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PHEV Real World Driving Cycle and Energy and Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential for Connected and Automated Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Darrell Robinette, Eric Kostreva, Alexandra Krisztian, Anthony Lackey, Christopher Morgan, Joshua Orlando, Neeraj Rama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0307
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents real world driving energy and fuel consumption results for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A drive cycle, local to Michigan Technological University, was designed to mimic urban and highway driving test cycles in terms of distance, transients and average velocity, but with significant elevation changes to establish an energy intensive real world driving cycle for assessing potential energy savings for connected and automated vehicle control. The investigation began by establishing baseline and repeatability of energy consumption at various battery states of charges. It was determined that drive cycle energy consumption under a randomized set of boundary conditions varied within 3.4% of mean energy consumption regardless of initial battery state of charge. After completing 30 baseline drive cycles, a design for six sigma (DFSS) L18 array was designed to look at sensitivity of a range of parameters to energy consumption as related to connected and automated vehicles to target highest return on engineering development effort. The parameters explored in the DFSS array that showed the most sensitivity, in order…

Analysis of Passive Low Power Phase Change Heat Dissipation Method for Electric Vehicle Motor

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Shiping Huang, Yishi Wang, Jianjie Kuang, Jiakang Quan, Xiaofei Ma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1256
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The electric vehicle motor is developing toward high power density, at the same time brings serious temperature rise problem, which affect the motor performance, efficiency, and useful life. Liquid cooling is usually used to solve the problem, but it’s energy consumption is large and the reliability is poor. In order to solve above problems, a heat dissipation method based on a heat pipe is proposed, and the heat pipe cold end is cooled by vehicle facing the wind. The purpose is to improve the reliability and energy efficiency of the motor thermal management system under the condition of ensuring the normal temperature of the motor. Firstly, the motor heating model is established to analyze the position of the high temperature region when the motor is working, and the influence of the motor speed and torque on the temperature rise of the motor. Then the heat transfer model between the motor winding and the heat pipe cold end is established, and the influence of the working condition change of the heat pipe hot and cold end…

Research on Dynamic Load of Belgian Event Based on VPG

CATARC-Jiansen Yang, Xinyu Wang, Xin Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0170
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The durable load spectrum of the physical proving ground is the necessary input for fatigue life analysis of vehicle parts and components. It is usually obtained by vehicle road load acquisition and load decomposition in the industry, and Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) is gradually replacing this technical route. The belgian road is the typical event in durability test, in this paper, the flexible body and FTire model are applied to the multi-body dynamics model in order to improve the simulation accuracy. The result shows that all the wheel six-component force, shock absorber displacement and axial force acquired by VPG simulation have excellent correlation with real vehicle data. It is also proved that the virtual proving ground technology is a reliable and effective method to obtain the durable load spectrum in the early stage of development.

An Application of Vehicle Accurate Fault Isolation and Prognostic Maintenance

Xiaoli Li
HeFei University of Technology-Yujie Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1081
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As Internet of things for vehicle is getting more and more attention and developing strength, how to release the data power on vehicle safety and usability is a valuable topic to research.Accurate fault isolation and prognostic maintenance is one of the most promising application direction, since it can reduce maintenance time, achieve more asset availability, and promote reliability and safety. In this paper, a comprehensive approach which combined with model-based and knowledge-based method is proposed to addressing the challenges. This paper also presents an application using the comprehensive approach applied in vehicle electric power steering(EPS) system. It can help maintenance person to quickly find out the root cause of the failures in a vehicle. Component and system behaving modes are collected for vehicle manufacture user to access vehicle health status.

Integrating a Proactive Quality Control Concept into Machining Operation of a Crankshaft Manufacturing Process

FCA US LLC-Loda Bazzi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0507
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Competition in the manufacturing industry is ever increasingly intense. Manufacturing organizations that want to grow and prosper must embrace a discipline of constant improvement. Their engineering departments are tasked with improving existing manufacturing processes in terms of quality and throughput, which is vital to competing on a global scale. Manufacturers strive to utilize technologies to extract efficiencies from their existing processes. Reducing scrap/rework is the paramount goal in increasing a processes’ efficiency. The purpose of this study is to analyze a production line to determine the quality status throughout the manufacturing process. The intention is to react to process instability before the production becomes non-compliant (scrap/rework). By incorporating the proposed technology into the production process, the desired achievement will be to spot process variables at the earliest stages so that counter measures can be taken to stabilize the process before production drifts into non-compliance. Furthermore, the technology will communicate with machining operations to initiate counter measures such as program offsets, tool changes and wheel dressings. The main goal of this study is to develop a…

Surface Mapping in 3D Coordinate Metrology for Automotive Industry

Ain Shams University-Monir Koura, Ahmed EL-Akkad
National Institute for Standards-Salah H. R. Ali, Ahmed Sobhy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1270
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Surface mapping for freeform using CNC-CMM plays an important role in advanced coordinate industries. CNC-CMM machine can assess the parts specification, which has a significant impact on design, manufacturing, inspection and quality control processes. This article, presented four important issues to give a comprehensive view of the progress in this area. Eventually, the aim of this work is to give an overview of 3D plot mapping using freeform artifact utilizing computer aided inspection technique in the area of industrial dimensional metrology. This work happens as a new guide to cover and develop the lack of standard artifact for evaluation geometrical surface features in 3D coordinate metrology to optimize the precision, accuracy and verification time especially for automotive industry.

Reliable Processes of Simulating Liner Roughness and Its Lubrication Properties

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Renze Wang, Chongjie Gu, Tian Tian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0178
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Topology of liner finish is critical to the performance of internal combustion engines. Proper liner finish simulation processes lead to efficient engine design and research. Fourier methods have been well studied to numerically generate liner topology. However, three major issues wait to be addressed to make the generation processes feasible and reliable. First, in order to simulate real plateau honed liners, approaches should be developed to calculate accurate liner geometric parameters. These parameters are served as the input of the generation algorithm. Material ratio curve, the common geometry calculation method, should be modified so that accurate root mean square of plateau height distribution could be obtained. Second, the set of geometric parameters used in generating liner finish (ISO 13565-2) is different from the set of parameters used in manufacturing industry (ISO 13565-3). Quantitative relations between these two sets should be studied. Third, numerically generated liners should be run in deterministic lubrication, dry contact, and engine cycle models. Their outcome behavior should be compared with experimental data. In this article, efforts were made to fill all…
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Non-Destructive Evaluation for Small Size Defects in Composite Structures using a Hybrid Approach

Eaton-Zhou Zhou
Lawrence Technological University-Xin Xie, Himanshu Kolambe, Abhijit Bothe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1268
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recently, composite materials/structures are getting increasingly used in the automotive and aerospace industry. Defects issue is commonly associated with the use of composite materials/structures. Reliable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite structures is still challenging due to the existence of small size defects. In this research, a hybrid approach is used to accurately determine small size internal defects. In this hybrid approach, X-Ray Computed Tomography is used as a reference to accurately determine all defect locations, then a digital shearography method is used to conduct fast NDE for in-line testing. The critical shearographic NDE parameters such as shearing angle, shearing distance and loading amount are determined and optimized based on the X-ray CT scan result. The smallest detectable defect size by digital shearography is determined as 0.44mm. From the comparison of X-ray CT scan results and digital shearography NDE results, the detection rate using digital shearography for defects with a size of larger than 1mm is 97.30% (36 detected out of 37) and for defects with a size of 0.4mm – 1mm is 84.48% (49 detected…

Effects of Nitrided and Chrome Plated Die Surface Roughness on Friction in Bending Under Tension

United States Steel Corporation-Hua-Chu Shih
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1093
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Different die surface polish conditions result in a noticeable effect on material flow in stamping, which can lead to splitting, wrinkling, or other surface stretching issues associated with different friction conditions. These occurrences are not only limited to the non-coated dies, but also nitrided and chrome plated dies. To ensure quality control of the stamped parts, the die conditions corresponding to different polishing procedures need to be developed based on measurable parameters such as surface roughness (Ra). The intent of this study is to investigate the effects of nitrided and chrome plated die surface roughness on friction. The Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) test was conducted to simulate the stamping process due to the test’s versatility and flexibility in changing test parameters. The test involves moving sheet metal across a 3/8-inch diameter pin, which substitutes for a die surface. The pin can be modified by material, heat treatment, coating, and surface roughness. Pins were made of D6510 steel and heat treated to 54-58 HRC. Two different die polishing procedures were developed. The first is the progressive polishing procedure,…

Parameters Analyses and Identification of Rubber Bush Based on Theoretical Dynamic Model with Effects of Temperature and Preload

Tongji University-Rong He, Hong Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1272
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A Series connection KVBC (Kelvin-Voigt and Boscawen) theoretical model of rubber bush in automobile suspension is established. Numerical calculation model is also built up through Matlab/simulation and 9 parameters are raised and identified. Experiments on bench of rubber bush are carried out for dynamic and static characteristics and supply enough and reliable data for parameters identification. Based on that, preload and temperature are taken into consideration in ordinary KVBC model as two important additional factors. As a result, it leads to regenerate a novel one with new parameters identification, which is validated under other different conditions. This new modeling way of rubber bush has three advantages. First of all, it shows much preciseness for solving non-linear problems in multi-body calculation for researches and vehicle engineers. In addition, this new way leads to a very important step of choosing appropriate bush model type before analyzing, which depends on preload value. The last one is the model can be used to deal with real occasions with temperature change around rubber bushes during simulation, which has been studying…