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To establish the correlation in between Computer Aided Engineering & physical testing of automotive parts returnable case (Stacktainer).

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Ashish Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2569
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Automotive returnable cases (Stacktainers) are being used to transport the automotive parts through surface & seaways. No automotive manufacturer wants to spend money on woods, paper & cardboard again and again, it`s better to pay once for robust & reusable cases. these provide better protection to parts from its manufacturing to assembly line of vehicle. While transporting, any kind of crack or failure of returnable cases may lead to loss of money, human & time. To ensure the safety, these pallets have to be validated for vibrations coming from surface irregularities, sea waves & load due to stacking of cases one above other. The objective of this study is to establish a correlation in between the physical testing & simulation in Computer added Engineering (CAE) of automotive returnable case (Stacktainers). There are different types of tests considered to validate the returnable case, rough road evaluation, Multi-axial Vibration & strength evaluation. After conducting the physical test & CAE simulation, a correlation & confidence level up to 90% is established.
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Study of Handling Behavior of a Passenger Vehicle after Addition of CNG Tank

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Lakshmi Narasimha Varma Jelli, Raghav Budhiraja, Akash Goel, Deepak Bakshi, Rakesh K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2405
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to study the change in handling behaviour of the dual-fuel vehicle fitted with a CNG tank to that of its single fuel (gasoline) counterpart. A validated CarSim model is run through steady state and transient state handling tests before and after the addition of CNG tank. The simulation results are used to compare the handling characteristics of the CNG vehicle with the reference vehicle. Further based on these results the suspension parameters are changed to find an optimum set-up for the actual CNG vehicle.
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ENHANCE STRENGTH, ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF THE 3D PRINTED ASSEMBLY AID GAUGES

General Motors Technical Center India-Ramesh Kavalur, Raghavendra Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2568
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
ENHANCE STRENGTH, ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF THE 3D PRINTED ASSEMBLY AID GAUGES Ramesh Kavalur1, Raghavendra Rao 1 1 Body in White, Manufacturing Engineering, General Motors Technical Centre India Pvt. Ltd, India, Keywords - Additive manufacturing, assembly aid gauges, 3D printer. Research Objective - Automotive manufacturing impressively implementing 3D printed jigs and fixtures. Traditional manufacturing of metal assembly aid gauges have limitations such as lead time and causes dent and rough marks on the outer panel of the body. On the other hand, 3D printed jigs and fixtures, demands more time (depends on complexity), have low level of precision and they offer lower strength. It is observed that this occurs because of the inefficient design and manufacturing without understanding the functionality and capability of the 3D printer. The primary objective of this study is to examine, design & develop 3D printed jigs and fixture to optimize the product, achieve required precision and functionality with improvement in the strength of the product. Methodology - In order to examine, detail examination of existing 3D printed part were studied.…
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Development of a Simulation Model for Computing Stable Configurations for Off - Road Vehicle

Piyush Kailash Malviya
John Deere India Pvt. Ltd.-Vinit Shashikant Jawale, Ojas Patil, Ameya Bandekar
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Off-highway vehicles operate under complex duty cycles which consist of handling varying terrain conditions under dynamic loads. A challenge for the equipment operator is to maintain stability of the vehicle during various field operations. The operator must make judgment calls on whether terrain and loading conditions are suitable for vehicle stability. In view of the increasing emphasis being placed on operator comfort and vehicle autonomy, a methodology to predict the degree of vehicle stability in varying terrains and dynamic loads will be an aid in designing safer vehicles. This paper describes a mathematical model capable of predicting the longitudinal overturning behavior of off-highway vehicle. A mathematical kinematic and dynamic model of the system is developed using Newton-Euler approach. This yields a system of non-linear equations which can be solved iteratively by using any commercial software to predict stability for varying terrains and dynamic loads. Given a vehicle geometry and terrain conditions, this methodology allows the simulation and prediction of various longitudinal overturning situations under dynamic loading. The modularity and scalability of the methodology will allow…
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The Effects of Front-Mounted Accessories on Air Bag Sensors and Crashworthiness

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2431_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-09 by SAE International in United States
Almost all light trucks now are being manufactured with at least a driver side air bag and all will have dual air bags by 1998. The driving forces behind this feature are occupant safety, federal regulations, and competition in the industry. Along with the booming popularity of pickups and SUVs, they are commonly accessorized with a wide variety of products. Many accessories for four-wheel drives in particular are mounted on the front of the vehicle. These products include grille/brush guards, winches, snow plows, replacement bumpers, bicycle carriers, etc. Concerns have arisen over the compatibility of these accessories with the vehicle’s air bag system. The vehicle manufacturers are concerned because of their huge investment in design and crash test verification of the complete vehicle system and keen awareness of the federal regulations. The crushability of the front bumper and supporting structure are key elements in the system, so alterations to that area become logical concerns. The accessory manufacturers, dealers, and installers are concerned because the very core of their business could be at risk. The unknowns…
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Dynamic Microstructures Move by Light and Temperature

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35270
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

3D printing via direct laser writing involves a computer-controlled focused laser beam that acts as a pen and creates the desired structure in the printer ink — a photoresist. In this way, any three-dimensional form down to the size of a few micrometers can be created.

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Experimental and Computational Investigation of Particle Filtration Mechanisms in Partially Damaged DPFs

University of Thessaly-Onoufrios Haralampous, Marios Mastrokalos, Fotini Tzorbatzoglou, Chris Dritselis
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Understanding the filtration mechanisms in partially damaged Diesel Particulate Filters is very important for the design of exhaust systems with efficient On-Board Diagnosis functionality, especially as new threshold limits have been recently applied for particulate mass leakage. Two common types of DPF failure are included in this study, namely rear plug removal and internal failure due to uncontrolled regeneration with excessive deposit loading. Initially, the two respective filters were loaded on the engine bench with particle measurement upstream and downstream, and then they were disassembled and sectioned to study the deposit distribution. The analysis of the second filter revealed several modes of failure that should be expected under real-life conditions such as material accumulation in the inlet channels, substrate melting, and crosswise and diagonal crack development. Moreover, a computational model with the necessary adjustments is used to simulate the loading experiments and interpret the underlying filtration mechanisms. The processed results reveal small effects of temperature and mass flow rate on the filtration efficiency and a comparatively stronger impact of the total deposit loading. The local…
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Optimization of Multi Stage Direct Injection-PSCCI Engines

Università degli Studi della Basilicata-Annarita Viggiano, Vinicio Magi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0029
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The more and more stringent regulations on emissions lead the automotive companies to develop innovative solutions for new powertrain concepts, including the employment of advanced combustion strategies and mixture of fuels with different thermochemical properties. HCCI combustion coupled with the partial direct injection of the charge is a promising technique, in order to control the performance and emissions and to extend the operating range.In this work an in-house developed multi-dimensional CFD software package has been used to analyze the behavior of a multi stage direct injection - partially stratified charge compression ignition engine fueled with PRF97. A combustion model based on the partially stirred reactor concept to include the influence of turbulence on chemistry has been employed. Specifically, a skeletal kinetic reaction mechanism for PRF oxidation, with a dynamic adaptive chemistry technique to reduce the computational cost of the simulations has been used. Most of the fuel is injected during the intake stroke, in order to get a homogeneous mixture of fuel and air, whereas the remaining part is injected at the end of the…
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CFD Modeling of Compact Heat Exchangers for I.C. Engine Oil Cooling

Politecnico di Milano-Augusto Della Torre, Gianluca Montenegro, Angelo Onorati
UFI Filters-Roberto Icarelli
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This work describes the development of a computational model for the CFD simulation of compact heat exchangers applied for the oil cooling in internal combustion engines. Among the different cooler types, the present modeling effort will be focused on liquid-cooled solutions based on offset strip fins turbulators. The design of this type of coolers represents an issue of extreme concern, which requires a compromise between different objectives: high compactness, low pressure drop, high heat-transfer efficiency. In this work, a computational framework for the CFD simulation of compact oil-to-liquid heat exchangers, including offset-strip fins as heat transfer enhancer, has been developed. The main problem is represented by the need of considering different scales in the simulation, ranging from the characteristic size of the turbulator geometry (tipically μm - mm) to the full scale of the overall device (typically cm - dm). Therefore, the developed modeling approach is based on a multi-scale concept, which applies: a) detailed simulations, performed on a refined grid on a representative elementary volume (REV), to characterize the fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer properties of…
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Torque and Pressure CFD Correlation of a Torque Converter

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Ford Motor Company, USA-Steve Frait, Ram Devendran
Michigan Technological University, USA-Edward De Jesus Rivera, Mark Woodland, Darrell Robinette, Jason Blough, Carl Anderson
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-03-0012
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
A torque converter was instrumented with 29 pressure transducers inside five cavities under study (impeller, turbine, stator, clutch cavity between the pressure plate and the turbine shell). A computer model was created to establish correlation with measured torque and pressure. Torque errors between test and simulation were within 5% and K-Factor and torque ratio errors within 2%. Turbulence intensity on the computer model was used to simulate test conditions representing transmission low and high line pressure settings. When turbulence intensity was set to 5%, pressure simulation root mean square errors were within 11%-15% for the high line pressure setting and up to 34% for low line pressure setting. When turbulence intensity was increased to 50% for the low line pressure settings, a 6% reduced root mean square error in the pressure simulations was seen. For all pressure settings, cavities closer to the converter inlet required a 5% turbulence intensity while the cavities inside or near the torus were better suited with 50% turbulence intensity levels.
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