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Influence of port water injection on the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Yadong Fan, Tianbao Wu, Xuesong Li, Min Xu, David Hung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0294
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is well known that spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engines have a huge advantage in fuel economy due to their good anti-knock performance compared to port fuel injection engines. However, higher particle number (PN) emissions associated with fuel impingement make the SIDI engines have additional difficulties to meet the upcoming China VI emission standards. In this study, the port water injection (PWI) techniques on a 1.0-L turbocharged, three cylinder, SIDI engine were investigated. PWI strategies were optimized to quantify port water injection as a means of mitigating the knock and improving the combustion performance by sweeping water-fuel mass ratios and PWI timing at different operating conditions. Measurements indicate that regardless of engine load, PWI induced a worsening of the maximum in-cylinder pressure (P-Max) and cycle-to-cycle variations (IMEPN-COV ) , which mainly due to the effects of water dilution and slower burning velocities. But by the advance of spark timing with knock mitigation, we find that the improvement of combustion phasing finally makes it possible to eliminate fuel enrichment, which bring the potential advantages on the…
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Thermal Modeling of DC/AC Inverter for Electrified Powertrain Systems

FCA US LLC-Meng Li, Bruce Geist
Gotion, Inc.-Fan He
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1384
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A DC-to-AC main Power Inverter Module (PIM) is one of the key components in electrified powertrain systems. Accurate thermal modeling and temperature prediction of a PIM is critical to the design, analysis, and control of a cooling system within an electrified vehicle. PIM heat generation is a function of the electric loading applied to the chips and the limited heat dissipation within what is typically compact packaging of the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) module inside the PIM. This work presents a thermal modeling approach for a 3-phase DC/AC PIM that is part of an automotive electrified powertrain system. Heat generation of the IGBT/diode pairs under electric load is modeled by a set of formulae capturing both the static and dynamic losses of the chips in the IGBT module. A thermal model of the IGBT module with a simplified liquid cooling system generates temperature estimates for the PIM. Temperatures of chips, baseplates, and sinks are predicted from electric input loads. A case study is provided in wh ich the PIM thermal model is coupled with…
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On Maximizing Argon Engines' Performance via Subzero Intake Temperatures in HCCI Mode at High Compression Ratios

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Ali Elkhazraji, Abdulrahman Mohammed, Sufyan Jan, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Robert Dibble, Bengt Johansson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1133
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Maximizing the indicated thermal efficiency with minimal amount of emissions is one of the main challenges to overcome in the field of internal combustion engines. The main obstacle that hinders achieving this goal is the typically low thermodynamic efficiency which is the ratio of the positive produced work on the piston to the amount of heat released inside the cylinder. Many concepts and technologies were innovated to maximize the thermodynamic efficiency. One of the main guidelines that have been followed to achieve so, is the ideal Otto’s cycle that predicts that increasing the compression ratio and/or the specific heat ratio of the combustion reactants, will maximize the thermodynamic efficiency. This study combines both high compression ratios and a high specific heat ratio via two of the main approaches used to maximize the thermodynamic efficiency. First, is the HCCI combustion mode. HCCI is typically operated at fuel-lean conditions, allowing to operate at higher compression ratios without having intense knock (pressure waves, generated by undesired autoignition, that can damage the engine). Second, air was replaced by an…
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Downsized-Boosted Gasoline Engine with Exhaust Compound and Lean Advanced Combustion

General Motors LLC-Jeremie Dernotte, Paul M. Najt, Russell P. Durrett
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0795
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This article presents the experimental results obtained with a disruptive engine platform, designed to maximize the engine efficiency through a synergetic implementation of downsizing, high compression-ratio, and importantly exhaust-heat energy recovery in conjunction with advanced lean/dilute low-temperature type combustion. The engine architecture is a supercharged high-power output, 1.1-liter engine with two-firing cylinders and a high compression ratio of 13.5:1. The integrated exhaust heat recovery system is an additional, larger displacement, non-fueled cylinder into which the exhaust gas from the two firing cylinders is alternately transferred to be further expended. The main goal of this work is to implement advanced lean/dilute combustion while minimizing NOx emissions and addressing the transition between the operating modes. The combustion modes include well-mixed charge compression-ignition at low-load, and a mixed-mode combustion strategy at higher loads. The mixed-mode combustion strategy is composed of a deflagration of a stratified mixture, triggering a controlled autoignition of the surrounding gas. The paper describes the key features of the engine and details regarding the combustion and multi-mode valve strategies. The experiments were performed under steady-state…
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Ammonia Measurement Investigation Using Quantum Cascade Laser and Two Different Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Methods

Caterpillar UK Ltd-Richard Barrett, Jim Baxter
Loughborough university-Nilton Li, Ashraf El-Hamalawi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0365
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Most diesel engine exhausts have been fitted with SCR (Selective Catalyst Reduction) in order to reduce NOX (Oxides of Nitrogen) by using NH3 (ammonia). However, both NOX and NH3 have been classified as compounds hazardous for the environment and human health. If the reaction between NOX and NH3 is unbalanced during treatment, it can lead to either NOX or NH3 being released into the environment. Accurate measurement is thus necessary. QCL (Quantum Cascade Laser) and FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) are two methods that have been used to measure NH3 and NOX directly in diesel engine exhausts. However, only a few studies have compared those two methods of NH3 measurement, mainly from diesel engine exhausts. The aim of this paper is to compare the QCL and 2 different FTIR specifications for NH3 measurement directly from diesel engine exhausts under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Researchers have found that as NH3 is reactive, it is absorbed inside the exhaust pipe if the probe location is some distance away from the SCR. The results reported here contradict this and show…
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A Case Study on Reducing the Fuel Pulse Noise from Gasoline Engine Injectors

FCA US LLC-Weiguo Zhang, Toon Tan, John Malicki, Glenn Whitehead
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1276
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle NVH performance is a very important consideration for vehicle buyers in the marketplace. There are many noise sources from the fuel system to generate noise in a vehicle. Among them, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of gasoline engine injectors can cause undesirable fuel pulse noise inside the vehicle cabin. As the pressure pulsation propagates in the fuel supply line toward to rear end of the vehicle, the pressure energy is transferred from fuel lines to the vehicle underbody through clips and into the passenger compartment. It is crucial to attenuate the pressure pulsation inside the fuel line to reduce the fuel pulse noise. In this paper, a case study on developing an effective countermeasure to reduce the objectionable fuel pulse noise of a V8 gasoline injection system is presented. First, the initial interior noise of a prototype vehicle was tested and the objectionable fuel pulse noise was exhibited. The problem frequency ranges with pulse and ticking noise content were identified. Several test iterations on root causing analysis and countermeasures…
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Integrated Regenerative Braking System and Anti-lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Battery Electric Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Yixin Yao, Yanan Zhao, Mark Yamazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0846
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Regenerative braking in hybrid electric vehicles is a critical feature to achieve the maximum fuel economy benefit of hybridization. In order to maximize energy recuperation, it is desired to enable regenerative braking during an Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) event. For certain driveline configurations with a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential, it has been observed that the regenerative braking torque can increase the wheel slip during the ABS operation, and significantly impact vehicle dynamics. This negative effect introduced by regen braking during ABS control may also lead to hardware failures, such as breaking a drive shaft. This paper describes development of an integrated regenerative braking and ABS control for hybrid and electric drive vehicles, referred to as RBS-ABS Event Control. This control is intended for drivelines containing a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential. The design objectives are to recuperate the maximum amount of kinetic energy during an ABS event, and to provide no degraded anti-lock control behavior as seen in vehicles with…
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Development of New Hybrid Transaxle for Mid-Size Sports Utility Vehicles

Toyota Motor Corporation-Seitaro Nobuyasu, Shigetsugu Iwata, Masabumi Nishigaya, Yoshiteru Hagino, Masatoshi Ito, Hiroshi Aihara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0850
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently, automotive industries are active to develop electric in response to the energy conservation and environment problems. We developed the new hybrid transaxle for Mid-Size SUV to improve fuel efficiency and power performance. The transaxle was developed based on the new development strategy TNGA (Toyota New Global Architecture). By adopting technologies for transaxle overall length shortening, installation in same width of Mid-Size sedan engine compartment have been realized while improving the motor output. This paper will explain technologies about new motor structure and new mount structure for overall length shortening, and furthermore, noise reduction toward the mount structure.
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Rolling Element Bearings - Advanced Modeling for Multibody Simulations

Ghent University - Soete-Dieter Fauconnier
Siemens DI Software NV-Pavel Jiranek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0508
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The electrification of vehicles, together with the ever-increasing need for more lightweight and durable designs, is putting the NVH performances of the transmission in the spotlight since the generated noises are not masked by the internal combustion engine. To correctly estimate the performances of the transmission while still in the design-phase, predictive models for the main components of the gearbox are of paramount importance. This paper focuses on the modeling of rolling element bearings, a key component that is responsible of transmitting the vibrations from the gear pairs to the surrounding structure while introducing additional excitation frequencies. The modeling techniques use the relative displacement of the rings to compute the corresponding reaction forces by calculating the equilibrium of each rolling element. To do so, the interaction between the rolling elements and the raceways can be modeled employing two different contact models depending on the level of accuracy required. The contact models are, respectively, a Hertz-Based approach that allows for fast computations, and an EHL (Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubricated) contact model which accounts for the effects of lubrication.…
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Real-Time Embedded Models for Simulation and Control of Clean and Fuel-Efficient Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Daimler Trucks North America-Marc Allain, Siddharth Mahesh
University of Michigan-Saravanan Duraiarasan, Rasoul Salehi, Fucong Wang, Anna Stefanopoulou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0257
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ever increasing demand for fuel economy and stringent emission norms drives researchers to continuously innovate and improve engine modes to implement adaptive algorithms, where the engine states are continuously monitored and the control variables are manipulated to operate the engine at the most efficient regime. This paper presents a virtual engine developed by modeling a modern diesel engine and aftertreatment which can be used in real-time on a control unit to predict critical diesel engine variables such as fuel consumption and feed gas conditions including emissions, flow and temperature. A physics-based approach is followed in order to capture vital transient airpath and emission dynamics encountered during real driving condition. A minimal realization of the airpath model is coupled with a cycle averaged NOx emissions predictor to estimate transient feed gas NOx during steady state and transient conditions. The complete airpath and NOx emission model was implemented on a rapid prototyping controller and experimentally validated over steady state and transient emission cycles. The overall performance of the reduced order model was comparable to that of…