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Accelerated Secure Boot for Real-Time Embedded Safety Systems

SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

Rhein-Waal University of Applied Sciences-Kleve, Germany-Wonder Gumise
University of Michigan–Dearborn, USA-Ahmad M.K. Nasser, Di Ma
  • Journal Article
  • 11-02-01-0003
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
Secure boot is a fundamental security primitive for establishing trust in computer systems. For real-time safety applications, the time taken to perform the boot measurement conflicts with the need for near instant availability. To speed up the boot measurement while establishing an acceptable degree of trust, we propose a dual-phase secure boot algorithm that balances the strong requirement for data tamper detection with the strong requirement for real-time availability. A probabilistic boot measurement is executed in the first phase to allow the system to be quickly booted. This is followed by a full boot measurement to verify the first-phase results and generate the new sampled space for the next boot cycle. The dual-phase approach allows the system to be operational within a fraction of the time needed for a full boot measurement while producing a high detection probability of data tampering. We propose two efficient schemes of the dual-phase approach along with calibratable parameters to achieve the desired tamper detection probability. We evaluate the tampering detection accuracy within a simulation environment. Then we build a…
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Q&A: Power Anomalies Detect Malware in Embedded Systems

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34730
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Aydin Aysu, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in the Electrical & Computer Engineering Department at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, where he helped develop a technique for detecting micro-architecture malware that uses a system’s architecture to thwart traditional security measures.

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Model-Based Software Development: Functional Safety Compliance via Built-In Tool Intelligence

SimuQuest Inc.-Raymond C. Turin
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Today’s automobiles are among the most sophisticated machines on the planet. Much of the functionality of modern automobiles emanates from embedded software features that control electronic, mechanical or pneumatic devices. Over the past few decades the number of software features and the associated code has grown exponentially and the respective embedded software systems have reached a level of complexity which is increasingly difficult to manage. As a consequence, recalls due to software defects have become a major concern and today constitute about 50% of the overall warranty cost [1]. Since the operation of automobiles has severe public safety implications, the development of embedded automotive software has become subject to stringent functional safety standards (ISO 26262) and compliance with these standards has become a major hurdle in the development of automotive software.This paper outlines a tool-based solution that satisfies an important subset of functional safety standards via built-in intelligence. The solution marks a major step towards an agile, safety compliant development process that does not impose restrictions regarding product innovation. The core concept of this tool-based…
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Optimization-Based Robust Architecture Design for Autonomous Driving System

Hitachi America, Ltd.-Yuto Imanishi
Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas Inc.-Taisetsu Tanimichi, Yukti Matta
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With the recent advancement in sensing and controller technologies architecture design of an autonomous driving system becomes an important issue. Researchers have been developing different sensors and data processing technologies to solve the issues associated with fast processing, diverse weather, reliability, long distance recognition performance, etc. Necessary considerations of diverse traffic situations and safety factors of autonomous driving have also increased the complexity of embedded software as well as architecture of autonomous driving. In these circumstances, there are almost countless numbers of possible architecture designs. However, these design considerations have significant impacts on cost, controllability, and system reliability. Thus, it is crucial for the designers to make a challenging and critical design decision under several uncertainties during the conceptual design phase. This paper proposes an optimization-based robust architecture design framework for an autonomous driving system. The proposed framework focuses mainly on two design processes. The first one deals with the hardware integration issue. In this process, processors and buses need to be selected from an available hardware list and connected to realize the hardware system.…
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Analyze This! Sound Static Analysis for Integration Verification of Large-Scale Automotive Software

Absint Angewandte Informatik Gmbh-Daniel Kaestner, Laurent Mauborgne, Stephan Wilhelm, Christian Ferdinand
Robert Bosch GmbH-Bernard Schmidt, Maximilian Schlund
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Safety-critical embedded software has to satisfy stringent quality requirements. One such requirement, imposed by all contemporary safety standards, is that no critical run-time errors must occur. Runtime errors can be caused by undefined or unspecified behavior of the programming language; examples are buffer overflows or data races. They may cause erroneous or erratic behavior, induce system failures, and constitute security vulnerabilities. A sound static analyzer reports all such defects in the code, or proves their absence. Sound static program analysis is a verification technique recommended by ISO/FDIS 26262 for software unit verification and for the verification of software integration. In this article we propose an analysis methodology that has been implemented with the static analyzer Astrée. It supports quick turn-around times and gives highly precise whole-program results. We give an overview of the key concepts of Astrée that enable it to efficiently handle large-scale code, and describe a pre-analysis which transforms the source code to make it better amenable to static analysis. The experimental results confirm that sound static analysis can be successfully applied for…
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How FMC Developments Support Legacy and Next-Gen Data Needs

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34121
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

While FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card) celebrated its 10th anniversary this year, it continues to provide a variety of benefits to the embedded system developer. These include sustained implementation and deployment in new technologies. Additionally, the release of FMC+ provides improved design capabilities. However, with data rates always on the rise and shrinking form factors, the question arises: Why does FMC continue to be so popular and what has sustained it over the years?

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How FMC Developments Support Legacy and Next-Gen Data Needs

Aerospace & Defense Technology: April 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP04_04
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States

While FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card) celebrated its 10th anniversary this year, it continues to provide a variety of benefits to the embedded system developer. These include sustained implementation and deployment in new technologies. Additionally, the release of FMC+ provides improved design capabilities. However, with data rates always on the rise and shrinking form factors, the question arises: Why does FMC continue to be so popular and what has sustained it over the years?

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Management of RAM Fault for Safety Applications

John Deere-Anavaratha Selvan Ganapathi
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
As safety compliance (ISO 26262) has become a norm for automotive embedded software development, the OEMs and Tier1 are pushed to follow the safety guidelines during hardware, software development process. This demands the microcontroller to not only detect internal faults but also find the exact root cause of the failure and have a self-healing mechanism. This paper presents proposed fault detection, injection, testing and shows comparison of microcontroller fault handling with respect to ISO26262 safety standard between proposed method and traditional method by giving the example of RAM test. Also gives an overview of software implementation of this concept as per AUTOSAR standard.
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Introduction to the Secure Microkernel, seL4

  • Professional Development
  • C1874
Published 2018-12-13

Security continues to be an ever-growing concern in more and more design spaces. There are daily articles about security breaches and there is a need for much higher security through the entire system stack. Thorough testing of systems can lead to stronger security in systems, but testing can only expose so many vulnerabilities. Formal methods is another solution that ensures specific behaviors will not occur. seL4 is the first formally proven microkernel and it is open-source. This makes it a great solution for systems that need strong security. The highest profile application of the seL4 Microkernel was in the DARPA High-Assurance Cyber Military Systems (HACMS) project where it was demonstrated that formal verification can scale to real-life systems to protect a wide range of cyber-physical systems from attacks. The biggest drawback of seL4 is that not many developers know about it or know how to utilize it.

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An Integrated Approach to Model Based Engineering with SysML, AADL and FACE

ANSYS-Thierry LeSergent
AVIC Digital Corporation Ltd.-Wang Zhe
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Multiple model-based engineering (MBE) frameworks have emerged to cover the many requirements for the engineering of avionics systems: from early requirement capture to the final system and embedded software generation, through refinement and V&V activities. In this paper, we consider the SysML, AADL and FACE standards. They are promoted by different standardization bodies, with different objectives. We note they are often seen as competitive, while we argue it is the opposite: there is a potential for a synergistic coupling. To date, no complete open evaluation on the feasibility of such capability has been done.In this paper, we present one workflow that illustrates the joint use of SysML, AADL and FACE. We consider a basic flight control system to exercise the proposed process and gateways between the three notations. We use SCADE Architect by ANSYS that supports the three notations in a unified workbench to illustrate refinement scenarios from one notation to another, then synchronize with SCADE Suite to complete the software development.
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