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The Application of Simplified Loadpath Models (SLMs) to Improve Body Structure Knowledge and Efficiency

FCA US LLC-James Truskin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0912
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Simplified Loadpath Models (SLMs) of the advanced body in white (BIW) design concept provide a highly flexible and rapid platform to explore body structure loadpath alternatives and performance:weight optimization. The SLM modelling process combines higher order Beam and Bush finite elements with coarsened Shell-meshed panels to represent the body structure. FCA US LLC has understood and validated the SLM build process for a BIW, and correlated key structural performance metrics to higher order, detailed Finite Element (FE) models. While the benefits of loadpath optimization through Beam element parameter variation is well-documented and applied extensively for these types of models, this paper covers another valuable benefit of the SLMs; to provide a better understanding of the sensitivities and influence of joint stiffnesses on key body structure attributes to promote more intelligent and efficient body structure joint designs. Current techniques for joint sensitivity studies typically change the stiffness of a zone of finite elements within a prescribed joint geometry and provide some insight into the critical joints and panels for key body stiffness metrics. However, this approach…
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Parameter Sensitivity Study of Self-piercing Rivet Insertion Process using Finite Element and Machine Learning Method

Chongqing University-Yudong Fang, Zhenfei Zhan
Ford Motor Company-Li Huang, Shiyao Huang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0219
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Self-piercing rivets (SPR) are efficient and economical joining methods for lightweight automotive body structure manufacturing. Finite element method (FEM) is a potential effective way to assess joining process while some uncertain parameters can be employed in the simulation based on the prior knowledge, which could lead to significant mismatches between CAE predictions and physical tests. Thus, a sensitivity study on critical CAE parameters is important to guide the high-fidelity modeling of SPR insertion Process. In this paper, a 2-D symmetrical CAE model is constructed to simulate the insertion process of the SPR using LS-DYNA/explicit. Then, several surrogate models are trained using machine learning methods to build the linkage between selected inputs (e.g. material properties, interfacial frictions, clamping force) and outputs (cross-section dimensions). It is found that it is feasible to train surrogate models with high accuracy to replace the time-consuming CAE simulations with a limited sampling volume. Based on trained surrogate models, an extensive sensitivity study is conducted to thoroughly understand the impact of a collection of CAE parameters. This research provides a solid foundation…
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3rd Generation AHSS Virtual and Physical Stamping Evaluation

FCA US LLC-Bryan Macek
United States Steel Corporation-Justin Lutz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0757
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Developing lightweight, stiff and crash-resistant vehicle body structures requires a balance between part geometry and material properties. High strength materials suitable for crash resistance impose geometry limitations on depth of draw, radii and wall angles that reduce geometric efficiency. The introduction of 3rd generation Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) can potentially change the relationship between strength and geometry and enable simultaneous improvements in both. This paper will demonstrate applicability of 3rd generation AHSS with higher strength and ductility to replace the 780 MPa Dual Phase steel in a sill reinforcement on the current Jeep Cherokee. The focus will be on formability, beginning with virtual simulation and continuing through a demonstration run on the current production stamping tools and press.
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Springback Prediction and Correlations for Third Generation High Strength Steel

General Motors-Jatinder Singh, Jixian Sun, Adam Groseclose
U. S. Steel-Xiaoming Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0752
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Third generation advanced high strength steels (3GAHSS) have superior properties combining high strength and good formability. They are increasingly used in automotive components for light weight and safety body structures. However, high strength usually introduces high springback that affects the dimensional accuracy. The ability to accurately predict springback in simulations is very important to reduce the cost in stamping trials and to promote 3GAHSS applications. In this work, systematic parametric studies and material models evaluations have been conducted on 980 MPa 3GAHSS steels. Case studies from full-scale industrial part stamping are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the measured springback data. Key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Simulation practices are recommended to improve springback prediction accuracy and robustness.
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Optimization of the finite hybrid piezoelectric phononic crystal beam for the low-frequency vibration attenuation

Tongji University-Shuguang Zuo, Panxue Liu, xudong Wu, Lingzhou Sun, Qi Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0913
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a theoretical study of a finite hybrid piezoelectric phononic crystal (PC) beam with shunting circuits. The vibration transmissibility method (TM) is first developed for the finite system. The symmetric and asymmetric configurations of the piezoelectric patches are both considered. The properties of the band-gap and vibration attenuation are then illustrated for different locations of the piezoelectric patches. Taking the structural and circuit parameters into account, the design of experiments (DOE) is applied to select several important design variables. On this basis, the multi-objective genetic optimization algorithm is proved to be effective to improve the vibration attenuation. The hybrid piezoelectric PC combines the purely mechanical PC with the piezoelectric PC and provides more tunable mechanisms for target band-gaps. It is promising to reduce the low-frequency vibration and noise of the vehicle body structure.
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Analysis of High Cycle Fatigue In Welded Joints Of Profiles With Thin Walls Used In Bus Structures Subjected To Combined Loads Through Comparative Analysis

Marcopolo SA-Eng. Felipe Biondo
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS)-Dr. Eng. Afonso Reguly, Dr. Eng. Marcelo Favaro Borges
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0074
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Projects of bus body structures must be developed taking into consideration the dynamic loads that this type of vehicle is subjected to. Experimental and numerical methods can be used to evaluate fatigue life in order to determine the durability of these vehicles. Bus structures are basically constructed using welded thin walled profiles that are often oversized due to the lack of knowledge of several product characteristics such as the conditions of the pavements, deficiency of characterization of welded joints and the quality of the materials used. Allied to this the Brazilian road system counts on several types of roads, presenting roads in good conditions of conservation until roads in precarious conditions with extremely high severity. In addition, vehicle safety standards have been intensifying their requirements. With that in mind, bus body manufacturers are investing in research to produce more durable, efficient and safe buses, expanding the search through engineering tools to develop better and more competitive products. The aim of this work was to analyze high cycle fatigue life of welded joints of thin-walled profiles…
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Recovery Attachment Points for Passenger Cars, Vans, and Light Trucks

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2069_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide guidelines to the vehicle manufacturer for applying recovery attachment points on vehicles rated up to 3178 kg (7000 lb) GVW, such as passenger cars, vans, and light trucks.
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Uniform Reference and Dimensional Guidelines for Collision Repair

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1828_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice defines, for vehicle manufacturers and collision information and equipment providers, the types of vehicle dimensional data needed by the collision repair industry and aftermarket equipment modifiers to properly perform high-quality repairs to damaged vehicles. Both bodyframe and unitized vehicles, including passenger cars and light trucks, are addressed.
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Recommended Practice for Optimizing Automobile Damageability and Repairability

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1555_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to all portions of the vehicle, but design efforts should focus on components and systems with the highest contribution to the overall average repair cost (see 3.7). The costs to be minimized include not only insurance premiums, but also out-of-pocket costs incurred by the owner. Damageability, repairability, serviceability and diagnostics are inter-related. Some repairability, serviceability and diagnostics operations may be required for collision or comprehensive loss-related causes only. Some operations may be for non-collision-related causes only (warranty, scheduled maintenance, non-scheduled maintenance, etc.). Some may be required for both causes. The scope of this document deals with only those operations that involve collision and comprehensive insurance loss repairs.
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Vehicle Passenger Door Hinge Systems

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J934_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-09 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this SAE Recommended Practice is to establish recommended uniform test procedures and minimum static load requirements for vehicle passenger door hinge systems. Tests are described that can be conducted on test fixtures and equipment in laboratory test facilities. The test procedures and minimum performance requirements outlined in this document are based on currently available engineering data. It is intended that all portions of the document be periodically reviewed and revised as additional knowledge regarding vehicle hinge system performance under impact conditions is developed.
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