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Energy Management for Electric Vehicle Application: Energy Demand for Cabin Comfort

FCA Italy S.p.A.-Antonio Tarzia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0031
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The rapid development of CO2 reduction policies pushes an equivalent effort by the OEM to design and produce Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) in order to lower the global CO2 emission of its fleet. The main effort has been done primarily to the electric traction architecture (electric traction motor and battery energy storage). Anyway, the BEV autonomy range is still a weak point and this is even more critical when the customer operates the air conditioning system to reach and maintain the cabin comfort. The aim of this work is to present how the cabin design have to evolve in order to allow the reduction of the energy demand by the Air conditioning system allowing the vehicle to increase the autonomy range.
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A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Coulomb Counting Method and Estimation of the Electrified-Vehicles Electricity Balance Over the WLTP

European Commission Joint Research-Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras
Politecnico di Torino-Federico Millo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0020
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The energy storage devices of electrified vehicles (Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles) are required to operate with highly dynamic current and power outputs, both for charging and discharging operation. When calculating the vehicle CO2 emissions and electrical energy consumption from a trip, the change in electrical energy content at vehicle-level has to be accounted for. This quantity, referred to as the electricity balance in the WLTP regulation, is normally obtained through a time-integration of the current or power supplied by the vehicle batteries during operation and the efficiency factor is often assumed to be unitary (as in the official type-approval procedure). The Joint Research Centre has collected experimental data from different electrified vehicles with regards to electrical energy use and battery State Of Charge (SOC) profile; the latter was used as a reference to quantify the actual vehicle electricity balance from a trip or driving cycle. In this work, the approach of using a simple Coulomb counting method with unitary efficiency for charging and discharging for the quantification of the vehicle electricity balance…
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Calibration of Electrochemical Models for Li-ion Battery Cells Using Three-Electrode Testing

Ford Motor Company-Chulheung Bae, Jie Deng
SK Innovation-Heechan Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1184
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Electrochemical models of lithium ion batteries are today a standard tool in the automotive industry for activities related to the computer-aided engineering design, analysis, and optimization of energy storage systems for electrified vehicles. One of the challenges in the development or use of such models is the need of detailed information on the cell and electrode geometry or properties of the electrode and electrolyte materials, which are typically unavailable or difficult to retrieve by end-users. This forces engineers to resort to “hand-tuning” of many physical and geometrical parameters, using standard cell-level characterization tests.This paper proposes a method to provide information and data on individual electrode performance that can be used to simplify the calibration process for electrochemical models. The proposed approach consists in inserting a reference electrode in commercial-grade Li-ion to obtain real-time data of how the cathode and anode interact with one another during cell operation, rather than resorting to coin cell testing of individual electrode materials.
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Mitigation of Accelerated Degradation of Li-ion BatteriesvFor High Rate Discharge Application

CCDC Ground Vehicle Systems Center-Tony Thampan, Yi Ding, Laurence Toomey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0452
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The U.S. Army has been pursuing vehicle electrification to achieve enhanced combat effectiveness. The benefits include new capabilities that require high power pulse duty cycles. However as the vehicle platform size decreases, the Energy Storage System (ESS) pulse power discharge rates ( > 40 C rate) can be significantly greater than commercial Hybrid Electric Vehicle ESS, resulting in significantly lower ESS lifetimes. Results of high power pulse duty cycles on lithium iron phosphate cell lifetime performance show a dramatic loss. For a 2 s and 3 s pulse duration tests, the observed degradation is 22 % and 32 % respectively. Although these cells were thermally managed in a convective chamber at 10℃, the 2 s pulse showed a 31℃ temperature rise and the 3 s pulse, a 48℃ temperature rise. The decreased lifetime is as a result of chemical degradation due to the increased temperature, and potentially, mechanical degradation due to pulse induced diffusion stresses. Both of these mechanisms lead to lithium loss and eventual capacity loss. To mitigate the thermally induced degradation, due to…
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Using Design of Experiments to Size and Calibrate the Powertrain of Range-Extended Electric Vehicle

Ricardo UK Ltd.-Ran Bao, James Baxter, Pascal Revereault
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0849
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A Range-Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV) usually has an additional power source which includes a range extender that can provide additional range when the main Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) runs out. The range extender can be a fuel cell, a gas turbine, or an Internal Combustion Engine bolted to a generator. Sizing the powertrain for a REEV is primarily to investigate the relationship between the capacity of the main RESS and the power rating of the range extender. Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures (WLTP) introduced a Utility Factor (UF) which is a curve that calculates the weighted test results for the Off-Vehicle Charging-Hybrid Electric Vehicles (OVH-HEVs) depending upon the measured Charge Depleting mode range result and Charge Sustaining mode Fuel Consumption (FC). Therefore, the RESS capacity, the range extender power rating, the control strategy, and the UF are the key factors affecting the weighted FC of a REEV on the test cycle. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a fast approach to develop REEV powertrain. It can size the capacity of the…
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An Empirical Aging Model for Lithium-Ion Battery and Validation Using Real-life Driving Scenarios

Detroit Engineered Products, Inc.-Abdullah-Al Mamun
FCA US LLC-Sandeep Makam, Carrie Okma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0449
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used as the energy storage system in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) due to their high power and energy density and long cycle life compared to other chemistries. However, LIBs are sensitive to operating conditions, including temperature, current demand and surface pressure of the cell. One very well understood phenomenon of lithium-ion battery is the reduction in charge capacity over time due to cycling and storage commonly known as capacity fade. Considering the need of predicting the behavior of an aged cell and the need of estimating battery useful life for warranty purpose, it is crucial to predict the capacity fade with reasonable accuracy. To accommodate this need, a novel cell level empirical aging model is built based on the storage test and cycle test. The storage test captures the captures the calendar aging of the lithium-ion cell while the cycle test estimates the cycle aging of the cell. In the proposed model the calendar aging is represented as a function of time, storage…
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Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Modeling with Experiments for Battery Pack Design

Wayne State University-Yiqun Liu, Y. Gene Liao, Ming-Chia Lai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1185
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-ion polymer battery has been widely used for vehicle onboard electric energy storage ranging from 12V SLI (Starting, Lighting, and Ignition), 48V mild hybrid electric, to 300V battery electric vehicle. Formulation on cell parameters acquired from minimum numbers of experiments, the modeling and simulation could be an effective approach in predicting battery performance, thermal effectiveness, and degradation. This paper describes the modeling, simulation, and validation of Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt-Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2) based cell with 3.6V nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity. Constant current 20A, 40A, 60A, and 80A discharge tests are conducted in the computer-controlled cycler and temperature chamber. Discharging voltage curves and cell surface temperature distributions are recorded in each discharging test. A three-dimensional cell model is constructed in the COMSOL multi-physics platform based on the cell parameters. The model validation is performed by experimental discharging voltage curves and cell surface temperature data. Simulated data matches the experiments with acceptable discrepancy. As a cell is the building block to form high-voltage battery module and pack, the developed cell model could play an important role in battery pack development…
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Optimal Sizing and Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Hybrid Turboelectric Aircraft

Georgia Institute of Technology-Christopher Perullo
Ohio State University-Aaronn Sergent, Michael Ramunno, Matilde D'Arpino, Marcello Canova
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0050
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid-electric gas turbine generators are considered a promising technology for more efficient and sustainable air transportation. The Ohio State University is leading the NASA University Leadership Initiative (ULI) Electric Propulsion: Challenges and Opportunities, focused on the design and demonstration of advanced components and systems to enable high-efficiency hybrid turboelectric powertrains in regional aircraft to be deployed in 2030. Within this large effort, the team is optimizing the design of the battery energy storage system (ESS) and, concurrently, developing a supervisory energy management strategy for the hybrid system to reduce fuel burn while mitigating the impact on the ESS life. In this paper, an energy-based model was developed to predict the performance of a battery-hybrid turboelectric distributed-propulsion (BHTeDP) regional jet. A study was conducted to elucidate the effects of ESS sizing and cell selection on the optimal power split between the turbogenerators (TGs) and ESS. To this extent, the supervisory energy management strategy is formulated into a discrete time optimal control problem and solved via dynamic programming. The performance of BHTeDP was compared to a turboelectric…
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SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2020

  • Magazine Article
  • 20TOFHP02_14
Published 2020-02-01 by SAE International in United States

Off-highway industrial machines require multi-function implement operation with dynamic duty cycles. In many cases, machine implements demand short bursts of full engine power and brake dynamic loads requiring 50% or more of energy consumed. Many next-generation machines reduce energy loss and improve productivity by incorporating hybrid-electric approaches with energy storage. An efficient implement solution enabling the hybrid-electric approach is essential to achieve maximum improvement potential.

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Robot Circulating Liquid Stores Energy and Provides Power

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36003
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Humans and other complex organisms manage life through integrated systems. Humans store energy in fat reserves spread across the body and an intricate circulatory system transports oxygen and nutrients to power trillions of cells. But with an untethered robot, things are much more segmented with batteries, motors, and cooling systems scattered throughout.