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Failure Analysis and Multi Frequency Swept Sine Testing of Automotive Engine Oil Sump

Ashok Leyland Ltd.-Obuli Karthikeyan Narasimman, Raguram Mohan, Sriraman Srinivasan, Karthik Lakshminarayanan, Srinivasa Chandra Vadlamudi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0354
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Automotive business is more focused towards delivering a highly durable and reliable product at an optimum cost. Anything falls short of customer expectation will ruin the manufacturer’s reputation. To exterminate this, all automotive components shall undergo stringent testing protocol during the design validation process. Nevertheless, there are certain factors in the field which cannot be captured during design validation. This paper aims at developing a validation methodology for engine oil sump by simulating field failure. In few of our vehicles, field failure was observed in engine oil sump near the drain plug location. Preliminary analysis was carried out to find the potential causes for failure. Based on the engine test bed results, multi frequency swept sine testing was carried out in laboratory. Field failure was simulated in the lab test and the root causes for failure were found out. After the design modification, new oil sump samples were validated and achieved an improved life over the earlier design.

Test Correlation of an Exhaust System Durability Failure Using Enhanced CAE Approach

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Anupam Singh Solanki, Yogesh R. Jaju
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0293
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Durability of an exhaust system of an automobile is vital to it's overall performance as well as customer satisfaction. Current available CAE method using general modelling practices, though robust, offers a good scope to model critical details that have a definite bearing on prediction of its durability. In this work, an attempt has been made to capture all details such as effect of bolt pre-load on the rubber bushes/isolators, actual 3D model of the rubber bushes/isolators, material property based on measured load-deflection characteristics of the rubber bushes/isolators & contact interactions of mating surfaces that were apparently missing in the existing method. All such modelling enhancements were incorporated in the model, which was solved using non-linear solution technique. Different set of CAE results of modal, frequency response, harmonic fatigue, etc., analyses now correlate better with physical test results in terms of fatigue life as well as failure location for both failed and passed designs. This has resulted into not only capturing the physics of the system more accurately, but also better life/durability prediction that will eventually…

Mathematical Model for Analysis of Clutch Brake Duty Cycles

Eaton Technologies Pvt, Ltd.-Saravana Kumar Anna Jothikumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0303
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Clutch brake durability testing is a very time consuming activity. This is due to parameters like energy and temperature being transient with respect to standard operating conditions. Validating for various combinations of energy and temperature levels is time consuming for this reason. A mathematical model is therefore developed to converge the different energies and temperatures to the desired point and thereby reduce the testing time. An example of the models construction and calculations are demonstrated in this paper

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier Staking Groove for Durability

General Motors-Galina Roy
General Motors Technical Center India-Vinay Maruthi Ambarkar, Pramod Muralidhara, Yogesh Dewangan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0239
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Planetary gears are widely used in automobile industry due to their compact design and high power density. A simple planetary gear set consists of a Sun gear, Ring gear, Planets and Carrier which houses planet gears. Planetary gears are mounted on pinion pins and the process of assembling the pinion pins onto the carrier is called staking. Pinion pins have a staking region which after assembly expands outward into staking groove on the carrier to prevent axial movement of the pins. Planetary carrier staking grooves are designed to meet pinion pin retention and stress targets. In this study, an Isight work flow will be developed using an automated end-to-end FEA process to find out the effect of various groove design parameters on the stresses at staking groove location. Developed Isight workflow involves parametrically updating groove geometry, FE model setup, analysis and post-processing of the results. Commonly used staking groove shapes will be considered for this study. Effect of parameters like thickness of the flange, fillet radius of the groove and lateral/ longitudinal groove width on…

Evaluation through Realistic Validation. Correlation of CAE with Rig Testing and Field testing for Automotive Wheel by Strain Measurement Method.

Wheels India, Ltd.-Charles Munirathinam, Barathi Rajendran, Vimalathithan Seguvarathinam, Ramprakash Krishnamurthy, Sundararajan Thiyagarajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0351
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Wheel is one of the safety critical components which is being subjected to constant weight reduction but not at the expense of its reliability and durability. The Indian automobiles are subjected to overloading and at the same time endure severe shock loads due to poor road conditions. This forces the vehicle manufacturers to increase the factor of safety on the wheel and also test under severe loading conditions apart from the regulatory requirements and international standard norms. This makes the wheel manufacturers to design not only for the rated or standard load provided by the vehicle manufacturers but also considering the road conditions and OEM torture track testing requirements. Hence, along with the conventional fatigue tests according to the customer requirement, realistic loading conditions needs to be brought in to testing and virtual simulation. This present study shows the approach of correlating the functional testing and virtual simulation with the realistic field load condition. This is done by attaining new internal test specifications based on the realistic load data acquired from the field and torture…

Development of Block Cycle Test Load for Structural Durability Validation of Macpherson Strut

General Motors Technical Center India-Nuli Veda Murthy, Sritharan Gopal, Siddeshwaran T
General Motors Vehicle Engineering Center-Kevin Kilburn
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0315
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
The MacPherson strut is a simple and common across all automotive’s, front suspension in passenger vehicles. It is an independent suspension type including a single suspension arm (spring and damper), an anti-roll bar and a lower arm. The MacPherson strut must have sufficient stiffness to support cornering force and fore / aft loads. Fatigue test of MacPherson strut suspension can be done in multiple ways. Most common method is laboratory testing / rig test. The objective of laboratory testing is to validate the MacPherson strut physically for all possible real-time events. Replicating all real-time events in lab environment is a challenging task. For many years this limitation was addressed through experience, however it has often led to either over or inferior design. The expected life span of automotive components like MacPherson strut varies considerably but it can be measurable in years/miles. It becomes virtually challenging to prove the product under service conditions over its whole design life. Hence, it becomes necessary to depend on accelerated durability tests to predict long-term performance and brings out feebleness…

Durability of Customer Perceived Quality of Molded-in-Color Car Bumper

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Sandeep Kumar Shukla, Anton Kumanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0319
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Customer perceived quality (CPQ) of the car is the impression of excellence that a customer experiences the brand through sight, sound, touch, and scent. Molded-in-color (MIC) bumper’s aesthetic appeal contributes significantly to the CPQ of the car. Typical parameters used to define CPQ are color, gloss, grain definition, grain depth, geometry and draft. In this work the durability of the color and gloss post ageing is understood by using analytical and characterization tools. Using the results of ageing characterization, an attempt has been made to understand the retained newness of MIC bumper.

Regulations vs. Field Data: Managing Fuel Quality

SGS Testing & Control Services Singapore-Lucky Nurafiatin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0157
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Unlike in the aviation and marine sector, fuel specifications in the on-road transportation sector are varied depending on the countries. Globally, the countries are going towards ultra-low sulfur fuels. In developed countries including in EU and the U.S., ultra-low sulfur fuels have been used since 2005-2006. In Asia, Japan lead the region with less than 10 ppm sulfur fuels introduced into the market in January 2005. More than a decade later, fuels with high sulfur content are still sold in most countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Pacific. Facing pressure from environmentalists, these countries are focusing on sulfur reduction in their conventional fuels, along with improvement in their emission standards. On the other hand, in more advanced countries where they already have the cleanest possible conventional fuels, alternative fuels vehicles including electric vehicles are getting more attentions. Governments of developing countries are setting higher fuel quality standards to enable the implementation of more stringent emission standards. However, lack of fuel quality monitoring system in those countries resulting in the use of off-spec fuels.…

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier for Durability

General Motors-Derrick Black
General Motors Technical Center India-Vinay Maruthi Ambarkar, Yogesh Dewangan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0049
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
ABSTRACT Planetary gear set is one of the most commonly used gear systems in automotive industry as it caters to high power density requirements. A simple planetary gear set consists of a sun gear, ring gear, planets and carrier which houses planet gears. Efficiency of a transmission is dependent upon performance of gear sets involved in power transfer to a great extent. Structural rigidity of a planetary carrier is critical in a planetary gear set as its deflection may alter the load distribution of gears in mesh causing durability and noise issues. Limited studies exist based on geometrical parameters of a carrier which would help a designer in selecting the dimensions at an early stage. In this study, an end to end automated FEA process based on DOE and Optimization in Isight is developed. The method incorporates a workflow allowing for an update to carrier geometry, FE model setup, analysis job submission and post-processing of results. Deflection and stresses at critical locations of Carrier are the output parameters considered for optimization. This paper provides an…

Comprehensive Investigation of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Polymer for Weathering With the Combination of Different Blends of UV Stabilizers, HALS and Antioxidant

ARAI-Shamsundara Belavadi Venkataramaiah, Abhay Vijay Mannikar
National Institute of Engineering Mysore-T.N. Shridhar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0169
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Plastics (polymers) are nowadays clearly a material of choice in all the application sectors including in Automobile sector. Automotive manufacturer have relied on new technology for vehicular accessories which are all made-up of different polymers. Although these components offer an impressive range of attractive properties, the effect of climatic conditions on the durability and performance of these materials is not fully understood. The degradation/ variation of the mechanical properties of the specimen treated at different environmental/ atmospheric conditions are a primary concern when recommending such a composite for particular use. Generally when these components are subjected to weathering effects, they are prone to underperform. Therefore to improve their properties over time, different kinds of UV stabilizers, Hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) and Antioxidant are used. However there is a need to study which UV stabilizers is to be used for the automobile applications polymers and what are its percentages? In this context, it is proposed to carry out a comprehensive investigation on degradation due to weathering of ABS polymer with the combination of different percentages…