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Series

General Industry (3) Spotlight on Design (3)

Reliability Case Analysis of an Autonomous Air Cooling System (AACS) for Aerospace Applications

  • University of Strathclyde - Chung man Fong, Patrick Norman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1916
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Current More Electric Aircraft (MEA) utilize Liquid Cooling Systems (LCS) for cooling on-board power electronics. In such LCS, coolant pipes around the structure of the aircraft are used to supply water glycol based coolant to sink heat from power electronics and other heat loads in the electronic bay. Subsequent extracted heat is then transferred to ram air through downstream heat exchanger/s. This paper presents a reliability examination of a proposed alternative Autonomous Air Cooling System (AACS) for a twin engine civil MEA case study. The proposed AACS compared to the LCS, utilizes cabin air as the coolant which is in turn supplied using the electric Environmental Control System (ECS) within the MEA. The AACS consist of electrical blowers allocated to each heat load which subsequently drive the outflow cabin air through the heat sinks of the power electronics for heat extraction. No additional heat exchanger is required after this stage in which the heated air is directly expelled overboard. One key advantage is that higher levels of control are possible for the attainment of higher system efficiency. The other key advantage is the avoidance of liquid coolant leakage risks with the removal of liquid coolant from the MEA. However, to justify the potential application of this new approach, the reliability is required to be in line with FAA/JAA reliability limits. As such, the provided reliability analysis in this paper covers the reliability of such AACS as well as the subsequent operation of safety critical components of the ECS and Electrical Power System (EPS) that the AACS is cooling. The case study results show such a proposed AACS can provide comparable reliability and within FAA/JAA reliability limits.

Instrument Data Distribution System (iDDS): Optimised Data Transfer in Real-Time Data Acquisition Test Systems

  • Rolls Rolls plc - Gethyn Longworth
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1950
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Data Transfer techniques have evolved steadily over the last few decades with both open and vendor proprietary methods used and widely deployed. This has led to large test systems with many different physical and logical technologies to solve the same problem, and an associated high integration cost. With the latest devices and systems converging towards wired and wireless Ethernet standards, the physical problem has tentatively been solved - but what of the logical issue? There are hundreds of different standards for Ethernet based communication out there, especially with the proliferation of “Internet of Things” devices and technologies, and this once again breeds high cost of integration for software solutions. Rolls-Royce, in co-operation with a number of other companies, has developed a new communication standard based on open protocols, providing a data centric method of connecting driverless instruments. These protocols include the use of DDS (Data Distribution Service), a communications middleware standard provided by the OMG (Object Management Group), and IEEE 1588v2 PTP (Precision Time Protocol) for time synchronisation. The objective of this standard is to improve the integration speed and reliability of new signal conditioning and acquisition devices, and hence increase the flexibility of both ourselves and the industry as a whole. This paper describes the protocol for Real-Time sharing of data developed over the last 4 years, the use-cases it is intended to solve and the vision for future development of the protocol.

Power Quality Test Data Analysis for Aircraft Sub-system

  • UTC Aerospace Systems - SHOBHA RAMANJANI
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1924
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft sub-system development involves various combinations of testing and qualification activities to realize a flight worthy system. The sub-system needs to be verified for massive number of customer requirements. Power quality (PQ) testing is also an important testing activity carried out as a part of environmental qualification test. It is intended to verify the functionality of sub-system with various power disturbances, to determine the ability of a sub-system to withstand power quality disturbances. The sub-system being designed should be reliable enough to handle power quality anomalies. Power quality test generates enormous amount of test result data for analysis with millions of data samples depending on the test, and can be identified as Big Data. The engineer needs to analyze each set of test data as a part of post processing to ensure the power disturbances during testing are as per the standard requirements and functional performance of the sub-system is met. Manually analyzing the test data with classical methods and generating the report requires more time and effort, as it needs analysis of millions of test data samples, also leading to possibility of errors. Hence it is required to have automated methods to perform unsupervised data mining in faster way and generate the post processed report as required by end user. This paper presents the testing of aircraft sub-system, for power quality with various power input disturbances involved, mainly focusing on test data analysis techniques using script based analysis tools. Also it discusses on the utilization of options available in various tools for automation of test data analysis and presentation.

Power Quality Test Data Analysis for Aircraft Sub-System

  • UTC Aerospace Systems - Shobha Ramanjani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1932
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft sub-system development involves various combinations of testing and qualification activities to realize a flight worthy system. The sub-system needs to be verified for massive number of customer requirements. Power quality (PQ) testing is also an important testing activity carried out as a part of environmental qualification test. It is intended to verify the functionality of sub-system with various power disturbances, to determine the ability of a sub-system to withstand power quality disturbances. The sub-system being designed should be reliable enough to handle power quality anomalies. Power quality test generates enormous amount of test result data for analysis with millions of data samples depending on the test, and can be identified as Big Data. The engineer needs to analyze each set of test data as a part of post processing to ensure the power disturbances during testing are as per the standard requirements and functional performance of the sub-system is met. Manually analyzing the test data with classical methods and generating the report requires more time and effort, as it needs analysis of millions of test data samples, also leading to possibility of errors. Hence it is required to have automated methods to perform unsupervised data mining in faster way and generate the post processed report as required by end user. This paper presents the testing of aircraft sub-system, for power quality with various power input disturbances involved, mainly focusing on test data analysis techniques using script based analysis tools. Also it discusses on the utilization of options available in various tools for automation of test data analysis and presentation.

The Factors Governing the Corrosion Stiction of Brake Friction Materials Against a Gray Cast Iron Disc

  • Korea Univ. - Jaehyun Gweon, Sanghee Shin, Ho Jang
  • Hyundai Mobis - Wangyu Lee, Dooyeon Kim, Keeyang Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1899
To be published on 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Corrosion stiction at the contact interface between brake friction materials and gray iron discs under the parking brake condition was investigated. Various possible parameters to affect the shear force to detach the interface at the onset of motion after corrosion stiction were evaluated to find the root causes of the fastidious brake problem. Using commercial brake friction materials, comprising non-steel and low-steel types, corrosion tests were carried out by clamping the pads against gray iron discs at different experimental conditions. Results showed that the shear force to detach the adhered interface increased with applied pressure, temperature, corrosion time, and humidity. On the other hand, acidity (pH), porosity, and hydrophilicity of the friction material did not show reliable correlation to the shear force, suggesting that the corrosion stiction was determined not by a single factor but governed by multiple parameters, which were determined by the type of ingredients used in the brake friction material. Microscopic analysis of the cross section of the adhered interface was in-line with the multifaceted nature of the corrosion stiction. Another salient feature of this study was the finding that the shear force was well correlated to the electrochemically measured corrosion rate of the gray iron discs in the solution prepared by dissolving the friction material on the water, suggesting that the electrochemical corrosion test can be a viable alternative to estimate propensity of corrosion stiction of the brake friction material.

Effects of the Metal Surface Profile to the Sliding Properties Between Rubber and Metal and Applying That to Wheel Bearing Seals

  • Uchiyama Mfg Corp. - Koki Ishida
  • Okayama Univ. - Masahiro Fujii
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1904
To be published on 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Packed shape seal that is combined the seal having flexible rubber lips and the slinger preventing the seal lip sliding area from being exposed directly by the foreign substances, has been frequently utilized on the wheel bearing that is required high reliability. This paper described that the effects in sliding properties of rubber relating to the metal surface profile at the fundamental evaluation, at first. As the next step, the performance of the seals which were applied the advisable metal surface profile through the advance fundamental evaluation on the slinger was confirmed concerning the rotating torque and also the endurance test against muddy water. As the results, the seals with the metal surface the above showed approximately 30% lower torque at the rotating speed from 400 rpm to 800 rpm that is considered the vehicle city driving speed. At the same time, the durability performance against muddy water showed almost equivalent to the seals without this metal surface.

Simulated Bearing Durability and Friction Reduction with Ultra-Low Viscosity Oils

  • MAHLE Engine Systems (UK) Ltd. - Konstantinos Kalogiannis
  • Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. - Priyanka Desai
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1802
To be published on 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Legislation aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions is forcing significant changes in passenger car engine hardware and lubricants. Reduced viscosity lubricants can reduce friction levels and are therefore helpful to manufacturers seeking legislative compliance. MAHLE and Shell have worked together to determine the crankshaft, bearing and lubricant combination which minimizes friction with an acceptable level of durability. This paper describes the results of our joint simulation studies.

Deterioration Characteristic of Catalyzed DPF Applied on Diesel Truck Durable Ageing

  • Jilin University & CATARC - Hua Zhou
  • Jilin University - Hongwei Zhao
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1701
To be published on 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, it was researched the degradation characteristics of catalytic performance of three kinds of DPFs (C1, C2 and C3, with precious metal concentrations being 15, 25 and 35 g/ft3 respectively) after diesel truck aging. It is found out that the crystallinity of three kinds of DPF samples (Used) in full vehicle aging was higher than that of fresh samples (Fresh) and aged samples (Aged) in the laboratory. Compared with Fresh samples, the concentration of Pt atom in precious metal on the surface of Aged and Used samples tends to decrease in most cases. Activities to CO and C3H8 of Aged and Used samples of three kinds of DPFs had all been degraded, and activity degradation showed a substantial correlation with concentration reduction rate of precious metal on the carrier surface. NO2 productivity of Used samples all rose. Crystallinity of DPF samples after full vehicle aging in Inlet, Middle and Outlet areas successively increased. The reduction rate of Pt atom concentration of Inlet samples was higher, followed by that of Outlet layer samples, and that of Middle layer samples was lower. Activities to CO, C3H8 and NO2 of Inlet samples were relatively low, yet the catalytic activity of Middle samples was relatively high. Activity differences were resulted from the differences of thermal degradation due to different thermal loads during aging.

Software Reliability Growth Modeling: Comparison between Non-Linear- Regression Estimation and Maximum-Likelihood-Estimator Procedures

  • Cucek-Cochin University of Science and Tech. - Shreya Krishna
  • Indian Institute of Technology- Kharagpur - N. K. Goyal
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1772
To be published on 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Automotive software complexity has been growing rapidly with time. The demand for automation in automotive segment including autonomous automobiles and software based products has caught the attention of researchers. Hence, it is necessary to check the complexity of automotive software and their reliability growth. Testing in the field of software artifact is resource intensive exercise. If project managers are able to put forward testing activities well then the testing resource consumptions may be much more resource/cost efficient. Reliability can be estimated during testing phase of software using software reliability growth models (SRGMs). A software package Computer Aided Software Reliability Estimation (CASRE) has many important SRGMs. These SRGMs are based on Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process (NHPP), Markov process or Bayesian models. Computer Aided Software Reliability Estimation-CASRE is an open source software that has been used to compare the reliability estimates using different models for a automotive software failure dataset along-with, comparison of different methods to parameter estimation (MLE and NLR). Reliability estimation can also be performed after testing phase to predict latent faults and also assess maturity of automotive software. For parameter estimation of SRGMs, two techniques are widely used, namely maximum likelihood and method of least squares. The two techniques under comparative estimation include Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) and Non-Linear Regression (NLR) estimators. Assessment of prediction accuracy using relative error metric, i.e. Balanced Prediction Relative Error (BPRE), is reported lower than 5%. Further in the paper we compare these two estimation procedures for their usability and applicability in correlation with SRGMs. The data used for this study is time-domain failure. In the data, software faults have been reported with their time-between-failures (TBF). Results obtained highlight the fact that NLR is a reasonable estimator for fitting the data to observed failure data, while MLE is a better estimator for making reliable predictions.

Experimental Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient in Piston Cooling Galleries

  • Scania CV AB - Christian Binder, Vasanth E, Daniel Norling
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology - Andreas Cronhjort
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1776
To be published on 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Piston cooling galleries are critical for the pistons’ capability to handle increasing power density while maintaining the same level of durability. However, piston cooling also accounts for a considerable amount of heat rejection and parasitic losses. Knowing the distribution of the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) inside the cooling gallery could enable new designs which ensure effective cooling of areas decisive for durability while minimizing parasitic losses and overall heat rejection. In this study, an inverse heat transfer method is presented to determine the spatial HTC distribution inside the cooling gallery based on surface temperature measurements with an infrared (IR) camera. The method utilizes a piston specially machined so it only has a thin sheet of material of a known thickness left between the cooling gallery and the piston bowl. The piston - initially at room temperature - is heated up with warm oil injected into the cooling gallery. The transient of the piston’s outer surface temperature is captured with an IR camera from the top. Combining the temperature transient of each pixel, the HTC is later obtained through an inverse heat transfer solver based on one-dimensional heat conduction inside the piston material. To the authors’ knowledge, the current study presents the first application of an inverse heat transfer method for spatially resolved and experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients inside a piston cooling gallery. Preliminary measurements at standstill to demonstrate the method display an area of increased heat transfer where the entering oil jet impinges onto the wall of the cooling gallery.