07 by SAE International in United States
This document establishes guidelines for a Reliability Assessment Plan (herein also called the Plan), in which Electronic Engine Control manufacturers document their controlled, repeatable processes for assessing reliability of their products. Each Electronic Engine Control manufacturer (the Plan owner) prepares a Plan, which is unique to the Plan owner. This document describes processes that are intended for use in assessing the reliability of Electronic Engine Controls, or subassemblies thereof. The results of such assessments are intended for use as inputs to safety analyses, certification analyses, equipment design decisions, system architecture selection and business decisions such as warranties or maintenance cost guarantees. This Guide may be used to prepare plans for reliability assessment of electronic engine controls in which, typically, the impact of failure is high, the operating environment can be relatively severe and the opportunity to improve the equipment after the start of production is limited. In this and similar industries, accurate estimates of expected equipment reliability are necessary prior to the start of production. This guide was initially produced in response to the recognized…
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