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Optimal Sizing and Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Turbo-Electric Aircraft

Georgia Institute of Technology-Christopher Perullo
Ohio State University-Aaronn Sergent, Michael Ramunno, Matilde D'Arpino, Marcello Canova
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0050
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid-electric gas turbine generators are considered a promising technology for more efficient and sustainable air transportation. The Ohio State University is leading the NASA University Leadership Initiative (ULI) Electric Propulsion: Challenges and Opportunities, focused on the design and demonstration of advanced components and systems to enable high-efficiency hybrid turboelectric powertrains in regional aircraft to be deployed in 2030. Within this large effort, the team is optimizing the design of the battery energy storage system (ESS) and, concurrently, developing a supervisory energy management strategy for the hybrid system to reduce fuel burn while mitigating the impact on the ESS life. In this paper, an energy-based model was developed to predict the performance of a battery-hybrid turboelectric distributed-propulsion (BHTeDP) regional jet. A study was conducted to elucidate the effects of ESS sizing and cell selection on the optimal power split between the turbogenerators (TGs) and ESS. To this extent, the supervisory energy management strategy is formulated into a discrete time optimal control problem and solved via dynamic programming. The performance of BHTeDP was compared to a turboelectric…
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System Performance Comparison of Direct Torque Control Strategies Based on Flux Linkage and DC-Link Voltage for EV Drivetrains

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India-Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, C. Upendra Reddy, Amit Kumar Singh, Praveen Kumar
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-02-0007
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
Numerous works have been carried out with perspectives to improve the energy efficiency of electric vehicle (EV) drivetrains; much of the attention has been on the design of highly efficient electric motors, power converters, and energy storage system. Besides the abovementioned factors, selection of the drivetrain configuration and control strategy also influence the efficiency and performance of EV drivetrain. The drivetrain efficiency and performance indices, such as torque ripple and total harmonic distortion (THD) of voltage and current, are sensitive to the direct current (dc)-link voltage and flux linkage values for a drivetrain control strategy. Therefore, in this work, the efficiency and the performance of two popular direct torque controlled induction motor (IM) drives are compared on the basis of adjustable dc-link voltage and flux linkage values for desired operating condition. Both these techniques are implemented on a lab scale test bed. Extensive experiments are performed to determine and compare the drivetrain efficiency maps. Further, dynamic and steady-state (SS) control performance in terms of speed, torque, and flux linkage is examined. Other performance indices, such…
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Fuel Cell-Based Powertrain Analysis for Tramway Systems

Università della Calabria-Petronilla Fragiacomo, Francesco Piraino
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a comparison of three different hybrid powertrains is analysed. The numerical model is used to simulate powertrain behaviour in rail application, on a pre-set drive cycle, composed of many acceleration and decelerations, in order to test the components features.The numerical model is dynamic and it is implemented in Matlab-Simulink environmental.A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (FC) is used; it is the most used in transport applications, thanks to its lower temperature compared to the other fuel cell types, which allows fast start up operation and rapid demand changes. A standard supercapacitor (SC), given by higher power density, is utilized as the energy storage system (ESS), Regarding the battery (B), two types are considered, because the battery is used both as prime mover and main component of the ESS; Li-ion batteries are chosen, owing to their good trade-off between specific power and energy.Therefore, three configurations, FC-SC, FC-B and B-SC, are analysed.The vehicle model takes into account other components. The regenerative brake system is used to recover energy during the deceleration phases, and the…
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Communication for Smart Charging of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Using Smart Energy Profile 2.0

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2847/1_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-20 by SAE International in United States
This document describes the details of the Smart Energy Profile 2.0 (SEP2.0) communication used to implement the functionality described in the SAE J2836-1 use cases. Each use case subsection includes a description of the function provided, client device requirements, and sequence diagrams with description of the steps. Implementers are encouraged to consult the SEP2.0 schema and application specification for further details. Where relevant, this document notes, but does formally specify, interactions between the vehicle and vehicle operator.
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Hybrid and EV First and Second Responder Recommended Practice

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2990_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-29 by SAE International in United States
xEVs involved in incidents present unique hazards associated with the high voltage system (including the battery system). These hazards can be grouped into three categories: chemical, electrical, and thermal. The potential consequences can vary depending on the size, configuration, and specific battery chemistry. Other incidents may arise from secondary events such as garage fires and floods. These types of incidents are also considered in the recommended practice (RP). This RP aims to describe the potential consequences associated with hazards from xEVs and suggest common procedures to help protect emergency responders, tow and/or recovery, storage, repair, and salvage personnel after an incident has occurred with an electrified vehicle. Industry design standards and tools were studied and where appropriate, suggested for responsible organizations to implement. Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries used for vehicle propulsion power are the assumed battery system of this RP. This chemistry is the prevailing technology associated with high voltage vehicle electrification today and the foreseeable future. The hazards associated with Li-ion battery chemistries are addressed in this RP. Other chemistries and alternative propulsion systems…
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Use Cases for Communication Between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2836/1_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report establishes Use Cases for communication between plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and the electric power grid, for energy transfer and other applications.
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Investigation and Improvement of a Bouncing Torsional Vibration in Automotive Dual Mass Flywheel by Combining Testing and 1D CAE Modeling Approach

Doshisha University-Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Akihito Ito
EXEDY Corp.-Yoshihiro Yamakaji, Daisuke Yoshimoto
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Dual mass flywheel (DMF) is a well-known isolation system for vehicle drivetrain. DMF has two typical elastic energy storage systems: long travel arc springs and in-series spring units (including two or more springs) and sliding shoes connected in series. DMF has such complex nonlinear characteristics as torque-dependent torsional stiffness and rotational speed-dependent hysteresis friction due to its dependency of centrifugal force that is applied to components and radial force of springs. Because of this complexity, sub-harmonic vibration (SHV) may occur under certain circumstances, such as under light-load and high-rotational conditions. In general, since SHV’s frequency is 1/2 or 1/3 of the engine’s combustion frequency and may cause human discomfort, DMF must be designed robust against such nonlinear vibration. In this paper to reduce the SHV occurrence and to show a more robust design indicator, the SHV causing the mechanism is researched by testing and 1D CAE modeling. In detail, DMF interior behavior in high-speed rotation is clarified with high-speed cinematography on a test bench, and high-resolution relative torsional angle of DMF is obtained by evaluating…
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Battery Electrolyte Doubles Driving Range for Electric Vehicles

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34610
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Conventional electrolytes used in lithium-ion batteries that power household electronics like computers and cellphones are not suitable for lithium-metal batteries. Lithium-metal batteries that replace a graphite electrode with a lithium electrode are the holy grail of energy storage systems because lithium has a greater storage capacity and, therefore, a lithium-metal battery has double or triple the storage capacity. That extra power enables electric vehicles to drive more than two times longer between charges.

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Wireless Power Transfer for Light-Duty Plug-in/Electric Vehicles and Alignment Methodology

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2954_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-23 by SAE International in United States
The Recommended Practice SAE J2954 establishes an industry-wide specification that defines acceptable criteria for interoperability, electromagnetic compatibility, EMF, minimum performance, safety, and testing for wireless charging of light-duty electric and plug-in electric vehicles. The specification defines various charging levels that are based on the levels defined for SAE J1772 conductive AC charge levels 1, 2, and 3, with some variations. A standard for wireless power transfer (WPT) based on these charge levels enables selection of a charging rate based on vehicle requirements, thus allowing for better vehicle packaging and ease of customer use. The specification supports home (private) charging and public wireless charging. In the near term, vehicles that are able to be charged wirelessly under Recommended Practice SAE J2954 should also be able to be charged by SAE J1772 plug-in chargers. This Recommended Practice is planned to be standardized after the 2018 timeframe after receiving vehicle data. The contents, including frequency, parameters, specifications, procedures, and other contents of this Recommended Practice, are to be re-evaluated at that time to allow for additional developments and…
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Comparison of Particulate Emissions of a Range Extended Electric Vehicle under Different Energy Management Strategies

Tongji University-Yaxin Wang, Diming Lou, Ning Xu, Piqiang Tan, Zhiyuan Hu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Range extended electric vehicles achieve significant reductions in fuel consumption by employing as an energy source a small displacement combustion engine that is optimized for high efficiency at one, or a few, operating points. The present paper examines the impact of various energy management strategies on the particulate emissions from the auxiliary power unit (APU) of a range extended electric bus, including optimized auxiliary power unit (APU) on/off strategy, single-point strategy, two-point strategy, power-following strategy and equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy (ECMS). In addition, this paper also compares the particulate emissions of single energy storage system and composite energy storage system on single-point energy management strategy. The main conclusions in this paper are as follows: After optimizing the APU on/off strategy, the APU starts and stops frequently to make the cylinder temperature relatively low, which results in the reductions of both the particle mass (PM) and the particle number (PN). The application of two-point strategy and power-following strategy maximizes the output power of high load, and then the particulate emission presents significant increasing. With the…
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