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Putting failure in context - Importance of the Digital Twin & Digital Thread for Predictive Maintenance in Aerospace

Aras Corp.-Suresh Iyer, Marc lind
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0051
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
KEYWORDS Digital Thread, Digital Twin, Predictive Maintenance ABSTRACT Competitive disruption combined with economic uncertainty and regulatory pressure is forcing fundamental changes in the maintenance industry. At the same time, new complexities are being introduced with next generation aircraft and changing business models. Initiatives for greater efficiencies, optimization and predictive maintenance are becoming critical to survival as market realities continue to unfold. Yet, most organization's digital strategies focus on technology infrastructure like big data clouds, data lakes and analytics for performance data without taking into account the necessary context for interpretation, analysis and simulation - the Digital Twin configuration. In many cases, the disconnected nature of existing processes and systems actually make utilizing time series data generated during operation difficult or even impossible. In addition, the ability to understand and act upon these data often require traceability to information from previous activities - a Digital Thread. To complicate matters further when artificial intelligence / machine learning is introduced the necessity becomes even greater. In this session, the authors will discuss why global maintenance operations will require…
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A communication-free Human-Robot-Collaboration approach for aircraft riveting process using AI planning

Saarland University-Jörg Hoffmann
ZeMA gGmbH-Khansa Rekik, Rainer Mueller, Matthias Vette
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0013
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
In large scale industries attempts are continuously being made to automate assembly processes to not only increase productivity but also alleviate non-ergonomic tasks. However this is not always technologically possible due to specific joining challenges and the high number of special-purpose parts. For the riveting process, for example, semi-automated approaches represent an alternative to optimizing aircraft assembly and to reduce the exposure of workers to non-ergonomic conditions entailed by performing repetitive tasks. In (Mueller, Rainer, et al. 2019) a semi-automated solution is proposed for the riveting process of assembling the section barrel of the aft section to its pressure bulkhead. The method introduced a dynamic task sharing strategy between human and robot that implements interaction possibilities to establish a communication between a human and a robot in Human-Robot-collaboration fashion. Although intuitive, interacting with the robot constantly is still not natural for the worker as in the manual process no explicit communication between both workers is needed. In this work a communication-free Human-Robot-collaboration solution is presented. The method developed not only enables sharing assembly missions by…
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Unsettled Domains Concerning Autonomous System Validation and Verification Processes

EllectroCrafts Aerospace-Fabio Alonso da Silva
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019012
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) face similar challenges regarding the regulation of autonomous systems powered by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms that replace the human factor in the decision-making process. Validation and verification (V&V) processes contribute to implementation of correct system requirements and the development life cycle - starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. The V&V process is one of the steps of a development life cycle starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. They define what a product is, and they flow down into lower level requirements defining control architectures, hardware, and software. The industry is attempting to define regulatory requirements and a framework to gain safety clearance of such products. This report suggests a regulatory text and a safety and V&V approach from an aerospace engineering perspective assessing the replacement of the human driver from the decision-making role by a computational system. It also suggests an approach where aerospace guidelines can…
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Hybrid plant modelling of diesel engine and After treatment systems using Artificial Neural Networks

Mercedes-Benz Research and Development India-Sandeep Kumar, Sudip Gope, Aishwarya Vijapur
Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation (Japan)-Shinji Nakayama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2292
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
(a)Motivation:For Euro VI & JOBD-II emission compliance, emission control software and fault monitors are complex. In order to test such complex functionalities on a Hardware-In-Loop (HIL) environment, a realistic plant model is necessary. A realistic plant model can replicate real life scenarios accurately and help create scenarios difficult to test on a vehicle. A realistic plant model can increase the scope of emission software controls and OBD fault monitor testing on a HIL system.(b)Problem statement:Emission control software interacts with emission control devices based on complex chemical and physical interactions. Although physical and empirical approaches of modeling the complex emission plant models have been explored earlier, there is a tradeoff between plant model complexity and real time performance on HIL system, also there is a large effort and equipment infrastructure spent on parametrization of the complex physical and empirical models using techniques of Design of Experiments (DOE) and data analysis.(c)Approach:One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence into plant modelling.Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are…
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Semiconductor Safety Concepts for the Power Distribution of Automated Driving

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Infineon Technologies AG, Germany-Stefan Schumi
University of Technology Graz, Austria-Daniel Watzenig
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-04-0017
Published 2019-12-18 by SAE International in United States
Automated driving is a highly complex idea. It involves mechanics, electronics and chemistry, artificial intelligence, human intelligence and high computational efforts. Apart from those aspects, the automated intelligence is run using electricity. An unintended interrupt can easily lead to a hazard. Therefore, a highly reliable power distribution has to be developed. This work focuses on the reliability calculation of such a power distribution concept. It points out what is required and will be in future such that the algorithms for the path planning and control are running in a safe environment according to the ISO 26262 standard.
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Autonomous Vehicles Scenario Testing Framework and Model of Computation

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Florida Polytechnic University, USA-Ala Jamil Alnaser, Mustafa Ilhan Akbas, Arman Sargolzaei, Rahul Razdan
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-04-0015
Published 2019-12-18 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous Vehicle (AV) technology has the potential to fundamentally transform the automotive industry, reorient transportation infrastructure, and significantly impact the energy sector. Rapid progress is being made in the core artificial intelligence engines that form the basis of AV technology. However, without a quantum leap in testing and verification, the full capabilities of AV technology will not be realized. Critical issues include finding and testing complex functional scenarios, verifying that sensor and object recognition systems accurately detect the external environment independent of weather conditions, and building a regulatory regime that enables accumulative learning. The significant contribution of this article is to outline a novel methodology for solving these issues by using the Florida Poly AV Verification Framework (FLPolyVF).

The Role of Sensors in the Evolution of Robotics

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35609
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

At one time, robotics was considered more science fiction than reality. That's changing. Today, robots are increasingly playing a role in our everyday lives. They're zooming around our homes to pick up dust, helping surgeons perform operations with even more precision, sniffing out suspicious packages for law enforcement, and on the factory floor, they're performing all kinds of tasks for automotive, electronics, and industrial manufacturing companies.

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Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling

Altair Engineering India Pvt Ltd.-Painuri Thukaram, Sreeram Mohan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2456
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Ability to have least failures in products on the field with minimum effort from the manufacturers is a major area of focus driven by Industry 4.0 initiatives. Amidst traditional methods of performing system/subsystem level tests often does not enable the complete coverage of a machine health performance predictions. This paper highlights a workable workflow that could be used as a template while considering system design especially employing Digital Twins that help in mimicking real-life scenarios early in the design cycle to increase product’s reliability as well as tend to near zero defects.With currently available disruptive technologies, systems integrated multi-domain 'mechatronics' systems operating in closed-loop/close-interaction. This poses great challenge to system health monitoring as failure of any component can trigger catastrophic system failures. It may be the reason that component failures, as per some aerospace reports, are found to be major contributing factors to aircraft loss-of-control. Essentially, it is either too expensive or impossible to monitor every component or subsystem of a complex machine and the current state of the Integrated Health Monitoring Systems seem to…
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Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: November 2019

  • Magazine Issue
  • 19AVEP11
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Editorial Bill Visnic: Expect the unexpectedThe Navigator Sam Abuelsamid: Separating illusion from magic in AV deploymentThe Road to Automobility The era of electrified, self-driving vehicles is upon us. Engineers are key to the transformation - with much hard work still to be done.Far and Away: Remote Drivers Monitor Autonomous Vehicles Remote operators are helping autonomous shuttles and other AVs navigate through complex situations.Mapping Canada - Centimeter by Centimeter A Montreal-based company leverages artificial intelligence to take on the task of developing high-definition maps of Canada.You've Lost That Queasy Feeling… Transcontinental research aims to understand the complex nature of motion sickness to help improve the automated-vehicle experience.3D Sonar Sees Objects Overlooked by Costlier Sensors A dream of robotic fish inspires inexpensive automated-driving sensing technology that works for the critical areas close to the vehicle.Familiarity Breeds Respect SAE surveyed participants in its recently-concluded AV 'Demo Days' ride-along program. Their responses reinforce positive perceptions about the automated-driving experience.The AV Industry Searches for a Near-Term Business Case The TechCrunch Sessions at San Jose's Mobility 2019 conference advance the dialogue…
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Mapping Canada - Centimeter by Centimeter

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: December 2019

Sebastian Blanco
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP11_05
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

A Montreal-based company leverages artificial intelligence to take on the task of developing high-definition maps of Canada.

Fully-automated vehicles will only be as smart as the datasets they use to determine their driving pathways. Jakarto Cartographie 3D, a young company based in Montreal, Canada, is working on artificial-intelligence (AI)-powered, high-definition (HD) maps that it claims offer 2-3 cm (.787- to 1.2-inch) absolute precision and relative precision measured in millimeters. In other words, better maps that will allow for better automated vehicles (AVs).

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