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Ranking of Thick Ice Shapes based on Numerical Simulation for Certification

Airbus Operations Ltd-James Brown
Airbus Operations SAS-Johan DEGRIGNY, Richard LEWIS, Nathalie ALEGRE, Isaac BARRIOS-GARCIA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1944
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this paper is to present a numerical method to rank thick ice shapes for aircraft by comparing the ice accretion effects for different icing scenarios in order to determine the more critical ice shape. This ranking allows limiting the demonstration of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft in iced condition during certification to a reduced number of ice shapes. The usage of this numerical method gives more flexibility to the determination of the critical ice shapes, as it is not dependent of the availability of physical test vehicles and/or facilities. The simulation strategy is built on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and is validated based on a representative test case, both in terms of aircraft geometry and ice shapes. Validation against existing experimental results shows the method exhibits an adequate level of reliability for the ranking of thick ice shapes.
 

A Novel Heating-Coating Hybrid Strategy for Wind Turbine Icing Mitigation

Iowa State University-Linyue Gao, Liqun Ma, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2029
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The electro-thermal method is most commonly used for wind turbine anti-/de-icing. The upmost drawback of such systems is the high power consumption. In the present study, we proposed to use a durable slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) to effectively reduce the power requirement of the heating element during the anti-/de-icing process. The explorative study was conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a DU91-W2-250 wind turbine blade model exposed under severe icing conditions. During the experiments, while a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice accretion process, an infrared (IR) thermal imaging system was also utilized to achieve the simultaneous surface temperature measurements over the test model. In comparison to the traditional electrical heating strategies to brutally heat massive area of entire turbine blades, a novel heating-coating hybrid strategy, i.e., combining a leading-edge (LE) heating element to cover the first 30% of the chord length (C) along with using SLIPS to coat entire blade surface, was found to be able to keep the entire blade surface completely…
 

Utilization of Single Cantilever Beam Test for Characterization of Ice Adhesion

Iowa State University-Bishoy Dawood, Denizhan Yavas, Christopher Giuffre, Ashraf Bastawros PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1949
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft and Wind turbine operating in a cold environment are challenged with icing which unfavorably affects their aerodynamics and degrades their safety. Precise characterization of the ice adhesion is crucial for the effective design of ice protection system. In this paper, a fracture mechanics-based approach incorporating asymmetric single cantilever beam test is used to characterize the interfacial fracture of a typical ice/aluminum interface with different surface roughness. The measurements showed adhesion/cohesive interfacial fracture energy values between 0.16 and 1.1 J/m 2. In this asymmetric beam test, a thin film of ice is formed between a fixed and elastically deformable beam subjected to the applied loading. The inspection of the interfacial ice fracture surface using fracture surface replication technique highlighted the association of the fracture mode with the measured macroscopic fracture toughness. The higher level of fracture toughness was associated with cohesive interface failure. While the lower level of fracture toughness on smoother surfaces was associated with adhesive interface failure.
 

An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Droplet Impinging Erosion Characteristics of an Icephobic, Elastic Soft Surface

Iowa State University-Liqun Ma, Zichen Zhang, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1997
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Elastic soft material/surface, such as Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), is a perspective, useful and low-cost hydrophobic and icephobic coating. While it has been reported to have good mechanical durability, its erosion durability under the high impacting of water droplets pertinent to aircraft inflight icing phenomena has not been explored. In this study, the droplet imping erosion characteristics of an icephobic PDMS surface/material is evaluated systematically upon the dynamic impinging of water droplets at different impact velocities (~ up to 100m/s), in comparison with other state-of the-art icephobic materials/surfaces, such as superhydrophobic surface (SHS) and slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS). Surprisingly, the contact angle (CA) of the elastic PDMS is shown to have an over 20° increase (from 105° to 128°), which represents better hydrophobicity, after the erosion test which is mainly contributed to the higher roughness of the eroded PDMS surface. As for the icephobicity evaluation, intact PDMS was found to has ultra-low ice adhesion (~8 kPa), in comparison with SHS (i.e., ~100kPa) and SLIPS (i.e., ~35kPa). PDMS also shows outstandingly stable ice adhesion during the erosion…
 

Numerical Modeling of Internal Helmholtz Resonators Created by Punching Small Holes on a Thin-Walled Tube

University of Kentucky-Hao Zhou, T. W. Wu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1486
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Helmholtz resonators are normally an afterthought in the design of mufflers to target a very specific low frequency, usually the fundamental firing frequency of the engine. Due to space limitations in a complex muffler design, a resonator may have to be built by punching a few small holes on a thin-walled tube to create a neck passage into a small, enclosed volume outside the tube. The short neck passage created by punching a few small holes on a thin-walled tube can pose a great challenge in numerical modeling, especially when the boundary element method (BEM) is used. In this paper, a few different BEM modeling approaches are compared to one another. These include modeling both sides of the thin-walled tube and the details of each small hole, modeling just the mid surface of the thin-walled tube but with the holes and possibly an added neck length, and modeling an equivalent perforated surface patch on the tube without any holes. The BEM results are compared to a detailed simulation using the finite element method (FEM). In…
 

Analyzing Field Environments to Understand Product Failure Causes

Vibration Research-Jade Vande Kamp
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1477
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Product failures often require expensive repairs or replacements. Over-engineering adds to recurring costs and its success is uncertain if the failure’s cause is not understood. Engineers need in-depth knowledge before attempting a re-design. This case study focuses on bus seat failures not predicted by industry standard tests. The goal was to collect comprehensive field vibration data and analyze that data to understand the failure’s cause. The study used accelerometers placed at various points in multiple seating configurations and across multiple field environments. Analysis identified transmissibility issues between axes of motion, as well as higher reliability seat configurations.
 
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Quality Assurance Sampling and Testing Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Forgings

AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2372H
  • Current
Published 2019-04-05 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable specification requirements of carbon and low-alloy steel forgings.

 
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PHEV Real World Driving Cycle Energy and Fuel and Consumption Reduction Potential for Connected and Automated Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Darrell Robinette, Eric Kostreva, Alexandra Krisztian, Anthony Lackey, Christopher Morgan, Joshua Orlando, Neeraj Rama
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents real-world driving energy and fuel consumption results for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A drive cycle, local to Michigan Technological University, was designed to mimic urban and highway driving test cycles in terms of distance, transients and average velocity, but with significant elevation changes to establish an energy intensive real-world driving cycle for assessing potential energy savings for connected and automated vehicle (CAV) control. The investigation began by establishing baseline and repeatability of energy consumption at various battery states of charge. It was determined that drive cycle energy consumption under a randomized set of boundary conditions varied within 3.6% of mean energy consumption regardless of initial battery state of charge. After completing 30 baseline drive cycles, a design for six sigma (DFSS) L18 array was designed to look at sensitivity of a range of parameters to energy consumption as related to connected and automated vehicles to target highest return on engineering development effort. The parameters explored in the DFSS array that showed the most sensitivity, in order of…
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Analysis of Passive Low Power Phase Change Heat Dissipation Method for Electric Vehicle Motor

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Shiping Huang, Yishi Wang, Jianjie Kuang, Jiakang Quan, Xiaofei Ma
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The electric vehicle motor is developing toward high power density, at the same time brings serious temperature rise problem, which affect the driving motor performance, efficiency, and useful life. Liquid cooling is usually used to solve the problem, but its energy consumption is large and the reliability is poor. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a heat dissipation method to improve the reliability and energy efficiency of the driving motor heat dissipation system. The method uses heat pipes heat transfer, and the heat pipes cold end are cooled by vehicle facing the wind. By establishing the motor temperature rise model, heat transfer model and vehicle dynamics model, this paper analyzes the maximum temperature region and reliability of the driving motor heat dissipation system, calculates and analyzes the efficiency of the driving motor under different driving conditions. The results show that with the heat dissipation method of this paper, the reliability of the driving motor cooling system has been improved; the overall efficiency of the driving motor can be increased by 7.4%-27.9% and…
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Research on Dynamic Load of Belgian Event Based on Virtual Proving Ground

CATARC-Jiansen Yang, Xinyu Wang, Xin Li
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The fatigue load spectrum of the physical proving ground is the necessary input for fatigue life analysis of vehicle parts and components. It is usually obtained by Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) and loads decomposition using multi-body dynamics tools. Virtual Proving Ground (VPG) methodology is gradually replacing this technical strategy. The belgian road is the typical event in durability test, in this paper, the flexible body and FTire model are applied to the vehicle multi-body dynamics model in order to improve the simulation accuracy. The result shows that all the wheel center force, shock absorber displacement and axial force acquired by VPG simulation have excellent correlation with real vehicle measured data. It is also proved that the virtual proving ground technology is a reliable and effective method to obtain the fatigue load spectrum in the early stage of development.
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