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Model-Based System Engineering Methodology for Implementing Networked Aircraft Control System on Integrated Modular Avionics - Environmental Control System Case Study

  • Concordia University Montreal - Susan Liscouet-Hanke, Prince George Mathew
  • Bombardier Aerospace - Yann Le Masson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1943
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture host multiple federated avionics applications into a single platform and provides benefits in terms of size, weight and power. But, IMA brings a high level of complexity to aircraft control systems. In this context, a structured Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) development method is promising to deal efficiently and effectively with the complex aircraft control system design. This paper presents a MBSE approach for the use case of the Environmental Control System (ECS) integration into the aircraft control architecture. The proposed methodology adapts the open source ARCADIA methodology and the Capella tool to evaluate a complete design cycle: starting with requirements capture from the aircraft level to streamlining the development, integration of avionics application in an ARINC 653 platform. The presented methodology will help coping with the complexity of the integration of several real-time embedded control systems of mixed-criticality, addressing the challenges of using shared processing and networking resources. At first, a generic architecture specification model for the ECS has been developed. Analysis has been done on the reusability of a model for various implementations such as conventional or more-electrical aircraft systems, including a detailed data flow model. Next, a use case of Cabin Pressure Control System (CPCS) has been developed. The CPCS controller model is derived from the ECS specification model. Furthermore, an ECS application from controller model has been developed as part of a practical demonstration of the new MBSE process. The presented paper provides insights in the challenges and advantages of the MBSE process in contrast to the traditional paper based specification process, applicable beyond the presented ECS use case.

Environmental and Sustainability Aspects of an Aviation Auxiliary Power Unit Analyzed with the Aid of Exergy

  • National Institute of Tech. Jamshedpur - Aishi Sahu
  • National Institute of Tech Jamshedpur - Sanjay S
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0071
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
During the past decade environmental and sustainability issues have become major problems to overcome since they have caused regional and global consequences. This paper discusses the environmental and sustainability aspects of Gas Turbine (GT) based aviation Auxillary Power Unit (APU) with the aid of exergy. Exergy is a potential tool to determine exergy destructions and losses and their true magnitudes and exact locations. In this study some exergy based parameters such as: exergetic efficiency, waste exergy ratio, exergy recoverability ratio, exergy destruction ratio, environmental impact factor, and exergetic sustainability index are proposed and investigated. Cycle operating parameters of the gas turbine cycle based APU such as compressor-pressure-ratio (rp,c), Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) have been chosen for analysis. Mathematical modeling of the cycle has been done and the same has been coded in MATLAB. Results show that increasing waste exergy ratio decreases the exergetic efficiency and exergetic sustainability index. However, any increase in waste exergy ratio results in an increasing environmental impact of the GT cycle based APU. Exergetic efficiency, waste exergy ratio, exergy destruction ratio, environmental impact factor, and exergetic sustainability index are found to be 14.51%, 0.8549, 5.8917 and 0.16973 respectively for the overall cycle (rp,c = 3 and TIT =1300K). These results would be useful to make it more sustainable for future development. Keywords: Exergy; Exergetic sustainability index; Auxillary Power Unit; Exergetic efficiency; Gas Turbine

Water Load Determination Approach in Two wheeler Exhaust System

  • Bosch Limited - Ranjana Kumari Meena
  • Robert Bosch GmbH - Konrad Meister, Andrea Krusch, Christopher Holzknecht
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0075
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Future emission norms in India (BS6) necessitates the 2 wheeler industry to work towards emission optimization measures. Engine operation at stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) would result in a good performance, durability and least emissions. To keep the AFR close to stoichiometric condition, an Oxygen sensor is placed in the exhaust system, which detects if air-fuel mixture is rich (λ<1) or lean (λ>1) and provides feedback to fuel injection system for suitable fuel control. O2 sensor has a ceramic element, which needs to be heated to a working temperature for its functioning. The ceramic element would break (thermal shock) if water in liquid form comes in contact with it when the element is hot. To counter this, oxygen sensor is fully heated only when all the water in the exhaust system is evaporated, which results in delayed closed loop control. It's a challenge to control the HC emissions during first 100 seconds of engine start, as the catalyst is not functioning during this duration. Also, the system runs in open loop for first 50 seconds, as the lambda sensor is not functioning. Hence, determining the amount of water present in exhaust and having a protective layer for lambda sensor against water would enable early start of sensor functioning. The present paper explains an approach to determine the maximum water droplet size and water flow rate using a special Bosch Liquid sensor mounted in the exhaust pipe. Test cases are defined at various engine and exhaust gas temperatures to determine an appropriate set up and methodology for measurement on a 2Wheeler. The test cases are repeated on various 2wheelers available in the Indian market and influence of different exhaust configurations, mounting location of the Lambda sensor are analysed. The information of water droplet size and water flow rate are driving factors for the design and application of lambda sensor. With thermal shock protection over lambda sensor a full heater voltage can be applied to sensor even before all the water has evaporated in the exhaust system. An early sensor readiness results in a quick closed loop control of the fuel mixture thus reducing emissions.

Multi-level Modeling Methodology for Aircraft Thermal Architecture Design

  • Concordia University Montreal - Florian Sanchez, Susan Liscouet-Hanke
  • Bombardier Aerospace - Yanik Boutin, Sébastien Beaulac, Stéphane Dufresne
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1910
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes methodology to conduct thermal analysis in the conceptual phase of the aircraft development process. Traditionally, thermal analysis is conducted after the system architectures have already been defined. The aircraft system thermal environment evaluation may lead to late design changes that can have a significant impact on the development process. To reduce the risk of late design changes, thermal requirements need to be defined and validated in the conceptual design phase. Up until now, several modeling methodologies had been used to conduct thermal analysis during preliminary and detailed design stages, but a significant gap exists for the conceptual design stage. The development of a methodology to assess aircraft thermal architecture during this stage involves several challenges for the expected models: • They should have the right level of fidelity for conceptual design; • They should be automated and parametric to cover the desired design space; • They should represent the proper interfaces with other disciplines (e.g. aerodynamic for flow demand). This paper introduces a multi-level modeling strategy based on a bottom-up approach (from high to low detailed methods). The proposed novel bottom-up approach introduces three different fidelity levels of models, and their associated sub-levels, to allow the assessment of an aircraft thermal architecture during the conceptual design phase. This new approach deals with the development of a simplified CFD analysis capability for Preliminary Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (PMDO) and Conceptual Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (CMDO) phases. It also proposes to use surrogate-modeling techniques based on high detailed methods, such as CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analyses, to generate thermal models suitable for preliminary design. Moreover, this approach extends the use of the dimensionless numbers concept to the temperature stratification analysis of aircraft equipment bays for conceptual design phase. These models, with the right level of fidelity, can be used to assess the thermal environment of a specific aircraft zone, predict the temperature stratification level and enable a global aircraft thermal architecture design capability. The application of the proposed multi-level modeling strategy is shown on a simple case study.

Medical Data System High Level View for Deep Space Gateway

  • NASA Ames Research Center - Jorge Bardina
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1914
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
NASA is developing and leading the research for missions into deep space near the moon to begin testing medical systems needed for challenging missions into deep space destinations including Mars. These missions enabling exploration of distant destinations are defined as Deep Space Gateway. Testing and experimentation of advanced new technologies to support human missions to explore deep space is a fundamental development requirement to open opportunities to support science exploration missions. NASA’s “Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element develops medical technologies for in-flight diagnosis and treatment as well as data systems to protect patients’ private medical data, aid in the diagnosis of medical conditions, and act as repositories of information about relevant NASA life science experiments.” The Medical Data System High Level View for Deep Space Gateway presents a high level view of the data system framework and architecture to support and enhance the medical capabilities for space exploration with the ability to address the challenges and requirements of space exploration.

Study of leak in small engines

  • TVS Motor Co., Ltd. - TL Balasubramanian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0038
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Complete engine leak testing is generally followed to conform quality of manufacturing and assembly of different parts which otherwise create failures related to overall performance, fluid leak, gas leak and emissions etc. Light weighting of engines and downsizing is a generally accepted and followed theme towards the future emission norms which influences the part design complexity. Objective of the study is to investigate the significant parameters related to leak in cylinder head system and countermeasures to reduce the same when designing the small compact engines. In this study a systematic approach has been followed for arriving the leak rate specifications to qualify the products. In the design and manufacturing of small engines, features like compact combustion chamber with constraints of clamping bolts layout, gasket design, compact crank case layout and lower wall thickness of major casting parts are used to achieve weight and cost targets. During the development of one of such new engine, cylinder head leak rate at the valve – seat interface observed was significantly higher compared to existing production engines. Cause and effect analysis was prepared for the various leaks and valve interface leak has been focused further to bring it under acceptance level. Failure modes causing leak were experimentally evaluated under simulated conditions. Finite elemental analysis was done to understand the cylinder head distortion levels and compared with the bench mark models. Based on the force transfer mechanism from bolt clamping force to the cylinder head, solution was proposed to reduce distortions and leak rate. Volume effect on the pressure drop leak test was studied theoretically and validated experimentally to arrive at the optimum leak rate specification for the new engine. Improvements which reduced valve seat distortion helped in reducing leak significantly and an optimum leak specification arrived for the new engine. Parameters influencing leak in new engine is studied experimentally in sub-system and engine level. Countermeasure was proposed to reduce distortion and leak, improve sealing; process improvements to achieve consistency are studied experimentally and suggested. Combination of design improvements and process improvements helped in achieving the acceptable leak rates which helped to meet the engine quality, cost and weight targets.

Design, Analysis and Optimization of SI Engine Intake Manifold for FSAE

  • Mechanical Engineering, NIT Jamshedpur - Sanath Himasekhar Konthala
  • National Institute of Tech. Jamshedpur - Sanjay S
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0073
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Fluid dynamics of intake system plays a key role in deciding the performance of an engine. This dynamics is different for fuel injected and carburetted engine and varies according to type of engine, number of cylinders, temperature at inlet, valve timing, valve angle and other factors. Careful design of the intake manifold enables to manipulate the performance characteristics of the engine to the desired level. The present work deals with the analysis of the flow within the intake manifold in steady state and analyze the results to evaluate and improve the ability of the intake port to convey air to the cylinder with the highest possible mass flow rate. Enhanced mass air intake increases the breathability of the engine which in turn increases the volumetric efficiency of the engine. Optimising air flow performance during intake process is the main objective of this work. The performance of the engine can be improved by optimized design of intake manifold. In the process of optimizing the flow for improving engine performance, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation plays a very important role. This paper will discuss the 3-D simulation of intake manifold of KTM Duke 390cc engine. Steady state analysis has been done using ANSYS FLUENT. The intake manifold of the above engine has certain engine power restrictions (imposed by Formula SAE rule book) and there is a 20mm restrictor present between the throttle body and engine cylinder. To achieve stagnation of air, plenum is used. Runner connects the plenum with engine and is tuned at certain rpm to optimize engine performance. As KTM 390 Duke engine was used for the competition, all analysis was done on three parts – Restrictor, Plenum and Runner. Optimized design of intake manifold would achieve pressure inside the engine cylinder slightly greater than atmospheric (at the start of compression stroke) even with above mentioned restrictions.

Ion Current Comparison in Small, Fast Running Gasoline Engines for non-Automotive Applications

  • Graz University of Technology - Riccardo Basso, Gabriel Gruber, Pascal Piecha, Hans-Juergen Schacht, Stephan Schmidt
  • ANDREAS STIHL AG & Co. KG - Martin Arenz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0077
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Small engines for non-automotive applications include 2-stroke and 4-stroke gasoline engine concepts which have a reduced number of sensors due to cost and packaging constraints. In order to cope with future emission regulations, more sophisticated engine control and monitoring becomes mandatory. Therefore a cost-effective way has to be found to gain maximum information from the existing sensors and actuators. Due to an increasing bio-fuel share in the market, the detection of bio-fuel content is necessary to guarantee a stable combustion by adapting the injection and ignition control strategy. Meaningful information about the combustion can be retrieved from combustion chamber ion current measurements. This paper proposes a general overview of combustion process monitoring in different engines concepts by measuring the ion current during combustion. Actually, the ion current measurement technique is not yet established in the automotive sector due to the presence of other more accurate and less signal analysis intense sensors as the oxygen and knock sensor. But in small non-automotive applications the ion current could be beneficial for a dynamic control of the engine, due to its cost-efficient measurement hardware solution. During the research both two and four stroke engines are tested in different operational points and fuel blends resulting in a wide general knowledge of the measuring principle and signal properties. Furthermore, a correlation study between signal properties and engine’s parameters is given in order to extract a stable control variable suitable for the computational power of such engine’s ECUs.

Influence of Autoignition and Behavior of Pressure Wave on Knocking Intensity by using Multipoint Pressure Measurement and In-cylinder Visualization of the End-gas

  • Nihon University - Takahiro YAMASHITA, Shuhei Takahata, HIROKI KUDO, Takuya Izako, Takahiro Ishikawa, Masanori Saito, Mitsuaki Tanabe, Akira Iijima
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0001
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the effect of autoignition behavior of unburned region on pressure wave formation and knock intensity were investigated. In the experiment, a single-cylinder gasoline engine capable of high-speed observation of the end gas was used. Visualization in the combustion chamber and light absorption spectroscopic measurement of the end gas were carried out, and the autoignition behavior of the unburned portion and the reaction history before autoignition were analyzed. By analyzing the multi-point pressure histories, the process of autoignition and pressure wave growth was analyzed. As a result, it was found that knocking intensity increases by autoignition and pressure wave interaction each other.

CFD analysis of a port fuel injection IC engine to study air-fuel mixture preparation and its impact on hydrocarbon emission and mixture homogeneity in combustion chamber

  • TVS Motor Co Ltd - Manish Garg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-32-0005
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
At part load conditions, effective utilization of fuel is critical for drivability of an IC engine driven automobile, with minimum emissions and fuel consumption. It becomes cardinal to study the mixture preparation in engines to understand the Injection strategy that helps in achieving the prime objectives of lower emission and reliable operation. To add to the complexity of the problem being studied, the injection phenomenon is rapid, turbulent, multi-phase, two-way coupled (where the continuous phase affects the droplets and vice versa) and involves turbulence length scales and time scales, few orders of magnitude lower compared to the characteristic length in the turbulence integral scale. A methodology is developed in Star-CD and ES-ICE to simulate the mixture preparation in Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. High quality mixture preparation which is essential for combustion stability and lower emissions is aimed at part load conditions which constitute the majority of driving cycle. This methodology is helpful to understand and solve the injection timing development issues and in improving the combustion stability and lowering the emissions. The fuel injection parameters have been studied in detail both experimentally and numerically in a specialized spray chamber. The fuel injection parameters are correlated to the source of injection to obtain similar fit of droplet distribution profile obtained experimentally. The parameters like - injection timing, injection location and injection pressure can be efficiently optimized through this methodology for efficient mixture formation. Extensive studies have been done on different injection timing in order to reduce the wall film thickness and fuel short circuit losses and to increase the overall evaporation rate of fuel droplets by increasing the residence time. Two injection timing strategies namely - open valve injection and closed valve injection have been analyzed to understand the effect of fuel short circuit losses and its impact on HC (hydro-carbon) emissions. It is observed that, open valve injection has lower short circuit losses compared to closed valve injection which, is experimentally verified and thus has a great significance in reducing the HC emissions. However, open valve injection comparatively affects the in-cylinder charge homogeneity and standard deviation of equivalence ratio. This paper also discusses on the strategies that have been undertaken to achieve best-in-cylinder homogeneity with an adverse effect on increased fuel film thickness on the port walls. Efforts are made to optimize the injection timing and location for best mixture formation in production automotive vehicles and in extending the methodology for the corresponding emission prediction. Being a computationally intensive problem with an additional complexity of movingmesh opens an opportunity for parallel performance study. Parallel performance study shows that, the methodology proposed above uses a Message Passing Interface (MPI) and shows a good scale up for 2-16 cores above which, it saturates. Multi-cycle analysis is carried out to understand the variation in Air-Fuel ratio homogeneity and Coefficient of variation of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP)which provides a fundamental vista on the transient behavior of the spray dynamics.