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Experimental Study of Additive-Manufacturing-Enabled Innovative Diesel Combustion Bowl Features for Achieving Ultra-low Emissions and High Efficiency

GM Global Propulsion Systems-Giacomo Belgiorno, Andrea Boscolo, Gennaro Dileo, Fabio Numidi, Francesco Concetto Pesce, Alberto Vassallo
Istituto Motori CNR-Roberto Ianniello, Carlo Beatrice, Gabriele Di Blasio
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0003
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In recent years the research on Diesel thermodynamics has been increasingly shifting from performance and refinement to ultra-low emissions and efficiency. In fact, the last two attributes are key for the powertrain competitiveness in the automotive electrified future, especially in European market where 95gCO2/km fleet average and Euro6d RDE Step2 are phasing in at the same time. The present paper describes some of the most innovative research that GM and Istituto Motori Napoli are performing in the field, exploring how the steel additive manufacturing can be used to create innovative combustion bowl features that optimize the combustion process to a level that was not compatible with standard manufacturing technologies. In particular, an innovative highly-reentrant sharp-stepped profile featuring radial-lips has been studied on a 0.5l single-cylinder engine, coupled to a state of art 2500bar fast-acting fuel injection system, with the objective to demonstrate the full potential of optimized fuel stratification and spray separation enabled by the radial mixing zone concept. The results confirm that excellent reduction of engine-out emissions vs a Euro6-b design could be achieved…
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Unsettled Topics on the Feasibility and Desirability of Using AM in the Mobility Industry

The Barnes Global Advisors-Kevin Slattery
  • Research Report
  • EPR2020009
To be published on 2020-04-24 by SAE International in United States
Depending on the industry and application, views on additive manufacturing (AM), or “3D printing,” range from something that will transform an industry to it being another over-hyped technology that will only find niche applications. Most views fall somewhere in between, with the most common one being that it depends on the application and technology. Because of the ability to directly produce parts from a digital file, views often include dependence on when and where the part is needed. This introduces the crux of the matter, which is how to determine when the use of AM is feasible and desirable, which is made all the more complicated by the fact that not only is AM technology in general changing quickly, but the merits of the each AM technology relative to the others is also changing. Finally, non-AM technologies are continually improving, and are increasingly adding AM-like capability. As the opening report of a four-part series of SAE EDGE™ Research Reports on AM, this paper discusses unsettled issues pertaining to the benefits, drawbacks, and trade-offs, as well…
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Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

Argonne National Laboratory-Munidhar Biruduganti, Douglas Longman
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Brian Kaul, John Storey, Amelia Elliott, Derek Siddel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0770
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Additive manufacturing was used to fabricate a head for an automotive-scale single-cylinder engine operating on natural gas. The head was consisted of a bimetallic composition of stainless steel and bronze. The engine performance using the bimetallic head was compared against the stock cast iron head. The heads were tested at two speeds (1200 and 1800 rpm), two brake mean effective pressures (6 and 10 bar), and two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0). The bimetallic head showed good durability over the test and produced equivalent efficiencies, exhaust temperatures, and heat rejection to the coolant to the stock head. Higher combustion temperatures and advanced combustion phasing resulted from use with the bimetallic head. The implication is that with optimization of the valve timing, an efficiency benefit may be realized with the bimetallic head.
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Anisotropic material behavior and design optimization of 3D printed structures

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0228
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditional manufacturing processes such as injection or compression molding are often enclosed and pressurized systems that produce homogenous products. In contrast, 3D printing is exposed to the environment at ambient (or reduced) temperature and atmospheric pressure. Further, the printing process itself is mostly “layered manufacturing”, i.e., it forms a three-dimensional part by laying down successive layers of materials. Those characteristics inevitably lead to inconsistent microstructure of 3D printed products and thus cause anisotropic mechanical properties. In this paper, the anisotropic behaviors of 3D printed parts were investigated by using both laboratory coupon specimens (bending specimens) and complex engineering structures (A-pillar). Results show that the orientation of the infills of 3D printed parts can significantly influence their mechanical properties. Parts with 0-degree filament orientation are seen to have the most favorable responses, including Young’s modulus, maximum strength, failure strain, and toughness. The findings also suggest that the 3D printed products could be theoretically “designed” or “tailored” by adjusting the infill angles to achieve optimal performance. The 3D printed A-pillar structure has been designed by utilizing the…
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Innovative Additive Manufacturing Process for Successful Production of 7000 Series Aluminum Alloy Components Using Smart Optical Monitoring System

SenSigma LLC-Jay Choi, Alex Rice
University of Michigan-Jyoti Mazumder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft components are commonly produced with 7000 series aluminum alloys (AA) due to its weight, strength, and fatigue properties. Auto Industry is also choosing more and more aluminum component for weight reduction. Current additive manufacturing (AM) methods fall short of successfully producing 7000 series AA due to the reflective nature of the material along with elements with low vaporization temperature. Moreover, lacking in ideal thermal control, print inherently defective products with such issues as poor surface finish alloying element loss and porosity. All these defects contribute to reduction of mechanical strength. By monitoring plasma with spectroscopic sensors, multiple information such as line intensity, standard deviation, plasma temperature or electron density, and by using different signal processing algorithm, AM defects have been detected and classified. For composition analysis, the ratio of the maximum intensities of Mg(I)/Al(I) shows a strong trend with the amount of Zn and Mg in the powder, and the results are extremely promising regarding the ability to use the online spectra for real time determination of the composition of the AA7075 powders with…
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An Experimental Approach to Shape Optimization of an IC Engine Intake Runner

Eastern Michigan University-Andrew Mansfield, Harshad Tiwari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0922
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The air flow velocity field in an internal combustion engine is fundamentally involved in all aspects of the combustion process and thereby broadly affects engine performance, including fuel economy, stability, heat release rates, and exhaust emission. Unfortunately, both common and more advanced methods used to design engine surface geometries which control this velocity field almost always rely on simple non-reacting models which fail to reflect true complex combustion behaviors. An alternative but presently undeveloped approach which could overcome this challenge, is to integrate shape optimization, additive manufacturing, and firing engine experiments in a process which creates designs driven directly by engine performance measurements and targets. In this work, an initial experimental approach to the shape optimization of an internal combustion engine intake runner was developed and demonstrated. The process developed here was based on a basic genetic algorithm, where in each generation, a set of intake runner designs were 3-D printed and the tumble intensity generated by each design was measured using particle imaging velocimetry. Design convergence was achieved for three free design parameters after…
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Evaluations of Mechanical Properties of ABS Parts from Open-Source 3D Printers and Conventional Manufacturing

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0229
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
3D printing is a revolutionary manufacturing method that allows the productions of engineering parts almost directly from modeling software on a computer. With 3D printing technology, future manufacturing could become vastly efficient. However, the procedures used in 3D printing differ substantially among the printers and from those used in conventional manufacturing. The objective of the present work was to comprehensively evaluate the mechanical properties of engineering products fabricated by 3D printing and conventional manufacturing. Three open-source 3D printers, i.e., the Flash Forge Dreamer, the Tevo Tornado, and the Prusa, were used to fabricate the identical parts out of the same material (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). The parts were printed at various positions on the printer platforms and then tested in bending. Results indicate that there exist substantial differences in mechanical responses among the parts by different 3D printers. Specimens from the Prusa printer exhibit the best elastic properties while specimens from the Flash Forge printer exhibit the greatest post-yield responses. There further exist noticeable variations in mechanical properties among the parts that were fabricated by the…
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Residual stress analysis for additive manufactured large automobile parts by using neutron and simulation

Honda R & D Americas Inc-Alan Seid
Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Tomohiro Ikeda, Satoshi Hirose, Hisao Uozumi, Tatsuya Okayama, TAKASHI KATSURAI
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1071
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Metal additive manufacturing has high potential to produce automobile parts, due to its shape flexibility and unique material properties. On the other hand, residual stress which is generated by rapid solidification causes deformation, cracks and failure under building process. To avoid these problems, understanding of internal residual stress distribution is necessary. However, from the view point of measureable area, conventional residual stress measurement methods such as strain gages and X-ray diffractometers, is limited to only the surface layer of the parts. Therefore, neutron which has a high penetration capability was chosen as a probe to measure internal residual stress in this research. By using time of flight neutron diffraction facility VULCAN at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, residual stress for mono-cylinder head, which were made of aluminum alloy, was measured non-distractively. From the result of precise measurement, interior stress distribution was visualized. According to the result, bottom area where was just above a base plate showed higher stress gradient than top where was the farthest side from a base plate. This trend came from restriction of…
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Automated 3-D Printing Machine Bed Clearing Mechanism

Kettering University-Dalton Whitten, Jason Dietrich, Matt Donar, Raghu Echempati, Colin Donar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1301
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The work presented in this paper is based on the senior capstone class project undertaken by the student authors at Kettering University. The main aim of the project was to design an automated bed clearing mechanism for the Anet brand A8 3-D printer. The concept behind the idea was to allow everyone with this brand of printer to be able to print multiple prints without human interaction. The idea started out as a universal bed clearing mechanism, for most brands of 3-D printers. Upon researching into the many different styles and designs of printers, it was apparent that the designs differ too much from each other in order to create a universal product. The student team decided to aim for the most common style of 3-D printer, which the team also had a model to test the design. Due to the size of our team (number of members), they were split in to two sub-teams in order to explore two separate designs and develop the design and testing on both of the designs. Their designs…
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Heat Transfer Enhancement through Advanced Casting Technologies

Grainger & Worrall, Ltd.-Keith Denholm, Jack Strong
Southwest Research Institute-Kevin Hoag, Matthew Hoffmeyer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1162
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is growing interest in additive manufacturing technologies for prototype if not serial production of complex internal combustion engine components such as cylinder heads and pistons. In support of this general interest the authors undertook an experimental bench test to evaluate opportunities for cooling jacket improvement through geometries made achievable with additive manufacturing. A bench test rig was constructed using electrical heating elements and careful measurement to quantify the impact of various designs in terms of heat flux rate and convective heat transfer coefficients. Five designs were compared to a baseline, castable, rectangular passage, and the heat transfer coefficients and heat flux rates were measured at varying heat inputs, flow rates and pressure drops.. Four of the five alternative geometries outperformed the baseline case by significant margins. The numerical margins were dependent on design constraints; for example the heat transfer coefficient at a given flow rate, or heat transfer coefficient versus required pumping power. The authors also recognize the practical limitations of additive manufacturing technologies for serial production. A second important aspect of this work…