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Unsettled Topics Concerning the Field Testing of Automated Driving Systems

Bob McQueen and Associates-Bob McQueen
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019009
To be published on 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
Automated driving systems (ADS) have the potential to revolutionize transportation. Through the automation of driver functions in the application of advanced technology within the vehicle, significant improvements can be made to safety, efficiency, the user experience and the preservation of the environment. According to The Us Department of Transportation [1], there are more than 1,400 cars, trucks, buses and other vehicles being tested by more than 80 companies across the USA. Implementation of ADS technology is well advanced, with many sites across the us incorporating automated vehicles (AVs) into wider programs to apply advanced technology to transportation. Discussions with public sector implementing agencies suggests that one of the barriers to faster progress lies in the lack of consistent and standardized field-testing protocols. This report looks at the state of the art of field testing for automated driving systems and identifies areas for improved consistency and standardization. It will define the problem to be addressed by AVs and the challenges associated with the introduction of such vehicles and open road situations. In particular, the report will…
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Unsettled Issues in Determining Appropriate Modeling Fidelity for Automated Driving Systems Simulation

Silicon Valley Mobility-Sven Beiker
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019007
Published 2019-12-06 by SAE International in United States
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of achieving optimal model fidelity for developing, validating, and verifying vehicles capable of automated driving. Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest:First, assuring that simulation models represent their real-world counterparts, how to quantify simulation model fidelity, and how to assess system risk.Second, developing a universal simulation model interface and language for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors.Third, characterizing and determining the different requirements for sensor, vehicle, environment, and human driver models.SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies. The three technical issues identified in this report need to be discussed in greater depth with the aims of, first, clarifying the scope of the industry-wide alignment needed; second, prioritizing the issues requiring resolution; and, third, creating a plan to generate the necessary frameworks, practices, and protocols.NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are intended to identify and illuminate key issues in emerging, but still unsettled, technologies of interest to the mobility industry. The goal of…
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Unsettled Impacts of Integrating Automated Electric Vehicles into a Mobility-as-a-Service Ecosystem and Effects on Traditional Transportation and Ownership

International Transportation Innovation Center (ITIC)-Joachim Taiber
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019004
Published 2019-11-25 by SAE International in United States
The current business model of the automotive industry is based on individual car ownership, yet new ride sharing companies such as Uber and Lyft are well capitalized to invest in large, commercially operated, on-demand mobility service vehicle fleets. Car manufacturers like Tesla want to incorporate personal car owners into part time fleet operation by utilizing their commercial fleet service. These robotaxi-fleets can be operated profitably when the technology works in a reliable manner and regulators allow driverless operation. Although Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) models of private and commercial vehicles fleets can complement public transportation models, they may contribute to lower public transportation ridership and thus higher subsidies per ride. This can lead to inefficiencies in the utilization of existing public transportation infrastructure. MaaS platforms can also cause a reduced reliance on parking infrastructure (e.g., street parking lanes and parking garages) which can contribute to an improvement in overall traffic flow and a reduction in capital investment for commercial and residential real estate development. Urban planning can be better centered around the true mobility needs of the citizens…
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Approach for standardization of Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS) in India

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Aditi Sethi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2464
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Authors: Aditi Sethi1, Siddhanta Shrivastava2, Madhusudan Joshi3 Organization: 1,2,3 International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Introduction: With the increasing utilization of electronics in Indian automobile industry, there is an essential requirement for standardizing the functional safety of sub-systems that constitute advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) as it would be the foundation stone for the automated vehicles in future. These systems assist the driver and the driving process, further increasing the car safety and road safety, subsequently reducing human error. Due to interaction of several electronic control units (ECUs) in a vehicle and complexity of the system, electronic stability plays a vital role. Therefore, the standards shall be more performance oriented and technology neutral. They shall also cover validation tests associated with safety, mechanical rigidity, durability, environmental protection and electromagnetic compatibility. Standardization of ADAS would authenticate the quality, regulate and smoothen the uniform implementation of these sub-systems. Interestingly the standardization of ADAS is in progress at the international level. It is therefore pertinent to consider adoption, formulation or both of international standards as a part of…
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Identifying Automated Driving Systems-Dedicated Vehicles (ADS-DVs) Passenger Issues for Persons with Disabilities

On-Road Automated Driving (ORAD) committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3171_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States

It is expected that Level 4 and 5 automated driving systems-dedicated vehicles (ADS-DVs) will eventually enable persons to travel at will who are otherwise unable to obtain a driver's license for a conventional vehicle, namely, persons with certain visual, cognitive, and/or physical impairments. This information report focuses on these disabilities, but also provides guidance for those with other disabilities. This report is limited to fleet operated on-demand shared mobility scenarios, as this is widely considered to be the first way people will be able to interact with ADS-DVs. To be more specific, this report does not address fixed route transit services or private vehicle ownership. Similarly, this report is focused on road-worthy vehicles; not scooters, golf carts, etc. Lastly, this report does not address the design of chair lifts, ramps, or securements for persons who use wheeled mobility devices (WHMD) (e.g., wheelchair, electric cart, etc.), as these matters are addressed by other committees within SAE International.

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AVSC Best Practice for In-Vehicle Fallback Test Driver Selection, Training, and Oversight Procedures for Automated Vehicles Under Test

Automated Vehicle Safety Consortium
  • Best Practice
  • AVSC00001201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-08 by SAE Industry Technologies Consortia in United States

ABSTRACT

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Editorial

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: December 2019

Editorial Director-Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP11_01
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

After digesting some of the fascinating insights from surveys taken of automated-vehicle test riders - most of them first-timers - who participated in SAE International's Demo Days program (see pg. 31), you've got to conclude that the only thing predictable about the new-mobility landscape is its unpredictability.

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Mapping Canada - Centimeter by Centimeter

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: December 2019

Sebastian Blanco
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP11_05
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

A Montreal-based company leverages artificial intelligence to take on the task of developing high-definition maps of Canada.

Fully-automated vehicles will only be as smart as the datasets they use to determine their driving pathways. Jakarto Cartographie 3D, a young company based in Montreal, Canada, is working on artificial-intelligence (AI)-powered, high-definition (HD) maps that it claims offer 2-3 cm (.787- to 1.2-inch) absolute precision and relative precision measured in millimeters. In other words, better maps that will allow for better automated vehicles (AVs).

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3D Sonar Sees Objects Overlooked by Costlier Sensors

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: December 2019

Bradley Berman
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP11_07
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

A dream of robotic fish inspires inexpensive automated-driving sensing technology that works for the critical areas close to the vehicle.

Alexander Rudoy was spending almost every hour of his free time developing a robotic toy fish that could sense its underwater surroundings. At that time a decade ago, he was studying electromechanical engineering at the Munich University of Applied Sciences, where he earned a Masters degree in 2015. Rudoy never finished his robo-guppy, but even before graduating, he founded Toposens, a company that now utilizes the guppy's underlying close-distance ultrasound technology for a wide range of vital automated-vehicle operations.

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The Navigator

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: December 2019

Sam Abuelsamid
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP11_02
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

Science-fiction author Arthur C. Clarke once wrote, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” When I was learning to drive, like many teens, I struggled with some of the more mundane tasks such as parallel parking. In recent years though, technological advances have made even that seem magical at times.

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