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CATARC New Type Drivetrain NVH Test Facility

CATARC-Hui Gao, Yongchao Wang, Dong Wang
Jilin University-HongBin Yin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0788
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As the most intuitive performance of users, NVH performance is one of the comprehensive indicators to evaluate the manufacturing standard of the whole vehicle. About one-third of the vehicle complaint are related to NVH performance. As a core component of the vehicle, the NVH characteristics of the drivetrain have a significant impact on vehicle comfort . How to reliably and stably reproduce the specific condition of the whole vehicle through the test method, and obtain the highly consistent objective data for analyzing and improving the NVH characteristics of the drivetrain, which is of great significance in engineering. For this purpose, China Automotive Technology Research Center Co., Ltd. (CATARC) designed and built a unparalleled drivetrain NVH test facility, which consists of five dynamometers. Test specimens such as powertrain, transmission, and rear axle can be mounted to the facility. The structure is not limited to the horizontal/vertical, front/rear drive/four-wheel drive structure, or even a whole vehicle. Due to the battery simulator, the above specimens of the fuel vehicle, hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle can be satisfied. The…

Control-Oriented Modeling of a Vehicle Drivetrain for Shuffle and Clunk Mitigation

Ford Research & Advanced Engineering-Maruthi Ravichandran, Mary Farmer, Jeff Doering
Michigan Technological Univ.-Prithvi Reddy, Kaushal Darokar, Darrell Robinette, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Jason Blough
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0345
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Flexibility and backlash of vehicle drivelines typically cause unwanted oscillations and noise, known as shuffle and clunk, during tip-in and tip-out events. Computationally efficient and accurate driveline models are necessary for the design and evaluation of torque shaping strategies to mitigate this shuffle and clunk. To accomplish these goals, this paper develops two control-oriented models, i.e., a full-order physics-based model and a reduced-order model, which capture the main dynamics that influence the shuffle and clunk phenomena. The full-order model comprises several components, including the engine as a torque generator, backlash elements as discontinuities, and propeller and axle shafts as compliant elements. This model is experimentally validated using the data collected from a Ford truck. The validation results indicate less than 1% error between the model and measured shuffle oscillation frequencies. The reduced-order model is derived by lumping 24 inertia elements into 2 elements, 4 stiffness and damping elements into 2 elements, and 2 backlashes into 1 element. As part of the reduced-order model development, the paper investigates: (i) the effect of lumping transmission and final…

Analysis of sound quality of a fuel cell vehicle based on orthogonal test

CATARC Co., Ltd.-Dong Hao, Yanyi Zhang
Hebei Univ. of Technology-Xiang Ji, Hai Liu, Yong Chen, Zeyu Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0384
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Different from the traditional vehicle, the noise source of fuel cell vehicle has the characteristics of large quantity and amplitude, uneven distribution, so the sound quality of each position in the vehicle is very different. This paper focuses on the research of change regulation of vehicle interior sound quality in different positions and the characteristic frequency band which affects the sound quality. In this paper, the interior sound quality of a fuel cell vehicle under different uniform speed conditions was studied experimentally. The acoustic quality evaluation parameters involved in this paper include the A-weighted sound pressure level, loudness, roughness and sharpness. The results showed that with the increase of vehicle speed, the A-weighted sound pressure level, loudness and roughness at human ear of front seat and rear seat were all increasing, and the A-weighted sound pressure level, loudness and roughness of rear seat were higher than front seat of 3.4dB(A),4.2sone and 0.03asper. Different from the above three evaluation parameters, the sharpness of front and rear seats was fluctuating with the increase of vehicle speed. However,…

A Study of Triple Skyhook Control for Semi-Active Suspension System

Toyota Motor Corporation-Naoto Shimoya, Etsuo Katsuyama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0168
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
It is said that a vertical vibration from 4 to 8 Hz (the mid-frequency range) particularly affects ride comfort. In order to suppress the mid-frequency range vibration, a number of control methods using a semi-active suspension system have been proposed. Skyhook damper control (SH) is a well-known strategy to suppress the vibration around the sprung mass resonance frequency about 1-2 Hz (the low-frequency range). However, the mid-frequency range vibration can’t be suppressed by SH. Therefore, dampers of the semi-active suspensions adopting SH are usually set soft to balance the low- and mid-frequency vibration. However, the soft dampers increase unsprung vibration opposite ride comfort. H-infinity and gain-scheduled approaches also have been proposed to achieve these multiple objectives. However, those controls have many tuning parameters and require information of unsprung vibration from sensors or accurate estimations. To solve those problems, the triple skyhook control (tSH) hooked by a virtual spring, inerter, and damper was proposed. This strategy has advantages of suppressing vibration from under 1 Hz to the mid-frequency without changing the hardware, and it requires no…

Methodology of Roller Bearing’s Preload Setting and Physical Verification of Axle in Tipper Application.

VE commercial Ltd-Jeevan Ramesh Jathar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1297
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The roller bearings and their performance is basic factor to uniqueness of transmission life, in automobile car, trucks as well as in tipper also. Transmission use helical gearing and taper roller bearings. The Continues running with heavy loads will deteriorate the performance of vehicle mainly due to bearing failures, that phenomenon happens because of improper alignment on shaft and wrong setting of preloading. The life of bearings L10 (Hrs) confirmed by setting of bearing preload (50 ~ 100 microns) through shim selection in accordance with the tolerance stack methodology. The bearings itself have radial as well as linear clearance depends on size and its application, while running of vehicle ( Dynamic Condition) bearings are taking all degrees of torque reactions and full-fill the transmission purpose, due to continuous high level of vibration through driveline and from power train , bearing sleeve loosening effects carry over there and deteriorate transmission performance, avoid such situation bearing’s clearances are optimized in accordance with consideration of application, load, temperature and fit called as preload. By this approach bearings are…

Modeling and simulation of centrifugal cylindrical exciting mechanism

Honeywell Integrated Technology China-Henry Guo
North China University of Science & Technology-Haiyang Long, Boan Wu, Jiaxin Liu, Jing Chu, Yaogang Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0804
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vertical vibratory rollers are widely used because of their own advantages. This type of road roller is suitable for a variety of road surfaces that have not yet been compacted. Various soils, gravel, etc. can be solidified by compaction under this type of road roller. Therefore, in order to obtain the ideal analysis process and life expectancy of the vertical vibration wheel, there is a very significant practical significance and economic value. This roller mainly relies on its excitation mechanism. In order to obtain the deformation of the centrifugal cylindrical excitation mechanism during start-up, operation and stop, the ring-fixed external solution of the vibrating wheel is modeled by Creo2.0, and the established model is analyzed by Adams to obtain the speed curve of rotation and revolution of roller. Analytical the statics of exciter turntable by ANSYS. obtain the deformation condition of excitation mechanism. By theoretical calculation, obtain the fever condition of excitation mechanism from the beginning of operation to the thermal equilibrium process. After comparison, I found that the theoretical values were in line with…

Vibration Rating Prediction using Machine Learning in a Dynamic Skip Fire Engine

Tula Technology Inc-Aditya Mandal, Anastasios Arvanitis, S Kevin Chen, Li-Chun Chien, Vijay Srinivasan, Matthew Younkins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1054
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Engines equipped with Tula’s Dynamic Skip Fire technology generate low frequency and high amplitude excitations that reduce vehicle’s drive quality if not properly calibrated. The excitation frequency of each firing pattern depends on its length and on the rotational speed of the engine. Excitation amplitude mainly depends on the requested engine torque by the driver. During the calibration process, the torque characteristics that results in production level of noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH), must be identified, for each firing pattern and engine speed. This process is very time consuming but necessary. To improve our process, a novel machine learning technique is utilized to accelerate the calibration effort. The idea is to automate the NVH rating procedure such that given the relevant engine parameters, a NVH rating associated with that driving conditions can be predicted. This process is divided into two (2) prediction models. The first model is a multiple additive regression trees that predicts the seat accelerometer data based on the various engine and vehicle parameters. The predicted seat accelerometer data is used as an…

Parameters Analyses and Identification of Rubber Bush Based on Theoretical Dynamic Model with Effects of Temperature and Preload

Tongji University-Rong He, Hong Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1272
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A Series connection KVBC (Kelvin-Voigt and Boscawen) theoretical model of rubber bush in automobile suspension is established. Numerical calculation model is also built up through Matlab/simulation and 9 parameters are raised and identified. Experiments on bench of rubber bush are carried out for dynamic and static characteristics and supply enough and reliable data for parameters identification. Based on that, preload and temperature are taken into consideration in ordinary KVBC model as two important additional factors. As a result, it leads to regenerate a novel one with new parameters identification, which is validated under other different conditions. This new modeling way of rubber bush has three advantages. First of all, it shows much preciseness for solving non-linear problems in multi-body calculation for researches and vehicle engineers. In addition, this new way leads to a very important step of choosing appropriate bush model type before analyzing, which depends on preload value. The last one is the model can be used to deal with real occasions with temperature change around rubber bushes during simulation, which has been studying…

Antlion optimization-based empirical mode decomposition-kernel independent component analysis joint approach for bearing fault diagnosis in the gearbox

Nanjing University of Science & Technology-Hong Zhong, Yahui Qian, Jingxing Liu, Yang Ding
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0113
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Gearbox fault diagnosis is one of the core research areas in the field of rotating machinery condition monitoring. The signal processing-based bearing fault diagnosis in the gearbox is considered as challenging as the vibration signals collected from acceleration transducers are, in general, a mixture of signals originating from an unknown number of sources, i.e. an underdetermined blind source separation (UBSS) problem. In this study, an effective UBSS-based algorithm solution, that combines empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and kernel independent component analysis (KICA) method, is proposed to address the technical challenge. Firstly, the nonlinear mixture signals are decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode function components by the EMD method, which can be combined with the original observed signals to reconstruct new observed signals. Thus, the original problem can be effectively transformed into over-determined BSS problem. Then, the whitening process is carried out to convert the over-determined BSS into determined BSS, which can be solved by the KICA method. Finally, the antlion optimization (ALO) is adopted to further enhanced the performance of the EMD-KICA method. The proposed…

Analysis and Research on Vibration Characteristics of Reclaiming Energy Suspension Based on Adjustable Load

Chongqing University-Zheng Ling, Wu Hang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0453
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Wheel-side drive electric vehicle is electric vehicle that uses wheel motor to drive wheel directly. Because of the introduction of the hub motor, the quality of the vehicle's non-spring load increases obviously, not only affects the ride comfort, but also reduces the driving safety. Active suspension can significantly improve overall vehicle performance, but high energy consumption has been one of the main factors restricting its promotion in the market. The use of an electromagnetic linear motor as the actuator of the active suspension provides an opportunity for this contradictory solution. Using the principle of electromagnetic induction, the linear motor can transform the vibration energy of the vehicle into the electricity that can be directly used by the vehicle, and realize the purpose of improving the vehicle performance while reducing the energy consumption. In order to realize that purpose, a dynamic model of vehicle vertical 7-DOF active suspension is established in this paper. Based on optimal control theory, a load adjustable reclaiming energy suspension controller is designed. The relevant parameters of suspension are optimized by particle…