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Enhancement of Occupant Ride Comfort by GA Optimized PID Control Active Suspension System

Anna University-Arivazhagan Anandan, Arunachalam K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1532
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The main objective of this work is to enhance the occupant ride comfort. Ride comfort is quantified in terms of measuring distinct accelerations like sprung mass, seat and occupant head. For this theoretical evaluation, a 7- degrees of freedom (DOF) human-vehicle-road model was established and the system investigation was limited to vertical motion. Besides, this work also focused to guarantee other vehicle performance indices like suspension working space and tire deflection. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced in the vehicle model and optimized with the aid of the genetic algorithm (GA). Actuator dynamics is incorporated into the system. The objective function for PID optimization was carried out using root mean square error (RMSE) concept. The severity of various suspension indices and biomechanics responses of the developed model under proposed approach were theoretically analyzed using various road profiles and compared with conventional passive system. Furthermore, this work discussed the seat to head transmissibility ratio (STH) response to examine the severity of whole-body vibration (WBV). Subsequently, the respective performance measures were statistically analyzed using root mean square…
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Development, System Integration and Experimental Investigation of an Active HVAC Noise Control System for a Passenger Car

Fraunhofer Institute LBF-Jonathan Millitzer, Valentin Mees, Christopher Ranisch
Hyundai Motor Company-Joong-Kwan Kim, Jinmo Lee, ChiSung Oh, Kang-Duck Ih
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1538
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and consistent lightweight construction increasingly enable the application of active control systems for the further reduction of noise in vehicles. As different stochastic noise sources such as rolling and wind noise as well as noise radiated by the ventilation system are becoming more noticeable and as passive measures for NVH optimization tend to be heavy and construction space intensive, current research activities focus on the active reduction of noise caused by the latter mentioned sources. This paper illustrates the development, implementation and experimental investigation of an active noise control system integrated into the ventilation duct system of a passenger car. Making use of a model-based design process, the development is based upon a holistic numerical simulation model integrating a reduced order acoustic model derived from finite element simulations as well as simplified loudspeaker and microphone characteristics. The numerical simulation assists the selection of a suitable loudspeaker microphone configuration, taking into account the available installation space and the integration of low-cost loudspeakers and MEMS microphones. The ventilation…
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Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

Fraunhofer Institute LBF-Thorsten Koch, Jonathan Millitzer, William Kaal PhD, Georg Stoll, Matthias Schmidt
Hyundai Motor Company-Joong-Kwan Kim, Jinmo Lee, ChiSung Oh, Kang-Duck Ih
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1535
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. Based upon a numerical simulation of an installed windshield of a medium-sized car, this paper illustrates a conceptual study of both the evaluation of optimal positioning as well as a consideration of different electromechanical activation measures. A simulation model of the installed windshield is gained from an experimental modal analysis of both the windshield in free-free condition as well as in its installed configuration. The experimental data serves the frequency domain model update process of a finite element model of the installed windshield. A…
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CFD Analysis and Validation of Automotive Windshield De-Fogging Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.https://www.sae-Gopinath Sathianarayanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0039
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays Climate component system plays a vital role in JD power rating of automotive vehicle. Apart from customer point of view, stringent homologation norms pose challenge in designing climate control system components. At extreme cold climate conditions either mist/ fog forms on the automobile windshield. This makes visibility issue on driver/Co driver side. To overcome this issue efficient demister system is required. Development of Demister system requires thorough knowledge on velocity spread over windscreen and thermal performance of heater (HVAC). This work is aimed for simulating windshield demisting patterns of a vehicle as described by ECC norms. New methodology was developed to simulate the actual behaviour of condensation and evaporation of mist on the windscreen. Transient demisting patterns were simulated with the CFD code and validated with experimental test results.
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Numerical Investigations on Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics of Climate Control Systems in Electric Vehicles

Pranav Vikas India Pvt Ltd-Vijayaraghavan S, Govindaraj D
Pranav Vikas India Pvt Ltd.-Mahendravarman Radha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0010
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Earth's surface temperatures would increase from 2.90 C to 3.40 C by the year 2100 due to global warming, leads to conceivable calamitous effects on human livelihoods, livestock, ecosystems and biodiversity. Overall globally several policies were made to reduce the carbon dioxide emission and other greenhouse gases. The transportation sector is one of the prominent sources of carbon dioxide emissions. On account of the significant emissions caused by conventional buses, migrating to electric buses which have zero tailpipe emissions for public transport fleets is essential. Taken into consideration of the energy density of traction batteries, and cost, energy utilized for HVAC applications should be optimized. Heat transfer and flow characteristics in the condenser and the evaporator zone of climate control system for electric buses were numerically studied and compared with experimental results. Grid independence and turbulence studies were carried out to develop the CFD methodology for this analysis. Air velocity and temperature was measured at different locations in the climate control system to calculate the flow and thermal performance. Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics…
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Integrated Regenerative Braking System and Anti-Lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Battery Electric Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Yixin Yao, Yanan Zhao, Mark Yamazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0846
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes development of an integrated regenerative braking system and anti-lock brake system (ABS) control during an ABS event for hybrid and electric vehicles with drivelines containing a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential. The control objectives are to recuperate the maximum amount of kinetic energy during an ABS event, and to provide no degraded anti-lock control behavior as seen in vehicles with regenerative braking disabled. The paper first presents a detailed control system analysis to reveal the inherent property of non-zero regenerative braking torque control during ABS event and explain the reason why regenerative braking torque can increase the wheel slip during ABS event with existing regenerative braking control strategies. Then, the regenerative brake control problem during ABS events is formulated with a unified control system architecture where the regenerative braking torque is coordinated with the friction braking torque of ABS system. An integrated closed loop based wheel slip control including both regenerative braking control loop and friction braking control loop during ABS event, referred to as…
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MIMO Control of a Turbogenerator for Energy Recovery

Loughborough Univ.-Simon Petrovich, Kambiz Ebrahimi, Nikolaos Kalantzis, Antonios Pezouvanis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0261
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Market trends for increased engine power and more electrical energy on the powergrid (3kW+), along with customer demands for fuel consumption improvements and emissions reduction, are driving requirements for component electrification, including turbochargers. GTDI engines waste significant exhaust enthalpy; even at moderate loads the WG (Wastegate) starts to open to regulate the turbine power. This action is required to reduce EBP (Exhaust Back Pressure). Another factor is catalyst protection, where the emissions device is placed downstream turbine. Lambda enrichment or over-fueling is used to perform this. However, the turbine has a temperature drop across it when used for energy recovery. Since catalyst performance is critical for emissions, the only reasonable location for an additional device is downstream of it. This is a challenge for any additional energy recovery, but a smaller turbine is a design requirement, optimized to operate at lower pressure ratios. A WAVE model of the 2.0L GTDI engine was adapted to include a TG (Turbogenerator) and TBV (Turbine Bypass Valve) with the TG in a mechanical turbocompounding configuration, calibrated with steady state…
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A Control System for Maintaining Passenger Cabin Air Quality

Chulalongkorn University-Thanin Wangsawangkul, Thiti Maneepipat, Nattapong Sukumdhanakul, Porpin Pungetmongkol, Prabhath De Silva
DENSO International Thailand-Pradit Mahasaksiri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1243
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a control methodology to maintain vehicle cabin air quality within desirable levels, giving particular attention to gaseous contaminants carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO). The CO2 is generated by the occupant exhalation while the CO is assumed to be ingested with the incoming outside air. The system is able to detect and improve cabin air quality by controlling the recirculation flap of the ventilation system to control the amount of outside air intake. The methodology is demonstrated in the laboratory using controlled experiments with a production level automotive HVAC module. The results indicated that the designed control system can work automatically and control the CO and CO2 gas concentrations within acceptable levels when operating in an environment of near zero ppm CO and 600 ppm CO2 concentrations, respectively.
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Development and demonstration of a class 6 range-extended electric vehicle for commercial pickup and delivery operation

Cummins Inc.-John Kresse, Ke Li, Jesse Dalton
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew A. Jeffers, Eric Miller, Kenneth Kelly
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0848
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Range-extended hybrids are an attractive option for medium- and heavy-duty (M/HD) commercial vehicle fleets because they offer the efficiency of an electrified powertrain and accessories with the range of a conventional diesel powertrain. The vehicle essentially operates as if it was purely electric for most trips, while ensuring that all commercial routes can be completed in any weather conditions or geographic terrain. Fuel use and point-source emissions can be significantly reduced, and in some cases eliminated, as many shorter routes can be fully electrified with this architecture. Under a U.S. Department of Energy award for M/HD Vehicle Powertrain Electrification, Cummins has developed a plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) class 6 truck with a range-extending engine designed for pickup and delivery application. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) assisted by developing a representative work day drive cycle for class 6 operation and adapting it to enable track testing. A novel, automated driving system was developed and utilized by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to improve the repeatability of vehicle track testing used to quantify vehicle energy consumption. Cummins…
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Minimizing Disturbance Detection Time in Hydraulic Systems

General Motors LLC-Paul Otanez, Ramadityanand Bhogadi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0263
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In a hydraulic system, parameter variation, contamination, and/or operating conditions can lead to instabilities in the pressure response. The resultant erratic pressure profile reduces performance and can lead to hardware damage. Specifically, in a transmission control system, the inability to track pressure commands can result in clutch or variator slip which can cause driveline disturbance and/or hardware damage. A variator is highly sensitive to slip and therefore, it is advantageous to identify such pressure events quickly and take remedial actions. The challenge is to detect the condition in the least amount of time while minimizing false alarms. A Neyman-Pearson and an energy detector (based on auto-correlation) are evaluated for the detection of pressure disturbances. The performance of the detectors is measured in terms of speed of detection and robustness to measurement noise. The implications in terms of computations and memory utilization of implementing the detectors in real-time embedded systems are also discussed. Both simulation and hardware examples are presented. The hardware experiment is performed in a hydraulic system with low damping composed of a solenoid…