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Numerical Study of the Maximum Impact on Engine Efficiency When Insulating the Engine Exhaust Manifold and Ports During Steady and Transient Conditions

Universitat Politècnica de València-Alberto Broatch, Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Amin Dreif
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0002
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In the present work, a study about the impact on engine performance, fuel consumption and turbine inlet and outlet temperatures adding thermal insulation to the exhaust ports, manifold and pipes before the turbocharger of a 1.6L Diesel engine is presented. First, a 0D/1D model of the engine was developed and thoroughly validated by means of an extensive testing campaign. The validation was performed by means of steady state or transient running conditions and in two different room temperatures: 20ºC and -7ºC d. Once the validation was complete, in order to quantify the significance of adding thermal isolations, the simulations were performed setting the exhaust air path before the turbine as adiabatic. This is evaluated the maximum gain of the technology. Results showed that the thermal insulation proved to have a great potential in regard to T4 increase since this would reduce the warm up time of the aftertreatment systems. However, its impact on engine efficiency was limited in both steady and transient conditions.
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A Novel Option for Direct Waste Heat Recovery From Exhaust Gases of Internal Combustion Engines

Universita degli Studi dell Aquila-Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone PhD, Roberto Carapellucci PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0004
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Among the different opportunities to save fuel and reduce Co2 emissions from internal combustion engines, great attention has been done on the waste heat recovery: the energy wasted is, in fact, almost two thirds of the energy input and even a partial recovery into mechanical energy is really promising . Usually, thermal energy recovery has been referred to a direct heat recovery (furtherly expanding the gases expelled by the engine thanks to their high pressure and temperature) or an indirect one (using the thermal energy of the exhaust gases – or of any other thermal streams discharged into the atmosphere – as upper source of a conversion power unit which favour a thermodynamic cycle of a working fluid ). Limiting the attention to the exhaust gases, a novel opportunity can be represented by directly exploiting the residual pressure and temperature of the flue gases through an Inverted Brayton cycle (IBC), in which the gases are expanded at a pressure below the environmental one, cooled down and then recompressed to the environmental pressure. Considering the thermodynamic…
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Study of Friction Reduction Potential in Light- Duty Diesel Engines by Lightweight Crankshaft Design Coupled with Low Viscosity Oil

General Motors-Salvatore Mafrici
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0006
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Over the last two decades, engine research has been mainly focused on reducing fuel consumption in view of compliance with more stringent homologation cycles and customer expectations. As it is well known, the objective of overall engine efficiency optimization can be achieved only through the improvement of each element of the efficiency chain, of which mechanical constitutes one of the two key pillars (together with thermodynamics). In this framework, the friction reduction for each mechanical subsystem has been one of the most important topics of modern Diesel engine development. The present paper analyzes the crankshaft potential as contributor to the mechanical efficiency improvement, by investigating the synergistic impact of crankshaft design itself and oil viscosity characteristics (including new ultra-low-viscosity formulations already discussed in SAE Paper 2019-24-0056). For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools have been used to design an extremely lightweight crankshaft and to evaluate the effects of main and conrod bearings dimensioning, clearances and oil viscosity, considering not only the impact from a friction perspective but also from a structural and…
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Experimental Evaluation of Steady State Performance of an Automotive Electric Supercharger

Università Degli Studi di Genova-Silvia Marelli, Vittorio Usai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0008
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the electric supercharger for turbocharged downsized automotive engines is mainly used to improve torque at low engine speeds in order to obtain an improvement of the time to boost. These components are usually designed to fill the gap in terms of torque in transient operation caused by the main turbocharger with reference to the typical turbo lag issues. An advanced solution of the engine boosting system was taken into account, considering the adoption of an e-booster system coupled to a waste-gated turbocharger, typically adopted alone in order to provide a reduced turbo-lag, i.e. an optimized transient response of the system. In the experimental activity described in this work, the maximum speed of the e-booster used is about 70000 rpm, the maximum pressure ratio is 1.5 and the maximum power required on the shaft is less than 4 kW. The compressor unit have to be maintained in the idle condition in order to avoid excessive electric consumption and overheating problem when the boost given by this component is not required. In order to highlight the…
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Simulation of Driving Cycles by Means of a Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of IC Engine Tailpipe Emissions

Exothermia SA-Vasileios Tziolas, Nikolaos Zingopis
Politecnico di Milano-Gianluca Montenegro, Angelo Onorati, Gianluca D'Errico, Tarcisio Cerri, Andrea Marinoni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0011
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The current European legislation concerning pollutant emissions from IC engine vehicles is very stringent and demanding. In addition, the CO2 fleet emission must obey to a significant reduction path during the next decade, to cope with the prescribed targets recently agreed. The prediction of pollutant emissions from IC engines has been a challenge since the introduction of the emission regulation legislation. During the last decade, along with the more tightening limits and increased public concern about air quality, the capability of simulating different operating conditions and driving cycles with an acceptable computational effort has become a key feature for modern simulation codes. The role of 1D thermo-fluid dynamic simulation models is extremely important to achieve this task, in order to investigate the performances of the next generation of IC engines working over a wide range of operating conditions, under steady-state and transient conditions. This work is based on the idea of integrating two different 1D simulation tools in a co-simulation environment, realizing a strict numerical coupling between the two codes. The main goal is to…
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The Virtual Engine Development for Enhancing the Compression Ratio of DISI-Engines by Means of Water Injection and Variable Valve Timing

FKFS-Antonino Vacca, Francesco Cupo, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende
Ford Werke GmbH-Oliver Berkemeier, Maziar Khosravi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0010
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
With the aim of significantly reducing emissions, while keeping CO2 production under control, gasoline engines are faced with a new challenge to survive the constraints imposed by the RDE cycles. Current downsized engines are developed with the most recent techniques for increasing efficiency, such as high direct injection pressure, selective valve actuation, variable turbine geometry, and innovative thermal management system. The factor limiting their further step towards enhanced efficiency is the onset of abnormal combustion process. Therefore the challenge for the further boost of modern engine efficiency is the improvement of the combustion process. Different combustion technics such as HCCI and the employment of pre-chamber have been investigated, but the possibility of effectively use them in a wide range of the engine map, by fulfilling at the same time the needing of fast load control are still limiting their dissemination. For these reasons the technologies for improving the characteristics of a standard combustion process are still deeply investigated. Among these water injection in combination with either early or late intake valve closing offers the possibility…
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Effect of Prechamber on Exhaust Emission and Efficiency of a SI Small Engine Fuelled with Gaseous and Liquid Fuels

Istituto Motori CNR-Paolo Sementa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0035
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline combustion process by means of a passive/active prechamber. The improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition is an opportunity to give further use of Spark Ignition (SI) engine. A commercial small Spark Ignition (SI) engine was modified with a proper designed prechamber fuelled with methane. Engine performance in terms of indicated Mean effective pressure, heat release rate and fuel Consumption were evaluated as well as gaseous emissions. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were measured. Several engine operative conditions were investigated at full load varying the engine speeds for stoichiometric and lean conditions and with different prechamber types. The results were compared with those obtained with the engine equipped with the standard spark plug. The results indicated that both performance and emissions were strongly influenced by the prechamber.
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Investigation on the Dynamic Behaviour of a Torque Transmission Chain for an Innovative Hybrid Power Unit Architecture

Università degli Studi di Modena-Valerio Mangeruga, Matteo Giacopini, Saverio Barbieri, Michele Russo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0013
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In this contribution, the mechanical torque transmission between the Elecrtic Motor (EM) and the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) of a P0 architecture hybrid power unit is analysed. In particular, the system is made up of a brand new, single-cylinder 480cc engine developed on the basis of the Ducati "959 Superquadro" V90 2-cylinders engine. The thermal engine is assisted by a custom electric motor (30 kW), powered by a Li-Ion battery pack. The Ducati "959 Superquadro" engine is chosen because of its high power-to-weight ratio, and for taking advantage of its V90 2-cylinders layout. In fact, the vertical engine head is removed and it is replaced by the electric motor directly engaged to the crankshaft using the original valvetrain transmission chain, thus achieving a very compact package. This solution could be suitable for many V-type engines and aims to obtain a small hybrid power unit for possible motorcycle/small vehicle applications. The original timing chain object of this study is a silent chain, which is commonly employed as a transmission component in hybrid power unit because it…
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Fuel Consumption and Emission Reduction for Hybrid Electric Vehicles with electrically heated Catalyst

TU Dresden-Frank Atzler
TU Muenchen-Georg Wachtmeister
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0017
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization is a promising way to further reduce the CO2 emissions of passenger vehicles. However, high engine efficiencies and the reduction of engine load, due to torque assist by an electric motor, cause a decrease of exhaust gas temperature levels. This leads to an increased time to light-off of the catalysts resulting in an overall lower efficiency of the exhaust aftertreatment system. Especially in low load driving conditions, at cold ambient temperatures and on short distance drives, the tailpipe pollutant emissions are severely impacted by these low efficiency levels. To ensure lowest emissions at all driving conditions, catalyst heating methods must be used. In conventional vehicles internal combustion engine measures, e.g. late combustion can be applied. A hybrid system with an electrically heated catalyst enables further methods such as the increase of engine load, the so-called load point shifting by the electric motor or using the energy from the battery for electric catalyst heating. Since these methods result either directly or indirectly in additional fuel consumption there is a conflict of objectives between a fast…
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A Reverse Engineering Method for Powertrain Parameters Characterization Applied to a P2 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Automatic Transmission

FEV Group GmbH-Alessandro Perazzo
Politecnico di Torino-Enrico Galvagno, Federico Millo, Giuseppe DiPierro, Mauro Velardocchia, Gianluca Mari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0021
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Over the next decade, CO2 legislation will be more demanding and the automotive industry has seen in vehicle electrification a possible solution. This has led to an increasing need for advanced powertrain systems and systematic model-based control approaches, along with additional complexity. This represents a serious challenge for all the OEMs. This paper describes a novel reverse engineering methodology developed to estimate relevant but unknown powertrain data required for fuel consumption-oriented hybrid electric vehicle modelling. The main estimated quantities include high-voltage battery internal resistance, electric motor and transmission efficiency maps, torque converter and lock-up clutch operating maps, internal combustion engine and electric motor mass moment of inertia, and finally front/rear brake torque distribution. This activity introduces a list of limited and dedicated experimental tests, carried out both on road and on a chassis dynamometer, aiming at powertrain characterization thanks to a suitable post-processing algorithm. In this regard, the methodology was tested on a P2 architecture Diesel Plug-in HEV equipped with a 9-speed AT. voltage and current sensors are used to measure the electrical power exchanged…