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Methodology using IPS for creation and installation of flexible components in stationary vehicles

General Motors, do Brasil-André Tognolli, Fernando Utiyke, Douglas Migliorini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0125
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Through dynamic computational simulations it is possible to achieve a high reliability index in the development of automotive components, thus reducing the time and cost of the component can generate considerable levels of competitiveness and quality.This work suggests the validation of a methodology to create the virtual routes to find the best design of the flexible components influenced by force of gravity, thermal expansion or even the static balance between the anchor points and used to be designed and installed in the vehicle always in the nominal condition which in many cases diverge from the physical.With the difficulty of predicting mathematically the nonlinear relations of deformation and motion under the effect of forces and moments, we use the NX9 software in the creation of the dynamic movement motion to the motor and transmission assembly imposes on the flexible components through a routine mapped by Cartesian coordinates, simulating the characteristic movements of the vehicle in normal working situations.Using the software IPS - Industrial Path Solution, for the construction of the flexible model to be simulated, the…
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Three-dimensional dynamics of a three-axle vehicle considering the suspension geometry according to the kinematic transformers method

Instituto Militar de Engenharia-Gustavo Simão Rodrigues, Marcelo Andrés Acuña, Rafael Vitor Guerra Queiroz, Ricardo Teixeira da Costa Neto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0237
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this work is to model the dynamics of a three-dimensional three-axle vehicle subjected to certain excitations from the ground and considering the geometry and inertia of the suspension elements according to the “kinematic transformers” method.The chassis is considered a rigid body with six degrees of freedom (three positions and rotations).The tire is a compliant element, which receives vibration from the ground and transmits to the wheel.Unlike simpler computational models, which make a direct connection between the wheel and the chassis by means of a spring and damper, the influence of the suspension geometry and inertia of its elements are considered. In this case of study, the suspension studied is the independent MacPherson in each wheel, although the methodology would be applied to other kind of suspensions, once its geometry is known.The kinematic transformers method is applied to study the cinematics of the suspension. It uses the minimum number of kinematic equations, allowing an efficient solution to describe the movement of the mechanism when implemented computationally.Combining the kinematic transformers method with the d'Alembert…
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Turbocharger Performance Prediction: A Review of Map Modelling

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica - Universid-José Arthur G. S. Teixeira, Oscar R. Sandoval, Bryan Castro Caetano, José Guilherme Coelho Baeta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0120
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Supercharging has been increasingly more employed as an approach to improve the internal combustion engine (ICE) thermal efficiency. The turbocharger (TC) stands out as a well-established technology which recovers waste energy from exhaust gases to increase the ICE intake pressure and mass flow rate. Nevertheless, the increasingly stringent restrictions on greenhouse gases emission, concomitantly with performance improvement required from customers, impose a tighter pairing between TC and ICE and higher control of TC operational conditions. Matching a proper TC for a given ICE has a major importance for the global efficiency, having direct impact on specific consumption, emission levels and drivability. This process is typically performed using computational simulations via interpolations of TC tabular performance maps, which details the flow status for given shaft speed and mass flow rate. Although this method provides a reliable and accurate description of the TC performance within the mapped domain, the multiple interpolations and extrapolations required entails high computational costs. Furthermore, the extrapolations required to describe the flow outside the mapped domain are not able to predict well the…
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Finned surfaces in air-cooled internal combustion engine: influence of geometry and flow conditions

Federal Institute of Espírito Santo - IFES-Gomes C. L., Arruda C. A. M., Sian J. G. A, Schaeffer L. C., Favalessa L. B., Monhol F. A. F.
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0160
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The internal combustion engine cooling is very important to its proper functioning, since high temperatures can shorten the durability of internal components and hence increase fuel consumption. In air-cooled engines it is common to use extended surfaces (fins), which provide an increase in the convective and radiative heat exchange. Thus, the present work investigates the phenomenon of convection between the external air and the motor casing through computational simulations. The finite differences method was applied for two fin geometry (annular and rectangular). The temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate in the fin were obtained for different ambient temperatures (20 - 40 °C) and flow rates (0 - 25 m/s). The analysis was based on a typical 150-cylinder motorcycle engine with fins made of 204-aluminum alloy. It was observed that under zero flow conditions and ambient temperature of 30 °C there was a temperature gradient of 38.49 °C on the annular fins and only 7.76 °C on the rectangular ones. For forced convection conditions (at 25 m / s) the gradient on the annular fins…
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Chemical kinetic mechanisms for HCCI combustion of wet ethanol with exhaust gas recirculation

Chemical Engineering Department – UFSM-Jean L. S. Fagundez, Nina P. G. Salau
Mechanical Engineering Department – UFSM-Filipe A. Herzer, Mario E. S. Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0293
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This work compares the accuracy of in-cylinder pressure and apparent heat release rate (AHRR) diagrams to the experimental data and the use of different chemical kinetics models applied to the GT-Power® software. The engine computational model is based on a naturally aspirated diesel engine with three cylinders, one of them modified to operate with hydrous ethanol with port fuel injection and HCCI combustion achieved with hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) of the Diesel cylinders. Operating points chosen to perform the comparison to experimental tests were 1800 rpm, 300 kPa of indicated mean effective pressure and fuels with 10% and 20% of water-in-ethanol by volume. The kinetic mechanisms for ethanol oxidation evaluated were the detailed NUI Galway and a Skeletal model based on it. With either model, cylinder pressure diagrams were not very different from the experimental values. The detailed mechanism was, on average, 9 times slower to process each case than the Skeletal mechanism. The quality of data obtained with the Skeletal mechanism and its lower computational cost makes it a good solution for a…
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Applications of Strain Measurements to Improve Results on Transfer Path Analysis

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais-C. A. P. Melo
Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paul-A. C. R. Ramos, L.P.R de Oliveira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0323
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles with lower noise levels and better levels of vibratory comfort for passengers made the area of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) one of the main areas related to the perception of vehicle quality. Several approaches on the contribution of transfer paths have been studied to define the propagation energy in vehicular structures. Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a tool to improve NVH performance with the primary goal of reducing and improving perceived vibrations and noise in the cabin vehicle by occupants. Indirect methods are especially important in cases where the force signals are immeasurable in practice in terms of cost and space for sensor couplings, in the measurement configuration, and particularly in the case of distributed forces. The matrix inversion method, perhaps the most popular classic TPA, identifies operational forces using passive body acceleration. However, removal of the source can change the dynamic characteristics of the assembled structure and increase the time of the experiment, which results in misleading information in the measurements. For this reason, the inversion operation of the acceleration matrix can…
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Thermal behavior of aircraft gas turbine blades under different internal cooling conditions

Federal Institute of Espírito Santo - IFES-L. P. Borlini, T. V. Caniçali, L. N. Santos, J. A. Coelho, I. M. Minchio, F. A. F. Monhol
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0212
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Gas turbines are high value-added equipment due to their compact construction, lower weight and high power compared to traditional internal combustion engines. This equipment is subject to high mechanical demands, high temperatures, corrosive and erosive environments, which certainly have a direct influence on its performance. Thus, with the increasing demands of the aerospace industry, it became necessary to use devices to improve their efficiency, such as internal cooling systems and insulation layers. However, a detailed knowledge of the operational variables is necessary in order to define the appropriate internal cooling conditions of the equipment. Thus, the present work aims to analyze, through computational simulations using the finite difference method in its two-dimensional form, the temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate of gas turbine blades under different thermal conditions. The temperature of the hot gas flowing through the blades, as well as the flow and temperature of the cooling air that passes through their internal channels, were varied in order to obtain the influence of each of these factors on the thermal behavior of the…
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Dynamic modeling and simulation of a powertrain system with a six-speed automatic transmission

Schaeffler Brasil Ltda.-Marcel T. da S. de Araujo, Murilo F. Falleiros, Gustavo dos S. Gioria
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0100
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The constant growth of the automotive market demands for comfort to the user and energy efficiency have caused the intensification of the industry researches and development of the automatic transmissions (AT). However, vehicles equipped with these gearboxes entails in higher fuel consumption levels than the one required by vehicles equipped with manual transmission. In the automotive industry due to the advantages offered using computer simulations, such as fast evaluation an optimization, many researchers are using virtual models for optimization of dynamic behavior of systems and fuel consumption. Aiming to study the dynamic behavior of an AT and the influence of its components on that behavior, this paper presents an AT dynamic model developed in MATLAB® / Simulink®. The AT model has three main subsystems: a torque converter model, which includes the dynamic of both the forward flow mode and the reverse flow mode; a Lepelletier gearbox model, composed by a set of three planetary gearsets in parallel, resulting in a six forward speeds gearbox; and a gear-shift schedule, which has the vehicle speed and accelerator…
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Aerodynamic Effect of Aspect Ratio of Spherical Depressions on the Bonnet of Hatchback Cars

Delhi Technological University-Vishesh Kashyap, B.B. Arora, Sourajit Bhattacharjee, Priyanshu Mittal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5096
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Flow separation is one of the primary causes of increase in form drag in vehicles. This phenomenon is also visible in the case of lightweight vehicles moving at high speed, which greatly affects their aerodynamics. Spherical depressions maybe used to delay the flow separation and decrease drag in such vehicles. This study aims for optimization of aspect ratio (AR) of spherical depressions on hatchback cars. Spherical depressions were created on the bonnet of a generalized light vehicle Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model. The diameter of each spherical depression was set constant at 60 mm, and the center-to-center distance between consecutive spherical depressions is fixed at 90 mm. The AR of spherical depressions was taken as the parameter that was varied in each model. ARs 2, 4, 6, and 8 were considered for the current investigation. Three-dimensional (3D) CFD analyses were then performed on each of these models using a validated computational model. Vehicle travel velocities of 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 m/s, which were nondimensionalized for scaling the results, were considered for analyses, in order…
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Experimental Proof-of-Concept of HiL Based Virtual Calibration for a Gasoline Engine with a Three-Way-Catalyst

FEV Europe GmbH-Pietro Gardini, Thomas Scheel, Vitali Walter, Jaykumar Kansagara Raul Tharmakulasingam, Marius Böhmer, Martin Nijs
Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University-Feihong Xia, Frank Dorscheidt, Stefan Lücke, Jakob Andert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2301
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The increasing complexity of modern combustion engines together with the substantial variability of hybrid electric powertrains, lead to new challenges in function development, system integration and vehicle calibration processes. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulations have been introduced to front-load part of the testing and calibration tasks from the vehicle to a virtual environment. With this approach, the simulation quality and the cost-benefit ratio are strongly dependent on the accuracy of the plant modelling and the computational effort.This paper introduces a novel HiL simulation platform for an engine control unit (ECU) with a crank-angle resolved real-time model (GT-Power) for a gasoline engine with direct fuel injection, single stage turbocharging and a three-way catalyst. By simplifying the fluid dynamics simulation model from the concept phase, a good compromise between model accuracy and computation speed can be achieved with relatively low effort. The coupling of the engine model and the hardware ECU has been implemented using a realtime workstation with a co-simulation platform (xMOD) coupled to a HiL-simulator with the necessary I/O boards (dSPACE). The closed-loop boost pressure and the…
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