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General Industry (2) Spotlight on Design (2)

Velocity Trajectory Planning for Saving Energy of Intelligent 4WD Electric Vehicle Using Model Predictive Control

  • Wuhan Univ of Technology - Yue Li, Dongmei Wu, Changqing Du, Huiping Yang
  • Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle - Yang Li, Xiaobo Yang, Xinyue Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1584
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
Abstract—In order to reduce the fuel consumption of intelligent four-wheel drive vehicles(4WD),this paper presents a new method of online speed trajectory planning.It can realize online real-time control of vehicle speed,avoid high fuel consumption caused by rapid acceleration and rapid deceleration and also improve driving comfort which are particularly important for urban conditions. This method can be used not only for unmanned drive speed trajectory planning but also can provide drivers driving advice.Firstly,to keep the trade-off between saving energy and maintaining the expected vehicle speed,combined with the limitation of vehicles speed and engine speed,the objective function is transformed into a quadratic form.Secondly, through model predictive control (MPC),current and upcoming state and control constraints is considered.According to the minimum energy consumption,the optimal control strategy for predictive driving is determined at each stage.Besides,an effective projected gradient algorithm with adaptive line search strategy is used.Through GRAMPC solver,online Speed trajectory planning control can be implemented in high-dimensional systems and just in sub-millisecond range.Previous literature mainly adopts the dynamic programming algorithm to realize the optimization strategy or transforms the target problem…

The Effect of Mounting Orientation of Resistive Particulate Matter Sensor on Signal Behavior

  • Shanghai FT Automotive Parts Co., Ltd - Huibo Huang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1598
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
Particulate matter (PM) sensors are required to monitor the diesel particulate filters (DPF) malfunction. The resistive PM sensor concept is widely chosen for this purpose due to functionality, costs and durability. The output signal of resistive PM sensor for interpreting and processing for diagnosing DPF status is significantly affected by the exhaust velocity and soot concentration in the vicinity of sensor sensing element. Theoretically, During the regeneration of PM sensor, no new accumulation of particles is possible. Even after the regeneration, PM cannot immediately be accumulated again, because of thermal inertia, the PM sensor requires a certain time for the thermalization of the sensor element by the exhaust gas. During the regeneration phase and the subsequent cooling phase,PM sensor is insensitive with respect to a possibly present soot concentration , but the choking phenomena of PM sensor can be observed, when soot depositing rate reaches a threshold value.

Data Driven Modeling of In-Cylinder Pressure of a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine Operated with Renewable Fuels Using State Space Approach

  • Hindustan Institute ofTechnology&Science - Sasikumar Nandagopal
  • MIT Campus Anna University - Senthil Kumar Masimalai, Kamalanand Krishnamurthy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0022
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
This research work is about the development of a data-driven model of a dual fuel diesel engine fuelled with renewable fuels (waste cooking oil and ethanol). In the first phase of the work, test engine was modified to operate in a dual fuel mode with ethanol as primary fuel and waste cooking oil as pilot fuel. It is followed by the development of the algebraic model comprising of sub-models like gas exchange process, charge compression process, combustion and expansion process. Wiebe's function was used to develop the combustion model. In the second phase of the work a data driven model was developed using state space approach. Engine power output, mass of air, mass of waste cooking oil, mass of ethanol, in-cylinder volume and experimental pressure data were feed as the input to the model. Model is solved for in-cylinder pressure data. It was trained until the output of the model matches the experimental pressure data. Prediction error method was used to estimate outputs of the state space model. Further, the performance and prediction capability of…

Effect of Piston bowl geometry on Performance and Emissions with Mahua biodiesel blend

  • GRIET, Hyderabad - Jyothi U S
  • JNTUH, Hyderabad - Vijaya Kumar Reddy K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0057
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States

The depletion of fossil fuels and environmental degradation with its emissions motivated the researchers to search for alternatives. Vegetable oils are considered as one of the productive alternative for internal combustion engines because of good combustion properties. Currently, very few commercial devices that utilize bio-diesel combustion for the production of heat, due to the economic viability and limited availability. To attain effective combustion, an effort is made in investigating the effect of change of piston geometry on the Performance & Emission characteristics of bio-diesel of mahua oil. Experiments are conducted to study the effect of varied piston bowl geometry on the performance and emission characteristics of mahua oil biodiesel on four stroke single cylinder diesel engine at constant speed of 1500 rpm for different loads. It is noticed that, at 20% blend of biodiesel of Mahua oil, the performance and emission parameters were improved compared to alone diesel operation. Hence the same optimal blend is adapted for conducting experiments by changing piston bowl geometry of toroidal shape. The experiments are conducted duly ensuring the same compression ratio as that of with standard hemispherical geometry at optimal blend of bio-diesel. It was noticed there is slight improvement in performance parameters and significant improvement in the emission parameters. At optimal blend emissions reduced by 16.4%, 11.4%, and 5.3% of unburnt hydrocarbons (UHC), Carbon monoxide (CO), Carbon dioxide respectively compared to diesel alone operation at rated load. However, there is 8% increase in oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emission due to attainment of high combustion temperatures with biodiesel. With toroidal geometry, at optimal blend of bio-diesel the emission parameters are further reduced notably but increase in NOx emission is observed compared to standard piston due to high cylinder temperatures and pressures.

Theoretical Analysis of High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composite Fin Based Automotive Radiator under Forced Convection

  • VIT Universtity - M A Vadivelu, C Ramesh Kumar
  • VIT University Vellore - C D Naiju
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0099
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
Though the high thermal conductivity polymer composites are prepared based on the thermal requirements, the effectiveness and overall heat transfer performance of the radiators have to be addressed comprehensively to validate the concerned efforts taken to prepare the high thermal conductivity polymer composites. In this article, theoretical analysis on the thermal performance of automotive radiator under convection is performed only by concentrating on the term thermal conductivity of the material. Micro channel based geometry is extracted from the given heat exchanger problem to reduce the complexities of simulation. The term cooling system performance index (CSPI) is coined to achieve the expected targets. For shorter fins, the effect of thermal conductivity on the cooling system performance index under lower Reynolds number is insignificant. Further discussions on effect of thermal conductivity on various cases are presented with brief explanations.

Experimental Field Performance Analysis of Small Weed Remover in Sugarcane Grassland

  • VIT University, Vellore. - Prabu K
  • B S Abdur Rahman Crescent University - Jeyakumar P D, M Thirumurugan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0063
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
In India, Agriculture is a backbone of the economy. Various crops are grown in India such as rice, wheat, maize, millet and sugarcane. Weed is also grown along with the crops. The process of removal of these weeds from crops is called weeding. In this paper, the weeding in the sugarcane crop is studied. 33 % of profit is spent for removing weed manually. The rate and effectiveness of weed removal depends on number of parameters related to machine performance parameters and soil properties such as types of cutting blades used, machine efficiency, moisture content of the soil etc. Studies have been conducted on the effect of moisture content and the type of cutting blades like flat blades, spike tooth blades and curved blades on the performance of weeding machines. Based on the above parameters, a Sugarcane Weed Remover (SWR) is designed which consists of single cylinder air cooled gasoline engine, blade assembly and transmission system. Various blade parameters are selected and analysed for finding the best type of blade to remove the mud stucking…

Experimental Study of friction reduction by reducing Piston ring Pre - load

  • Mahindra Mahindra Ltd. - Md Tauseef Alam
  • Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd - Venkatesh Kumar PS, Anil Thakur, Sataya Ghadei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0101
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States

The prime objective of this study is to check the friction reduction by reducing the tangential load of the piston ring. To examine this an experimental study has been carried out under motored engine condition from 500 to 4000 engine speed at the step of 500 rpm at different oil temperatures ranging from 40 0C to 120 0C. 15W40 oil was used for this study. Standard Strip down approach was followed in accessing the Friction. The whole friction measurement was split in crank train and piston group friction and was measured with base and modified piston ring pack. The modified piston ring pack was having 24% less ring tension as compared to base ring pack. The study was carried out using block, crankshaft & Piston of 100 hp, 1.5 litre, 3 cylinder engine with 92 mm stroke and 83 mm bore. In each test ring pack was tested as a part of complete piston assembly. The result shows a maximum benefit of 6.21 % & 4.7 % in FMEP in piston group and crank train friction respectively at 90 0C oil temperature and 2000 Erpm with modified ring pack over the base ring pack. The Friction benefit observed to be higher at lower Erpm which slightly decreased at higher Erpm. The functionality and durability of the modified piston ring was also checked on the engine in terms of blow by, oil consumption and visual observation after the test. The blow by was observed to be comparable with the exiting ring pack and was well below the specified limit of 70 lpm. The Engine oil consumption with modified ring pack was also observed to be comparable with the existing ring pack and was below the design limit of 23 g/hr. No abnormality observed during durability test and during post test analysis of piston, ring pack and liner.

Development of 2.2l CRDe Engine meeting BS4 emission norms without the aid of EGR Cooling

  • Mahindra Research Valley - Sachin Bahl, Vagesh Shangar Ramani, Anbarasu Muthusamy, Hariharan Ramanathan, Yuveraj Parte
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0069
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
The never-ending concern on the air quality and atmospheric pollution has paved way for more stringent emission legislations. Existing Diesel engine hardware face several problems on meeting the tough emission limits and they require more additional features to comply with the emission standards. The current research work throws light on the air path control approach to meet the BS4 emission norms on 2.2l SUV engine operating with EGR cooler and the techniques followed to meet the same emission norms without the application of EGR cooler which was successfully implemented on the vehicles enabling reduction of hardware. Also the migration of 2.2l engine from 88kW operating on CR 18.5 to 103kW at a lower CR of 16.5 is a challenging process to achieve NOX reduction at part loads. Optimization process included modification of various injection parameters like Main injection retardation, Increase of rail pressure and pilot separation along with adjustment of exhaust gas quantity from EGR and regulation of boost pressure. The absence of EGR cooler on the other hand increased the temperature of combustion chamber…

Corrosion behaviour of Ni-P and Ni-P Composite Plated Piston Ring

  • I P Rings Ltd - M Malathi
  • Crescent Institute of science and Tech - J Herbert Mabel
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0103
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States

Piston rings are used to seal the cavity formed between the piston and cylinder in order to allow the engine to operate efficiently. The Piston rings wear out due to constant rubbing action with cylinder wall and also have to withstand very high temperature. The top compression ring is the closest to combustion gases and is exposed to the greatest amount of chemical corrosion and highest operating temperature .Wear and Corrosion are the main stresses that have to be controlled by surface coating technology. This has lead to development of new coatings to piston ring with good wear and corrosion resistance. One such coating is Nickel Phosphorus (Ni-P) and Nickel Phosphorus composite coating (Ni-P SiC) used in automotive industry. Reinforcement of ceramic particle not only enhances the tribological property but also the corrosion resistance behavior. The electroplated Ni-P & Ni-P Metal Matrix with ultra fine SiC particles of 0.6 microns to a coating thickness of 30 microns minimum. Our work aims to study the corrosion property of NiP with different range of Phosphorus percentage and Ni-P reinforced with ultra fine SiC particles with different weight percent (10, 50 and 100 gms/lt) using Potentiostat instrument. Results were also compared with conventional Chrome plated piston rings .

Fatigue Failure Analysis of Diesel Engine Connecting rod

  • Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. - Md Tauseef Alam, Anil Thakur, Venkatesh Kumar PS, Sataya Ghadei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0067
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
Connecting rod of a high performance reciprocating internal combustion engine is one of the critical components exhibiting complex motion. This is subjected to both compressive load due to combustion force as well as tensile load due to inertia of the moving components. These loadings are cyclic in nature and the component is highly prone to fatigue failure if not deigned or manufactured carefully. Therefore connecting rods are designed and manufactured with high degree of precision for infinite loading cycle. But failures in connecting rod is often reported which is associated to either fatigue, bending, bearing failure or assembly faults. This study deals with one of such failure of connecting rod reported during fatigue testing. Failure occurred at around 1 million fatigue loading cycle as against target life of 5 million cycle. The present study represents the investigations done for engine connecting rod and with a view to identify the root cause of failure. Factors affecting failure including structural design, type of material and dynamic loads were assessed using standard failure analysis method. This included Visual…