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Advanced Exergy Analysis of an Air Craft Gas Turbine Engine at Different Power Loading Operations.

Alok Kumar Mohapatra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1863
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The innovations in aircraft propulsion have been identified as the key parameter towards the progress in transportation. Continuous advancement in the performance and efficiency of propulsion has enabled aircraft to travel over larger distances with higher speed. Aviation is also responsible for approximately 2% of total greenhouse gases emission and is expected to grow around 3% by 2050. The present study aims to use the exergetic analysis of a turboprop engine which should be helpful in designing of such engines and also helps these engine users to regulate and select the operation modes. A gas turbine with film air cooling of turbine blades has been proposed to be the turboprop engine. The engine is analyzed on exergy point of view at different power loading operation modes and the performance is studied. Selected exergetic measures under consideration are Exergy Efficiency, Fuel Exergy Depletion Ratio, Relative Exergy Consumption Ratio, Exergetic Improvement potential and Productivity Lack ratio. The total fuel exergy depletion ratio of the turboprop engine is estimated to be around 44%. . Also, among the identified…
 

Compensating the Effects of Hazardous External Influences on the Engine Performance by Control Methods

Central Institute of Aviation Motors-Oskar Gurevich, Sergei Smetanin, Mikhail Trifonov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1862
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft equipment is operated in a wide range of external conditions, which, with a certain combination of environmental parameters, can lead to icing of the internal structural elements of the engine. Due to icing the engine components performance change what leads to decrease in thrust, gas dynamic stability, durability, etc. Similar effect has a volcanic ash sucked into the engine flow-path. The safe aircraft operation and its desired performance may be lost as a result of such external influences. The impact of this factors on the engine performance depends on the engine control methods. Therefore, it is relevant to study control methods that allow fully or partly compensate the effect of engine components performance degradation. The focus of this paper is to determine the control methods of an aircraft gas turbine engine aimed at solving this problem. The object of the study is a modern commercial engine with a bypass ratio of about 9. In this paper analysis of the effect of icing and volcanic ash sucking on the engine components performance is conducted. It…
 

Semi-empirical Modelling of Erosion Phenomena for Ice Crystal Icing Numerical Simulation

ONERA-Virgile Charton, Pierre Trontin, Philippe Villedieu
SAFRAN Aircraft Engines-Gilles Aouizerate
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1967
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this paper is to develop a semi-empirical model for erosion phenomena under ice crystal condition, which is one of the major phenomena for ice crystal accretion. Such a model would be able to calculate the erosion rate caused by impinging ice crystal on accreted ice layer. This model is based on Finnie [1] and Bitter [2] [3] solid/solid collision theory which assumes that metal erosion due to sand impingement is driven by two phenomena: cutting wear and deformation wear. These two phenomena are strongly dependent on the particle density, velocity and shape, as well as on the surface physical properties such as Young modulus, Poisson coefficient and surface hardness. However, as cutting erosion is mostly driven by tangential velocity and is more effective for ductile eroded body, deformation erosion is driven by normal velocity and is more effective for brittle eroded body. Several researchers based their erosion modelling on these two phenomena such as Hutchings et al. [4] for deformation erosion, or Huang et al. [5] and Arabnejad et al. [6] for…
 

Material Properties of Granular Ice Layers Characterized Using a Rigid-Body-Penetration Method: Experiments and Modeling

Technical University of Darmstadt-Markus Schremb, Kenan Malicevic, Louis Reitter, Ilia Roisman, Cameron Tropea
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2034
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Icing poses a severe problem for numerous engineering applications comprising aviation, road traffic, shipping, wind turbines, and high-voltage power lines and insulators. Not only ice accretion itself but also shedding of accreted ice layers represents a severe hazard. Ice layers shedding from interior jet engine parts may damage parts being downstream in the engine, while ice layers shedding from wind turbine blades may seriously harm pedestrians or technical systems nearby the wind turbine. The material properties of an ice layer play an important role for the adhesion of the ice layer to the substrate below, as well as the potential harm in the case of shedding. In the present study, the strength of wet granular ice layers is characterized based on the measurement of dynamic projectile penetration into the ice layer. A certain amount of water is infused into a dry granular ice layer characterized in terms of grain size and porosity, resulting in a defined composition of the wet ice layer. The effective yield strength of the granular layer is estimated from the analysis…
 

Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

NASA Glenn Research Center-Ashlie Flegel, Michael King
Vantage Partners Limited-David L. Rigby, William Wright
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1965
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry corresponds to the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA inhouse code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan. A distribution of particle sizes is introduced upstream. Predicted collection efficiency results are presented on various surfaces. The redistribution of particle sizes and mass…
 

ICICLE: A Model for Glaciated & Mixed Phase Icing for Application to Aircraft Engines

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie, Xin Yang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1969
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
High altitude ice crystals can pose a threat to aircraft engine compression and combustion systems. Cases of engine damage, surge and rollback have been recorded in recent years, believed due to ice crystals partially melting and accreting on static surfaces (stators, endwalls and ducting). The increased awareness and understanding of this phenomenon has resulted in the extension of icing certification requirements to include glaciated and mixed phase conditions. Developing semi-empirical models is a cost effective way of enabling certification, and providing simple design rules for next generation engines. A new model is presented in this paper. It is modular in design, comprising a baseline code consisting of an axisymmetric or 2D planar flowfield solution, Lagrangian particle tracking, air-particle heat transfer and phase change, and surface interactions (bouncing, fragmentation, sticking). The model improves on those available in the literature in three ways: firstly, an adaptation of the Extended Messinger Model (EMM) to mixed phase conditions is incorporated, improving the fidelity of the ice accretion prediction compared with the classical Messinger model; secondly, an experimentally-derived model for…
 

Numerical Simulation of Ice Shedding from Rotating Components

ANSYS Inc-Yue Zhang
ANSYS Inc.-Shezad Nilamdeen, Isik Ozcer, Guido S. Baruzzi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2003
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A CFD simulation methodology is presented to evaluate the ice that accretes and sheds on rotating aircraft and engine components. The shedding detection is handled by an ice accretion and a stress analysis solver coupled together to periodically check for the propagation of crack fronts and possible detachment. A numerical approach for crack propagation that does not require changes in mesh topology is presented. The entire simulation, consisting of airflow, impingement, ice accretion and crack formation and propagation, requires only a single mesh. The ice accretion and stress modules are validated separately by comparison to published data. The analysis is extended to demonstrate potential shedding scenarios on three complex 3D geometries that are relevant to industry: a helicopter blade, an engine fan blade and a turboprop scimitar propeller blade. The largest shed fragment will be analyzed to determine the likelihood of FOD damage to neighboring aircraft or engine components.
 

Measurement of Liquid Water Content for Supercooled Large Drop conditions in the NRC’s Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel

National Research Council Canada-David M. Orchard, Catherine Clark, Gislain Chevrette
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2007
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
As a result of new regulations pertaining to the airworthiness of aircraft exposed to in-flight icing conditions where maximum water drop size is greater than 100 microns (referred to as Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) conditions), updates are required to the test facilities and simulations that will enable manufactures to certify their products under these new rules. While a number of facilities report achieving some of the conditions specified in the new regulations, questions remain as to the suitability of the instrumentation used to measure the Liquid Water Content (LWC) and drop size distributions of the SLD icing cloud. This study aims to provide baseline LWC data through ice accretion measurement techniques on a NACA 0012 airfoil and rotating cylinders of varying diameters. This forms part of a collaborative effort between the NRC, NASA Glenn Icing Branch and the Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA), to examine the suitability of current instruments in accurately measuring LWC in clouds where SLD conditions are present. Calculation of LWC’s from leading edge airfoil ice thickness measurements on the NACA 0012…
 

Wind Tunnel Measurements of Simulated Glaciated Cloud Conditions to Evaluate Newly Developed 2D Imaging Probes

Artium Technologies Inc-William D. Bachalo
CIRA, Italian Aerospace Research Centre-Biagio M. Esposito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1981
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The instrumentation that has been used for characterization of mixed-phase and glaciated conditions in the past is not considered to be adequate for the high ice water content (IWC) environments judged to represent a significant safety hazard to propellers and turbofan engine operability and performance. For this reason, within the frame of EU FP7 HAIC project, the instrumentation was considered a major key element for successful execution of flight tests campaigns. This is true also because the instrumentation has to assess the reproducibility of clouds with high ice water content in icing tunnels, where is requested to measure the conditions with a sufficient level of accuracy for the purposes of the testing. There is a basic uncertainty of a factor of 2-5 may be worse for thunderstorm core regions, because of the importance of the poorly measured ice particle sizes below 100 μm with current instruments. Measurements below 100 μm are especially difficult for ice particles. In order to limit this measurement issue, an innovative approach for imaging droplets and ice crystals was considered in…
 

Numerical Demonstration of the Humidity Effect in Engine Icing

ANSYS Inc-Yue Zhang
ANSYS Inc.-Isik Ozcer, Shezad Nilamdeen, Guido S. Baruzzi, Jeyatharsan Selvanayagam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2015
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The importance of the variation of relative humidity across turbomachinery engine components for in-flight icing is demonstrated by numerical analysis. A species transport equation for vapor has been added to the existing CFD-Icing methodology for the simulation of ice growth and surface water flow on engine components that are subject to ice crystal and mixed-phase icing. This PDE couples the heat and mass transfer between droplets, crystals and air, adding the cooling of the air due to particle evaporation to the icing simulation, increasing the accuracy of the evaporative heat fluxes on wetted walls. Two validation cases are presented for the new methodology: one showing a 1.6 ˚C reduction in the outflow total temperature of the air in a wind tunnel due to the water spray at the inflow boundary. The second case shows improvements in the simulated ice shape compared with the NRC of Canada crowned cylinder experiment. For the simulation technology demonstration, turbofan icing scenarios with inflow relative humidity varying between 30 and 100% are simulated using a generic engine geometry that includes…