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Squeak&Rattle - New Equivalent Static Load (ESL) based on Dynamic Distortion in all Body Openings from both Test and Simulation

AFRY-Viktor Jönsson
BETA CAE Nordic AB-Mohamed Zaben
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1556
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The body stiffness has a major impact on the Squeak&Rattle (S&R) performance of a car. Since the body structure of electrical/automated cars will differ clearly from traditional bodies, an enhanced requirement is needed to limit the distortion in the closure openings. The new requirement can be derived from a complete vehicle simulation using the deformation of the diagonals in the closure openings. This simulation includes different test tracks by using the dynamic road load data which can be obtained from a multi body simulation of a complete vehicle. Since the requirement needs to be applied early in the development only an untrimmed body model (BIG) is available, which can be used for a simplified static load. This paper shows a new approach of defining an equivalent static load (ESL), which considers both the reduction from a complete vehicle to a BIG and from a dynamic load to a static load. The approach is based on the comparison of the deformation in the diagonals of all closure openings between the dynamic simulation of a complete trimmed…
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Unsettled Issues Concerning PHM Systems and Maintenance Credits

  • Research Report
  • EPR2020006
To be published on 2020-05-01
No Abstract Available.
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The Design of Safe-Reliable-Optimal Performance for Automated Driving Systems on Multiple Lanes with Merging Features

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Kaijiang Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0122
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Safety function for automated driving systems including advanced driver assistance systems and autonomous vehicle systems is very important. Inside safety function, predictive judge sub-function should be designed with the consideration of more and more penetration of automated driving vehicles. This paper presents the design on multiple lanes with merging features based on the author's previous Patent JP2019-147944 using predictive time-head-way and time-to-collision maps. In the author's previous work (Model Predictive Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Platooning Using Slope Information-Published on IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems), a model predictive control framework was designed. Due to the difficulty to detail the sub-safety function deeply with merging features, few works are found to deal with sensor platforms focusing on rear side, and situations of merging lane side with the consideration of relative relation variations with other vehicles and road border markers. However, performance enhancement is needed assuring 100% safety-reliability-optimality and single-objectivity. Also, platforms of on-board sensors including side and rear view are needed to deal with false negative operations and false positive operations. The optimal operation line…
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A Connected Controls and Optimization System for Vehicle Dynamics and Powertrain Operation on a Light-Duty Plug-In Multi-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Michigan Technological University-Joseph Oncken, Joshua Orlando, Pradeep K. Bhat, Brandon Narodzonek, Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Bo Chen, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0591
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an overview of the connected controls and optimization system for vehicle dynamics and powertrain operation on a light-duty plug-in multi-mode hybrid electric vehicle developed as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program by Michigan Technological University in partnership with General Motors Co. The objective is to enable a 20% reduction in overall energy consumption and a 6% increase in electric vehicle range of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle through the utilization of connected and automated vehicle technologies. Technologies developed to achieve this goal were developed in two categories, the vehicle control level and the powertrain control level. Tools at the vehicle control level include Eco Routing, Speed Harmonization, Eco Approach and Departure and in-situ vehicle parameter characterization. Tools at the powertrain level include PHEV mode blending, predictive drive-unit state control, and non-linear model predictive control powertrain power split management. These tools were developed with the capability of being implemented in a real-time vehicle control system. As a result, many of the developed technologies have been demonstrated in real-time using a fleet of…
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Control Model of Automated Driving Systems Based on SOTIF Evaluation

PATAC-Mengge Guo, Shiliang Shang, Cui Haifeng
Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Kaijiong Zhang, Weishun Deng, Xi Zhang, Fan Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1214
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In partially automated and conditionally automated vehicles, a part of the work of human drivers is replaced by the system, and the main source of safety risks is no longer system failures, but non-failure risks caused by insufficient system function design. The absence of unreasonable risk due to hazards resulting from functional insufficiencies of the intended functionality or by reasonably foreseeable misuse by persons, is referred to as the Safety Of The Intended Functionality. Drivers have the responsibility to supervise the automated driving system. When they don't agree with the operation behavior of the system, they will interfere with the instructions. However, this may lead to potential risks. In order to discover the causes of human misuse, this paper takes the trust feeling between the driver and the automated driving system as the starting point, and based on the collected data of track test, establishes the evaluation indicator -- degree of confidence to show the trust feeling between the driver and the automated system. Degree of confidence is a comprehensive interpretation of the driver's physical…
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Real-time Motion Classification of LiDAR Point Detection for Automated Vehicles

Hanyang University-Chansoo Kim, Sungjin Cho, Myoungho Sunwoo
Konkuk University-Kichun Jo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0703
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is now becoming an essential sensor for an autonomous vehicle. The LiDAR provides the surrounding environment information of the vehicle in the form of a point cloud. A decision-making system of the autonomous car is able to determine a safe and comfort maneuver by utilizing the detected LiDAR point cloud. If the movement class (dynamic or static) of detected points can be provided by LiDAR, the decision-making system is able to plan the appropriate motion of the autonomous vehicle according to the movement of the object. This paper proposes a real-time process to segment the motion states of LiDAR points. The basic principle of the classification algorithm is to classify the point-wise movement of a target point cloud through the other point clouds and sensor poses. First, a fixed-size buffer store the LiDAR point clouds and sensor poses for a constant time window. Second, motion beliefs of the target point cloud against other point clouds and sensor pose in the buffer are estimated, respectively. Each motion belief of the…
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A Human Body Model Study on Restraints for Side-Facing Occupants in Frontal Crashes of an Automated Vehicle

Joyson Safety Systems-Maika Katagiri, Sungwoo Lee
Joyson Safety Systems, NA-Jay Zhijian Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0980
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study is to investigate kinematics and responses of side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes of an automated minivan using Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) simplified occupant models (50th%ile male and 5th%ile female), and to develop new restraint concepts to protect the occupants. The latest GHBMC M50-OS and F05-OS models (version 2.1) were further validated with the Postmortem Human Subject (PMHS) side sled tests [Cavanaugh 1990] and the PMHS far-side sled tests [Formen 2013], with detailed correlations of the kinematics and the injury measures. Robustness and biofidelity of the GHBMC human models, especially for the pelvis and knee body regions, were further improved. Using the improved M50-OS and F05-OS models, we evaluated the body kinematics and injury measures of the side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes at severities ranging from 15 mph to 35 mph. Three restraint conditions were studied: 1) no restraint; 2) lap belt only; 3) lap belt and conceptual inflatable device. An additional parametric study on the restraint design parameters of the #3 restraint concept was performed to “optimize” the restraint…
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Challenges in Integrating Cybersecurity into Existing Development Processes

Invensity GmbH-Patric Lenhart, Paul Arndt, Jana von Wedel, Christian Beul, Jan Weldert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0144
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For an established development process and a team accustomed to this process, adding cybersecurity features to the product initially means inconvenience and reduced productivity without perceivable benefits. Adapting development processes to take cybersecurity into account introduces challenges not present in engineering divisions so far. Strategies designed to deal with these challenges differ in the way in which added duties are assigned and cybersecurity topics are integrated into the already existing process steps. Cybersecurity requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods, leading to low acceptance among developers, and introducing the need to have clear policies on how friction between cybersecurity and other fields is handled. A cybersecurity development approach is frequently perceived as introducing impediments, that bear the risk of cybersecurity measures receiving a lower priority to reduce inconvenience. Moreover, this leads to frustration among cybersecurity developers when their proposals are not accepted, and they feel their work is not appreciated. On the other hand, putting too much emphasis on cybersecurity leads to feature creep and makes the development unnecessarily complicated without…
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Development of a Procedure to Correlate, Validate and Confirm Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Targets for ADAS Testing

Dynamic Research Inc.-Jordan Silberling, John Lenkeit
Michigan Technological University-William Buller
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0716
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Surrogate targets are used throughout the automotive industry to safely and repeatably test Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and will likely find similar applications in tests of Automated Driving Systems. For those test results to be applicable to real-world scenarios, the surrogate targets must be representative of the real-world objects that they emulate. Early target development efforts were generally divided into those that relied on sophisticated radar measurement facilities and those that relied on ad-hoc measurements using automotive grade equipment. This situation made communication and interpretation of results between research groups, target developers and target users difficult. SAE J3122, “Test Target Correlation - Radar Characteristics”, was developed by the SAE Active Safety Systems Standards Committee to address this and other challenges associated with target development and use. J3122 addresses four topics. First, it describes standardized equipment and procedures for making various types of calibrated radar measurements using automotive grade equipment, with minimal measurement site restrictions. Second, a correlation procedure is provided that is used to define validity regions and properties of representative real-world objects. Third,…
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Concurrent Optimization of Vehicle Dynamics and Powertrain Operation Using Connectivity and Automation

University Of Delaware-A M Ishtiaque Mahbub, Andreas A. Malikopoulos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0580
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) provide the most intriguing opportunity to reduce energy consumption and travel delays. In this paper, we propose a two-level control architecture for CAVs to optimize (1) the vehicle’s speed profile, aimed at minimizing stop-and-go driving, and (2) the powertrain efficiency of the vehicle for the optimal speed profile derived in (1). The proposed hierarchical control framework can be implemented onboard the vehicle in real time with minimal computational effort. We evaluate the effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed architecture through simulation in Mcity using a 100% penetration rate of CAVs. The results show that the proposed approach yields significant benefits in terms of energy efficiency.