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A Simplified Approach Towards Draft Control in Hydraulic Machineries for Component/Cost Reduction

Mahindra Mahindra, Ltd.-Sukrit Mittal, Rishabh Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0102
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Draft control is a mechanism primarily provided in Tractors to maintain the penetration of its rear attachment (plough) in ground, such that there isn’t a condition of overload on the machine, i.e., the operation remains under control parameters. With time, the concept was introduced in excavators too, for controlling the cutting-edge penetration of bucket in the ground. The technologies currently employed by global construction equipment manufacturers involve complex electronic components like John Deere is using Nano-sensors and ECU, KOMATSU uses stroke sensors in hydraulic cylinders to map real time position of the bucket and hence control the penetration depth, etc. The output of most of these systems are driver warnings, on the dash panel. Even if the system is automated, it involves additional components to automate the draft control. The concept proposed in this paper not only reduce the number of components, but makes the system more reliable shifting from electronic sensing to mechanical sensing. Besides, the system is inherently automated without any additional cost/components. The system uses a pressure relief valve to sense the…

Tests with a Dynamometer Related to the Determination of Energy Consumption, Dynamic Behaviour, and Slippage of Vehicles

University OAS Konstanz-Michael Butsch, Jonas Dettling, Carl-Gustav Ritz, Andreas Wizgall
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0352
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
At the University of Applied Sciences Konstanz, Germany, a modern electronically controlled dynamometer and several cars are available for tests. Numerous studies have been carried out, and the latest results will be presented. The paper is intended to explain different tests under load. One focus is the driving cycle WLTC (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle) and the requirements for the proper conduct of investigation with this driving cycle. Two and three wheelers have a great importance for mobility in various Asian countries. But also in other countries, this segment is very important for the so-called First or Last Mile Vehicles. Because of this, a short explanation of the driving cycle WMTC (Worldwide harmonized Motorcycle Emissions Certification/Test Procedure) is given. The various possibilities for the operation of the dynamometer and for carrying out various experiments are shown. Other important figures that can be determined on a dynamometer are the wheel power, the power losses and eventually the engine performance. With the brake specific torque, the traction force at the propelled wheels, the maximum acceleration or…

Prediction and Resolution of Vehicle In-Cab Noise Due to Powertrain Induced Excitations

Tata Motors Ltd-Uttam Titave
Tata Technologies Ltd-Shailesh Lakshe, Kishore Chittilla, Manoj Raut
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0177
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle NVH is one of the critical performance quality parameter and it consists of vibration levels at tactile points and noise levels at ear locations for different vehicle running conditions. There are many sources of noise and vibration in a vehicle and powertrain is one of the main source. Therefore, it is important to understand and resolve powertrain induced noise and vibration issues at early design stage with efficient simulation techniques. The work presented here deals with the use of systematic CAE approach for prediction and resolution of structure borne in-cab noise due to powertrain excitations. During NVH testing of SUV vehicle, boom noise is observed at low frequency. Detailed full vehicle level simulation model consisting of Vibro-acoustic Trimmed BIW, Front and Rear Suspension and Driveline with Powertrain modal model is build. Powertrain forces due to Inertia and Combustion are applied at CG of Powertrain Modal model and in-cab noise at driver ear location (DEL) is predicted. Predicted 2EO in-cab noise shows good correlation with test. Root cause analysis carried out using various techniques such…

Evaluation of Slow Speed Off-Tracking of Steerable Axle Tractor Trailer Combinations

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-S P Singh
VRDE Ahmednagar-Vikram Saini, Sanjay Chaudhuri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0069
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Steerable multi axle trailers are deployed for transportation due to their cost effectiveness and improved manoeuvrability then non-steered trailers. High speed manoeuvres of steerable axle trailer are considered dangerous for stability due to complex dynamic behaviour and researched for decades. Off-Tracking is an important parameter which influences the dynamic behaviour of steerable axle trailer at both low and high speed. Off-tracking is defined as maximum radial offset between path of the tractor’s front axle centre and trailer’s rearmost axle centre during a specific manoeuvre. Off-tracking, being a slow speed phenomenon becomes major concern for safe and accident free movement even at slow speeds. A linear 3-DOF yaw plane model of steerable axle tractor trailer combination is developed using Lagrangian approach, which requires steering angles of truck’s front axle and all trailer axles to simulate the system. Trailer steering follows Command steering law hence, mathematical equations based on analytical Ackerman’s theory developed to evaluate ideal trailer steering angles. Further, actual steering angles by physical trailer steering mechanism are evaluated and optimised by MBD model prepared in…

Electrification and Automation of Manual Gearbox Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and CO2-Emissions of Passenger Cars

IAV GmbH-Andre Uhle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0140
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
To meet the targets of Indian future emission legislation, an electrification and automation of today’s manual transmission technology is necessary. For this reason IAV invented an electrified automated transmission family, based on well-known manual transmission technology. This low cost AMT approach is equipped with a 48V electric motor and can be used as pure electric or hybrid drivetrain. Furthermore it is possible to realize power shifts by using just one dry friction element. A low number of standard components combined with a low voltage electric motor and an electro mechanic actuation system is sufficient to create a maximum of flexibility to meet the emission fleet targets of the future, without having the disadvantageous high costs for a high-voltage electric system. Beside this low cost drivetrain approach, IAV has developed an electro mechanic AMT-kit to convert current manual transmissions easily into automated transmissions. Only this small technology change can cause a fuel consumption benefit of up to 5%. The advantage of an electro mechanic AMT-kit compared to today’s well-known hydraulic actuation systems is the easy-to-mount and…

Effect of Engine Bush Stiffness and Damping on Engine Shake Performance Using Virtual Simulation (MBD DOE) Approach

Maruti Suzuki India Limited-Sumit Kakria, Joydeep Chatterjee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0175
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Engine Shake is low frequency phenomenon which causes vehicle vibration mainly in vertical direction leading to discomfort to the driver/passenger. This is caused by excitation due to small irregularities on smooth road surface. Engine mounting system design plays an important role in the Shake performance of the vehicle. This paper describes the Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) modeling and simulation study of the vehicle to analyze the Shake performance using Design of Experiments (DOE) approach. In the study, a 16 DOF configuration system model of the vehicle system is built using Multi Body Dynamic (MBD) simulation software ADAMS. The effect of change in Engine bush stiffness and damping on Floor displacement has been analyzed by carrying out DOE study using ADAMS. This is done to optimize the Engine bush parameters for improved Shake performance of the vehicle. Static Equilibrium analysis is done on MBD model to check the correct load distribution in the vehicle according to test condition. The input loads for Shake test is given as constant amplitude sine sweep excitation at Tire contact patch…

Design, Analysis, Simulation And Development of a Ravigneaux Gear-Train

ARAI-Enanko Moulick, Kiran Wani, Karan Kapoor, Ankit Rawat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0250
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
With increased vehicular traffic density a trend has been observed where customers have started preferring automatic transmission in place of its manual version. This Automatic transmission not only shifts the gear automatically, with the help of sensors and actuators, but they are also tuned for better performance of the vehicle in terms of fuel efficiency and emission. This all comes at the cost of power consumption from the battery, increment in cost, weight and complexity. The main parts of an automatic transmission include Torque Convertor, Sensors, Actuators, Transmission Control Unit (TCU) with the epicyclic gear-train being the heart of it. In terms of use in the automotive, a system of epicyclic gear-train can provide only 2 gear ratios. Ravigneaux gear-train is the modified version of epicyclic gear-train where there are two set of Planet gears and Sun gears or Ring gears thereby capable of giving 4 gear ratios with a single system. This paper discusses the design analysis and optimization of Ravigneaux Gear-train. To compare it with Simpson gear-train, simulation of both the gear-trains are…

Diagnosis and Elimination of Vehicle Lateral Shake in Passenger Car Through Modification of Driveshaft Joints and Engine Mount System

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Sandip Hazra, Ajit Kharade, Sunil Thakur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0214
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle lateral shake during take-off is sensitively felt by customers when the vehicle is driven at a low speed under drive away acceleration. The take-off shudder is complained by customers during 1st and 2nd gear take off. Under an engine torque and half shaft angle, the drive-away shudder usually occurs during acceleration to a specific low speed at 1200 to 1600 engine rpm, which makes the vehicle shakes severely. A thorough investigation with possible design optimization of mounting system, drive shaft joint and lubrication is done to reduce the lateral vibration. This paper focuses on a passenger car, the take-off shudder of which occurs at the speeds between20Km/h and 30Km/h. The test vehicle is a monocoque construction with front wheel drive east west engine. Vehicle lateral shake is observed during the low gear power train run up in Wide Open Throttle (WOT) condition. The lateral shake is felt predominantly on the front half of the vehicle which is easily perceivable by passenger. The paper discusses the measurement and analysis procedures to identify the root cause…

Improved Parametric Expressions for Acoustic Source Strength Level and Impedance of Turbocharged Diesel Engine Exhaust System

FRITA, Indian Institute of Science.-Krishna Kumar, Manohar Munjal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0218
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
The present article aims at a possible integration of design of an engine with the muffler to ensure adequate overall insertion loss (IL) of the muffler. Acoustic source characteristics of the engine exhaust system of turbocharged diesel generator (DG) sets running at a fixed shaft speed are estimated using a recently developed novel direct evaluation method. Each cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine is modelled individually as an acoustic source, which allows estimation of the source characteristics for different arrangements of exhaust runners. Parametric expressions of the acoustic source strength level (SSL) and the internal impedance of each cylinder are proposed for full load condition of a 4-cylinder and a 6-cylinder turbocharged (TC) engines. Using the appropriate transfer and combination of source strength level (with proper phase) and source impedance, source characteristics of the complete engine are computed. These source characteristics are used to predict the unmuffled exhaust SPL spectrum which compares well with the measured spectrum. The methodology described here for the DG set engines can be readily extended to automotive engines. Keywords: Source strength…

Optimized In Cylinder NOx Reduction Strategy on BS6 Engine

Mahindra Research Valley-Anbarasu Muthusamy, Vagesh Shangar Ramani, Pranav Kumar Sinha, Giftson J, Sivasubramamanian R, Vasudeo Ganesh Halbe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0142
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
The tough emission limits of BS6 norms with very low levels of NOx and PM emissions presents major techno economic challenges for the automobile industry. Combined efforts of pollutants reduction by combustion modification as well as the exhaust after treatment devices could only facilitate to achieve the desired emission targets. Selective catalytic reduction technology is a mandatory system which uses ammonia from the aqueous urea solution to react with NOx forming nontoxic by products. The cost spent on aqueous urea solution in addition to the cost of BS 6 diesel encounters high operating cost for the vehicle. NOx reduction by SCR too requires adequate quantity of ammonia from the AdBlue. Hence sensible utilization of DEF is essential for reduced running cost of the SCR system. This article focuses on the reduction of NOx emission of the 2.2l engine on adjustment of EGR rate and Main injection timing on different operating points on various equivalence ratios. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of road conditions along with…