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Improvement of Hydraulic system tests in Aircraft Manufacturing by applying Lean techniques

Airbus-Kevin Forster
Cranfield Univ-Philip Webb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1901
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Lean Manufacturing is generally a challenge across all manufacturing companies. Especially in the aerospace industry where production costs have a significant impact on the overall business success. Additionally, the aircraft Takt time is gradually being reduced to accomplish ramp up requirements. The hydraulic system tests are considered as a production waste (Muda Type I) since it is mandatory but does not add any value to the end customer. Furthermore, due to health and safety aspects, no other production task can be done while the test is being performed. This research project aimed at performing a Kaizen analysis of the hydraulic system test stations to reduce or eliminate idle time while it is taking place. To do so, an extensive literature review has be conducted to provide its research framework. Then, all the project requirements and constraints were identified in order to generate a design specification. As a part of the methodology, several design proposals to accomplish this specification are created. In parallel, a reverse engineering case scenario is used to generate a DMU using a…
 

Hypersonic flow simulation towards space propulsion geometries

Universidade Da Beira Interior-Odelma Teixeira, Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1873
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
With the actual tendency of space exploration, hypersonic flight have gain a significant relevance, taking the attention of many researchers over the world. This work aims to present a numerical tool to solve hypersonic gas dynamic flows for space propulsion geometries. This will be done by validating the code using two well-known hypersonic test cases, the double cone and the hollow cylinder flare. These test cases are part of NATO Research and Technology Organization Working Group 10 validation of hypersonic flight for laminar viscous-inviscid interactions. During the validation process several important flow features of hypersonic flow are captured and compared with available CFD and numerical data. Special attention is taken to the phenomenon of vibrational excitation of the molecules. Different vibrational non-equilibrium models are used and compared with the available data. The pressure and the heat flux along the surfaces are also analyzed. The CFD simulation is conducted using an open-source CDF solver for hypersonic flows using the OpenFOAM framework. The two-temperature CFD solver, employing central-upwind interpolation schemes of Kurganov, Noelle e Petrova, hy2Foam, is…
 

Advanced Exergy Analysis of an Air Craft Gas Turbine Engine at Different Power Loading Operations.

Alok Kumar Mohapatra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1863
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The innovations in aircraft propulsion have been identified as the key parameter towards the progress in transportation. Continuous advancement in the performance and efficiency of propulsion has enabled aircraft to travel over larger distances with higher speed. Aviation is also responsible for approximately 2% of total greenhouse gases emission and is expected to grow around 3% by 2050. The present study aims to use the exergetic analysis of a turboprop engine which should be helpful in designing of such engines and also helps these engine users to regulate and select the operation modes. A gas turbine with film air cooling of turbine blades has been proposed to be the turboprop engine. The engine is analyzed on exergy point of view at different power loading operation modes and the performance is studied. Selected exergetic measures under consideration are Exergy Efficiency, Fuel Exergy Depletion Ratio, Relative Exergy Consumption Ratio, Exergetic Improvement potential and Productivity Lack ratio. The total fuel exergy depletion ratio of the turboprop engine is estimated to be around 44%. . Also, among the identified…
 

Landing Gear Integration into Aircraft Structure in Early Design Stage

Bauhaus Luftfahrt EV-Ulrich Kling, Mirko Hornung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1890
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The demanded development towards various emission reduction goals set up by several institutions forces the aerospace industry to think about new technologies and alternative aircraft configurations. With these alternative aircraft concepts, the landing gear layout is also affected. Turbofan engines with very high bypass ratios could increase the diameter of the nacelles extensively. In this case, mounting the engines above the wing could be a possible arrangement to avoid an exceedingly long landing gear. Thus, the landing gear could be shortened and eventually mounted at the fuselage instead of the wings. Other technologies such as high aspect ratio wings have an influence on the landing gear integration as well. To assess the difference, especially in weight, between the conventional landing gear configuration and alternative layouts a method is developed based on preliminary structural designs of the different aircraft components, namely landing gear, wing and fuselage. Simplified parametric finite element structural models for the different components are introduced. These models are used to investigate different aircraft configurations with special regard on the landing gear integration. The…
 

Noise and Vibration Optimization Using TMR Analysis for CI Engine Fueled by Blends of Simarouba Methyl Ester

SVPM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING-Sangram Dashrath Jadhav
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1894
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Today’s frenetic engine manufacturing and transportation sector and its related traces viz; noise and vibration of our modern societies has adverse effect on environment as well as all of us. Generally, vehicle extensively tested to withstand against mechanical shocks, noise, vibration etc. While, accordingly make the provision such as suspension, dampers, air bags etc. still the problem of noise/vibration day-by-day incrementally arise and become severe with the age of vehicles. Noise/vibration is a controllable pollutant that deserves the attention were all the scientific community work hard for controlling their harmful effects. Modern research affords us the opportunity to understand the subject better and to develop advance technologies. Widely immediate slogan and goal of all industries might be to reduce Noise/vibration on predominantly basis while, make the quietest and smoothest running Engines. Noise/vibration cause and adverse effect on C.I engine, engine component and ultimately vehicle, may reduce the life of the engine. To, reduce the dependency on diesel fuel (Due to rapid worldwide depletion) Biodiesel is one of the immediate, alternative and complimentary solution. In the…
 

Waste Plastic oil used as an Alternative fuel for Aero Diesel Engines: an Analysis

GIFT, Bhubaneswar-Alok Mohapatra
VSSUT, Burla-amar kumar das
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1896
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The use of plastics and its production has seen a significant increase in recent years and accordingly the amount of plastic waste that gets accumulated in the environment has increased to an alarming level. Since plastics are primarily a petroleum based product, this increase in demand for plastics has to certain extent reduced the availability of petroleum as a non-renewable fossil fuel. One of the options to reduce the pollution due to waste plastic and create an alternate source of energy is to recycle the plastic waste by converting them into valuable energy resource. In this regard, oil derived by pyrolysis of waste plastics becomes a promising one to be used as a resource of aviation fuel. The current study analyses the oil derived by pyrolysis of waste plastics to be used in aero diesel engines. The study focusses on the use of waste plastic oil with diesel blend and compared its performance with diesel. The thermodynamic performance of the plastic oil blended with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% diesel are examined and related…
 

Suppression of Eddy Current Loss in Rectangular Winding of High Power-Density IPMSM Using Concentrated Winding Stator for More Electric Aircraft

Hokkaido University-Sho Manabe, Masatsugu TAKEMOTO
IHI Corporation-Yosuke AKAMATSU, Takehiro JIKUMARU, Fuminori Suzuki, Hitoshi Oyori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1910
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In order to respond to worldwide environmental problems such as global warming and demands for saving fuel cost of aircrafts from the aviation industry, researches on More Electric Aircraft (MEA) are actively conducted. Conventional hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical power sources from aero engines for flight actuators or auxiliary systems are replaced by electric motors in MEA. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) are widely used in various applications for high power density and high efficiency. It is considered that rectangular windings can greatly improve the slot factor, thereby making it possible to increase the power density of IPMSMs. Additionally, in the concentrated winding stator, the coil end can be made shorter than that of the distributed winding stator, which is possible to downsize the stator in the axial direction. In this paper, a high power density concentrated winding IPMSMs which employs rectangular windings for MEA is simulated by 2D-FEA. However, this simulation result reveals that considerable amount of eddy current loss generated in the windings of the motor. Excessive eddy current loss in the windings…
 

A New Positioning Device Designed for Aircraft Automated Alignment System

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Jie Huang, Long Yu, Yuhan Wang
Shanghai Top NC Tech Co Ltd-Yilian Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1883
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Accurate and fast positioning of large aircraft component is of great importance for Automated Alignment System. The Ball joint is a widely-used mechanical device connecting the aircraft component and Automated Alignment System. However, there are some shortcomings for the device in man-machine engineering, such as the entry state of the ball-head still needs to be confirmed by the workers and then switched to the locking state manually. To solve above problems, a new positioning mechanism is present in this paper, which consists of a ball-head and a ball-socket. The new device is equipped with a monocular vision system, in which a calibrated industrial camera is used to collect the images of the ball-head. And then, the 3-D coordinate of the ball-head center is calculated by a designed algorithm, which combines the symmetry of the sphere and the principle of projection transformation, guiding the positioner to capture the ball-head. Once the ball-head gets into the ball-socket, the pneumatic system inside the ball-socket will drive the piston to move to the specified location. Meanwhile, the amount of…
 

Compensating the Effects of Ice Crystal Icing on the Engine Performance by Control Methods

Central Institute of Aviation Motors-Oskar Gurevich, Sergei Smetanin, Mikhail Trifonov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1862
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft equipment is operated in a wide range of external conditions, which, with a certain combination of environmental parameters, can lead to icing of the engine internal elements. Due to icing, the engine components performance change what leads to decrease in thrust, gas dynamic stability, durability, etc. Safe aircraft operation and its desired performance may be lost as a result of such external influence. Therefore, it is relevant to study the possibilities of reducing the icing effect with the help of a special engine control. The focus of this paper is to determine control methods of an aircraft gas turbine engine addressing this problem. The object of the study is a modern commercial turbofan with a bypass ratio of about 9. In this paper analysis of the effect of ice crystal icing on the engine components performance is conducted. To perform simulation of the engine performance under such impact, degraded components characteristics was introduced into physics-based turbofan model. Control algorithms for this model were developed applied to various regulated variables used in the setpoint controllers…
 

Optimization of CI Engine Performance and Emissions Fueled by Blends of Alternative Fuels Methyl Ester Using Taguchi and Multi Regression Analysis

Dr. D. Y.Patil Unitech Society's-Vijay javanjal
SVPM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING-Sangram Dashrath Jadhav
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1893
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Today’s frenetic engine manufacturing and transportation sector and its related traces viz; noise and vibration of our modern societies has adverse effect on environment as well as all of us. Modern research affords us the opportunity to understand the subject better and to develop advance technologies. Widely immediate slogan and goal of all industries might be to improve the performance and reduce emission using alternative fuel while, make the quietest and smoothest running Engines. To, reduce the dependency on diesel fuel (Due to rapid worldwide depletion) Biodiesel is one of the immediate, alternative and complimentary solution. In the Present study, to optimize the operating parameters of the Direct Injection Single Cylinder (5.2 kw) CI engine with respect to Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen, Hydrocarbons (HC) etc.. For this investigation, we used Biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel fuel which possesses low cetane number which is not sufficient to operate existing diesel engine. However, this could be combined with the diesel fuel in the form of blends. For this investigation…