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AFP Processing of Dry Fiber Materials (DFP) for Improved Rates and Reliability

Electroimpact Inc.-Michael Assadi, Tyler Field
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0030
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper explores the differences found when processing dry-fiber, thermoset, carbon materials (DFP) as compared to processing pre-preg, thermoset materials with Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) equipment. When comparing these two processes, heating systems and tension control must be modified from traditional AFP systems. These new heating systems also require enhanced safety measures. Existing safety systems have been designed to accommodate high performance AFP equipment. As a result, the changes required to accommodate DFP heating systems have become negligible. Although processing dry fiber requires a higher level of heating, tension control and added safety measures, once these differences are overcome, processing rates and reliability are significantly improved. Specifically, overall payout speeds and steering speeds can be increased for dry fiber resulting in increased laydown rates. The lack of resin within the material greatly reduces resin build-up for longer maintenance intervals. This also results in greater reliability by minimizing or eliminating the associated problems with resin build-up. All of these advantages increase the machine utilization when processing aerospace parts made from dry fiber materials with AFP equipment.
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A Study on the development of Aerostructures Design for Assembly guidelines and their effective use to proactively identify opportunities for improvement in mitigating common defects of the Aerostructures Assembly.

GITAM School of Technology, Hyderabad-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0009
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
An Aircraft’s assembly process plays a vital part in its design, development and production phases and contributes to about half of the Total cost spent in its entire product lifecycle. DFA principles have been one of the proven effective methodologies in Automotive and Process industries. Use of DFA principles have resulted in proactively simplifying and optimizing engineering designs with reduced product costs, and improved inefficiencies in product design and performance. Standardization of Assembly guidelines is vital for “Design and Build” and “Build-To-Print” manufacturing supplier organizations. However, Standardizing design methodologies, through use of proven tools like Advanced Product Quality Planning, (APQP) are still in the initial stages in Aerospace part and process design processes. Thus, there is a tremendous opportunity for research on the application of the existing DFA guidelines to optimize Engineering Aerospace Assembly processes aiming to simplify, standardize design methodologies by building on existing industry practices which have a common platform for design communication and are easy to adopt within the existing process/systems. This technical paper is to discuss the framework for application of…
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Electrical Connectors for Aerospae, Shipboard, Ground Vehicles and Associated Equipment

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1308D
  • Current
Published 2020-01-21 by SAE International in United States
The intent of this ARP is to identify electrical connectors maintained by the AE-8C1 Committee, to provide their general application characteristics, associated configuration options, and recommendations for new design (see 6.1.1), repair, and retrofit purposes (see 6.1). It is acknowledged the connectors listed herein will not completely satisfy all mobility vehicle and equipment requirements, but optimization of the use of these components will facilitate standardization in the form of maximum utilization of a minimum variety of connectors. This ARP only pertains to AS connector standards. See MIL-STD-1353 for U.S. military specification connector information.
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Guidelines for Using Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits and Semiconductors in Military, Aerospace, and Other Rugged Applications

CE-12 Solid State Devices
  • Aerospace Standard
  • SSB1D
  • Current
Published 2020-01-14 by SAE International in United States

This Engineering Bulletin and its annexes provide guidance to Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in evaluating device manufacturer flows and in selecting cost effective, standard products that meet the performance objective for potential use in many rugged, military, space, extreme, or other environments.

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Independent Aftermarket (IAM) and the Three Dimensions of Friction Material Evaluation

LINK South America-Pedro Oliveira, Henrique Rodrigues, Eduardo Ferro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0006
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
It is well known the difference between development levels and engineering investment applied to passenger car brake pads when compared to Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and items sold in the Independent Aftermarket (IAM). Based on these differences, the objective of this paper is to propose a simple evaluation for the IAM that can provide at least some level of the understanding of frictional material behavior. Based on a tripod of variables, or three Dimensions Development, described in this work as Performance, Comfort (NVH) and Durability; and using internationally and established testing procedures to measure these dimensions in order to meet the IAM demands for the cost-benefit engineering investment. An important part of the proposed tool is to position friction material against competition for market known issues, and, more importantly, to ensure end product safety and reliability.
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A Discussion on Detailing Processes for Improving the Dependability of Aerospace and Automotive Systems

National Institute for Space Research – INPE-Paula Renata dos Reis Aranha, Ana Paula de Sá Santos Rabello, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0299
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Complex and/ or highly integrated systems such as satellites, airplanes, air traffic controllers, cars, etc., require Dependability (Reliability, Maintainability, Availability, Safety, Security, etc.) assessments throughout their life cycle, especially in their development, where the time and cost to make changes are smaller. Such systems must achieve high levels of Dependability through a variety of approaches and processes. Among these, the processes of analysis and decision making from the conception phase to the final phase of the detailed project stand out, because in these phases the most important decisions are taken. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a discussion on detailing processes for improving the Dependability of aerospace and automotive systems. For this, it will present: 1) detailing process of a Dependability engineering; and 2) detailing process of a Dependability assurance, in order to establish processes that define/ highlight/ clarify activities pertaining to each area/ discipline (Engineering and Assurance). These details were obtained from information collected from specialists in the area, experiences of the related areas of INPE and of companies contracted by…
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Finned surfaces in air-cooled internal combustion engine: influence of geometry and flow conditions

Federal Institute of Espírito Santo - IFES-Gomes C. L., Arruda C. A. M., Sian J. G. A, Schaeffer L. C., Favalessa L. B., Monhol F. A. F.
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0160
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The internal combustion engine cooling is very important to its proper functioning, since high temperatures can shorten the durability of internal components and hence increase fuel consumption. In air-cooled engines it is common to use extended surfaces (fins), which provide an increase in the convective and radiative heat exchange. Thus, the present work investigates the phenomenon of convection between the external air and the motor casing through computational simulations. The finite differences method was applied for two fin geometry (annular and rectangular). The temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate in the fin were obtained for different ambient temperatures (20 - 40 °C) and flow rates (0 - 25 m/s). The analysis was based on a typical 150-cylinder motorcycle engine with fins made of 204-aluminum alloy. It was observed that under zero flow conditions and ambient temperature of 30 °C there was a temperature gradient of 38.49 °C on the annular fins and only 7.76 °C on the rectangular ones. For forced convection conditions (at 25 m / s) the gradient on the annular fins…
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Customer Profile Identification and correlation between the customer damage and durability tests

FCA Fiat Chrysler Automóveis Brasil LTDA-Fabricio Passos, Filipe Maduro, Irving Coura, Matheus Braga
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0189
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle durability is related to its long-term performance. In order to assess the vehicle, subsystems and components expected life, those are subjected to extreme conditions to identify possible issues, detecting its causes and consequences, in order to reach a desired standard of excellence in the future.In the context, durability tests have been facing new challenges: Not only Vehicle development cycles have been reduced, but also there is a strong demand for weight reduction. Therefore, increasing the assertiveness of test parameters is a key factor in achieving these two demands.The present study aims to develop a method that allows the correlation between the durability tests and the customer use profile. Thus, it will be possible to determine a durability target aligned to the actual damage load which the vehicles are subjected, setting the test severity level to represent the customer demand.
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CASE STUDY: RELATION BETWEEN LOADS AND ENGINE MOUNTS STIFFNESS VARIATION APPLIED ON MID SIZE TRUCK

General Motors Mercosul-Marcos Rogério Sanches Barbetti, Fernando Braga, Luiz Carlos Sá, Rafael Tedim Terra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0094
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This Paper has as objective to present a study about how the stiffness variation can affect the powertrain mounts system loading. The initial driver for this research is to find enablers to improve the durability performance through loads reduction without noise and vibration degradation.In this study, we will review a summary about powertrain mounts main characteristics to help the understanding how to establish the static and dynamic characteristics, with the external excitations originated from durability track as well the engine torque applied over the system.We used the mid-size truck as physical hardware and the required load data were collected through load cells installed on the powertrain mount system.The load data were analyzed individually per mount and split over the three axles (X, Y and Z). As control factor, we applied different stiffness or “tunings” on the mount rubber body and as result, we established the relation between stiffness and powertrain mounts system loading.The presented graphic results show the load behavior along the durability tracks, it is possible to understand and establish the relation between loads…
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CRIMPING TOOLS, TERMINAL, HAND OR POWER ACTUATED, WIRE TERMINATION, ACCESSORY HARDWARE FOR AS22520/28 AND AS22520/29 TOOLS

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS22520/30
  • Current
Published 2019-12-27 by SAE International in United States
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