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Energy, Fuels, and Cost Analyses for the M1A2 Tank: A Weight Reduction Case Study

CCDC Ground Vehicle Systems Center-Rob Hart
EcoSpherica LLC-John L. Sullivan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0173
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reducing the weight of the Abrams M1A2 tank has been studied by lightweighting three separate components: hull, suspension, and track, resulting in 5.1, 1.3, and 0.6 percent tank mass reductions, respectively. The impact of replacing an existing with a lightweight component on tank performance are evaluated in terms of three metrics: primary energy demand (PED), cost, and tank operational fuel consumption (FC). The life cycle phases included are: preproduction, material production, part fabrication, and tank operation. The metrics for each of the tank lightweight components are expressed as ratios: for example, the sum of PED for the four life cycle phases of the lightweight tank / the PED for the operational phase only of the base case (unmodified) tank. For Army defined duty cycles, a FC/mass elasticity of 0.55 was employed for estimating changes in tank FC upon mass reductions. On a per tank basis, we find that the relative costs to retrofit and operate a tank with a lightweight hull ranges from 19 to 3.5 times those for simply operating (fuel costs) an existing…
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Engine warm up optimization study using 1D virtual tool

Detroit Engineered Products (DEP) Inc.-Toukir Islam
FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Amit Kumar, Vaibhav Patil, Dhananjay Autade, Tharunnarayanan Arthanari, Kamalakannan J
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0319
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automotive emission and fuel consumption regulations are becoming more stringent decade over decade. These regulations are expected to be stricter in future to protect environment from global warming, associated health issues and conserve energy. Automobile industries find it difficult to meet the fuel and emission regulations during homologation cycle i.e. NEDC (New European Drive Cycle). Experiments and researches indicates that engine structural parts achieve steady state near end of the homologation cycle which leads to associated cold start drawbacks during testing. Also, studies have proved that thermal efficiency of IC engine is severely affected in cold start conditions due to higher friction losses, incomplete combustion and their allied effects. Oil and coolant temperatures helps in diminishing mechanical losses and achieving complete combustion. Hence, effective distribution of combustion heat during cold start is of utmost importance. The competitive dynamics of automobile industry demands shorter vehicle development time along with obliging the upcoming stringent norms. Effective usage of CAE virtual tools is essential to meet these requirements. Indeed, one dimensional (1D) virtual tools have both time and…
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On Modeling the Total Cost of Ownership of Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

Toyota Motor North America Inc.-Karim Hamza, Ken Laberteaux, Kang-Ching Chu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1435
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Sales of plug-in vehicles (PEVs), which include battery-only electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), have steadily grown in the past years amidst various incentive programs. While incentives are important, or perhaps essential during early phases of market introduction, they may not be feasibly sustainable when/if PEV sales ramp up to mass-market levels. As such, much interest and speculation exist on how soon could PEVs become cost-competitive without incentives. Research in this paper adopts a bottom-up approach for estimating sale price and total cost of ownership (TCO) for new vehicles. A critical review is also conducted for various publicly available sources of information pertaining to PEVs and conventional internal combustion-engine (CICE) vehicles. Due to the existence of some uncertainty about current costs, let alone future costs, a sensitivity analysis is conducted. In the various scenarios considered in the sensitivity analysis, a combination of cost predictions being better than the baseline case may allow some of the PEVs to have better TCO than a CICE within the 2030 timeframe. However, even the most optimistic…
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Aluminium for Curbing GHG Emissions in Indian Public Transport Buses

Automotive Research Association of India-Mahesh Anand Patwardhan, Pradeep Jawale, Pankaj Nirmal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1050
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Major cause of air pollution in the world is due to burning of fossil fuels for transport application; around 23% GHG emissions are produced due to transport sector. Likewise, the major cause of air pollution in Indian cities is also due to transport sector. Marginal improvement in the fuel economy provide profound impact on surrounding air quality and lightweighting of vehicle mass is the key factor in improving fuel economy. The paper describes robust and integrated approach used for design and development of lightweight bus structures for Indian city bus applications.An attempt is made to demonstrate the use of environment friendly material like aluminium in development of lightweight superstrutured city buses for India. Exercise involved design, development and prototype manufacturing of 12m Low Entry and 12m Semi Low Floor (SLF) bus models. Aluminium lightweight Bus prototypes conforms to the Indian regulatory requirement viz. bus body code AIS:052, AIS:153 and strength requirements of Urban Bus Specification.Aluminium superstructures developed are 30% lighter compared to steel buses of similar class which has resulted in fuel economy improvement of…
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Balancing Lifecycle Sustainment Cost with Value of Information during Design Phase

CCDC Ground Vehicle Systems Center-Sam Kassoumeh, Monica Majcher, James Ealy, David Gorsich, Paramsothy Jayakumar
Oakland University-Vijitashwa Pandey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0176
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The complete lifecycle of complex systems, such as ground vehicles, consists of multiple phases including design, manufacturing, operation and sustainment (O&S) and finally disposal. For many systems, the majority of the lifecycle costs are incurred during the operation and sustainment phase, specifically in the form of uncertain maintenance costs. Testing and analysis during the design phase, including reliability and supportability analysis, can have a major influence on costs during the O&S phase. However, the cost of the analysis itself must be reconciled with the expected benefits of the reduction in uncertainty. In this paper, we quantify the value of performing the tests and analyses in the design phase by treating it as imperfect information obtained to better estimate uncertain maintenance costs. A multi-attribute decision framework for military ground vehicles acquisition is employed to illustrate the methodology and the value of performing the analysis early in the system’s lifecycle. Attributes considered are maintenance cost and operational availability, while the utility is calculated for a risk averse decision maker. Numerical methods are employed to calculate the value…
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Use of Model Verification and Validation in Product Reliability and Confidence Assessments

Ground Vehicle Reliability Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2940_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-10 by SAE International in United States
This SAE standard outlines the steps and known accepted methodologies and standards for linking Model V&V with model-based product reliability assessments. The standard’s main emphasis is that quantified values for model-based product reliability must be accompanied by a quantified confidence value if the users of the model wish to claim use of a “Verified and Validated” model, and if they wish to further link into business and investment decisions that are informed by quantitative second-order risk and benefit cost considerations.
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Reducing the High Cost Of Titanium

Aerospace & Defense Technology: December 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP12_03
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Titanium is neither a precious metal nor rare, yet among industrial metals it has the reputation for being very expensive. It's the fourth most abundant metallic element and the ninth most abundant of all the elements in the earth's crust. Its commercially useful oxide ore occurs in the minerals rutile and ilmenite and numerous iron ores, and exploitable ore deposits are liberally scattered around the world in Australia, Canada, India, Malaysia, Norway, Russia, South Africa and the U.S. But due to its properties and high cost it has often been referred to as unobtanium.

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Reducing the High Cost Of Titanium

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35667
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Titanium is neither a precious metal nor rare, yet among industrial metals it has the reputation for being very expensive. It's the fourth most abundant metallic element and the ninth most abundant of all the elements in the earth's crust. Its commercially useful oxide ore occurs in the minerals rutile and ilmenite and numerous iron ores, and exploitable ore deposits are liberally scattered around the world in Australia, Canada, India, Malaysia, Norway, Russia, South Africa and the U.S. But due to its properties and high cost it has often been referred to as unobtanium.

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Life Cycle Assessment of a Passenger Vehicle to Analyze the Environmental Impacts Using Cradle to Grave Approach

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, lifecycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle assessment as…
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Replacing Twin Electric Fan Radiator with Single Fan Radiator

Engine Design & Testing-Tushar Warkhade
Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Aashish Bhargava, Gaurav Soni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2381
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce - Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance.This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.Further Cooling system performance of engine is evaluated along with Fuel efficiency; results are compared with present configuration.
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