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Automotive Engineering® (495) Aerospace & Defense™ Technology (215) Off-Highway Engineering® (190) MOBILITY ENGINEERING™ AUTOMOTIVE, AEROSPACE, OFF-HIGHWAY (112) MOMENTUM The Magazine for Student Members of SAE International® (82) Truck & Off-Highway Engineering™ (70) SAE Vehicle Electrification (36) MOBILITY ENGINEERING− AUTOMOTIVE, AEROSPACE, OFF-HIGHWAY (19) SAE Vehicle Electrification™ (8) Digital Aerospace Engineering,® (7) Mobility Engineering Automotive, Aerospace, Off-Highway (7) Digital Aerospace Engineering™ (6) MOBILITY ENGINEERING™ ENGLISH QUARTERLY (6) SAE Hybrid Cars Blog by Brad Berman (6) MOMENTUM, The Magazine for Student Members of SAE International® (4) Off-Highway Engineering™ (4) Digital Aerospace Engineering® (3) SAE Electronics + Connectivity™ (2) SAE Powertrain & Energy™ (1)

Simulation of the Effect of Altitude and Rotational Speed on Transient Temperatures of Rotating Components

  • FCA US LLC-Dipan Arora
  • OPTUMATICS, LLC-Muhanad Hendy, AbdelRahman Hekal
  • Show More
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0003
To be published on 2019-03-29 by SAE International in United States
During vehicle development process, it is required to estimate potential thermal risk to vehicle components. Several authors have addressed this topic in earlier studies [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. For evaluation of potential thermal issues, it is desired to estimate the component temperature profile for a given duty cycle. Therefore, the temperature and exposure time at each temperature have to be estimated for each vehicle duty cycle. The duty cycle represents the customer usage of the vehicle for a variety of vehicle speeds and loadings. In this article, we focus on thermal simulation of rotating components such as prop shaft, drive shaft, and half shaft boots. Though these components temperatures can be measured in drive cell or road trips, the instrumentation is usually a complicated task. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they either require physical contact or cannot withstand high-temperature environment in the vehicle underhood or underbody. In this article, a numerical transient thermal analysis for a rotating shaft in the presence of a radiation heat source is presented.…

HVAC System Noise Prediction Through CFD Simulation

  • ANSYS India-Bhanu Gupta, Tushar Jadhav
  • Tata Motors, Ltd.-Ambadas Kandekar, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Yogesh Dol, Sunil Thakur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0210
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles with HVAC system have shown growing demand for in-cabin acoustic comfort in recent days. This is mainly due to advancement in new generation powertrains and improved cabin sealing which has made HVAC system noise more dominant inside the cabin. The HVAC system noise is predominantly flow induced. Further, considering future hybrid and Electric vehicles where engine powertrain noise will be insignificant, more attention will be required for HVAC system design. Contribution of noise in the cabin from HVAC system is in the frequency range 400Hz to 3000Hz. The noise produced by a HVAC system is mainly due to aeroacoustics mechanisms related to the flow fluctuations induced by the blower rotation and turbulence in HVAC flaps, duct and vents. This paper discusses simulation methodology developed to predict HVAC system level noise using CAA (computational aeroacoustics) approach. Detached eddy simulation with compressibility is used to predict sound generation and propagation at different receiver locations. Design feedback for HVAC, duct and vents are identified and countermeasures are suggested from this method, which resulted in noise reduction at…

A Simplified Approach Towards Draft Control in Hydraulic Machineries for Component/Cost Reduction

  • Mahindra Mahindra, Ltd.-Sukrit Mittal, Rishabh Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0102
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Draft control is a mechanism primarily provided in Tractors to maintain the penetration of its rear attachment (plough) in ground, such that there isn’t a condition of overload on the machine, i.e., the operation remains under control parameters. With time, the concept was introduced in excavators too, for controlling the cutting-edge penetration of bucket in the ground. The technologies currently employed by global construction equipment manufacturers involve complex electronic components like John Deere is using Nano-sensors and ECU, KOMATSU uses stroke sensors in hydraulic cylinders to map real time position of the bucket and hence control the penetration depth, etc. The output of most of these systems are driver warnings, on the dash panel. Even if the system is automated, it involves additional components to automate the draft control. The concept proposed in this paper not only reduce the number of components, but makes the system more reliable shifting from electronic sensing to mechanical sensing. Besides, the system is inherently automated without any additional cost/components. The system uses a pressure relief valve to sense the…

Tests with a Dynamometer Related to the Determination of Energy Consumption, Dynamic Behaviour, and Slippage of Vehicles

  • University OAS Konstanz-Michael Butsch, Jonas Dettling, Carl-Gustav Ritz, Andreas Wizgall
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0352
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
At the University of Applied Sciences Konstanz, Germany, a modern electronically controlled dynamometer and several cars are available for tests. Numerous studies have been carried out, and the latest results will be presented. The paper is intended to explain different tests under load. One focus is the driving cycle WLTC (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle) and the requirements for the proper conduct of investigation with this driving cycle. Two and three wheelers have a great importance for mobility in various Asian countries. But also in other countries, this segment is very important for the so-called First or Last Mile Vehicles. Because of this, a short explanation of the driving cycle WMTC (Worldwide harmonized Motorcycle Emissions Certification/Test Procedure) is given. The various possibilities for the operation of the dynamometer and for carrying out various experiments are shown. Other important figures that can be determined on a dynamometer are the wheel power, the power losses and eventually the engine performance. With the brake specific torque, the traction force at the propelled wheels, the maximum acceleration or…

Prediction and Resolution of Vehicle In-Cab Noise Due to Powertrain Induced Excitations

  • Tata Motors Ltd-Uttam Titave
  • Tata Technologies Ltd-Shailesh Lakshe, Kishore Chittilla, Manoj Raut
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0177
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle NVH is one of the critical performance quality parameter and it consists of vibration levels at tactile points and noise levels at ear locations for different vehicle running conditions. There are many sources of noise and vibration in a vehicle and powertrain is one of the main source. Therefore, it is important to understand and resolve powertrain induced noise and vibration issues at early design stage with efficient simulation techniques. The work presented here deals with the use of systematic CAE approach for prediction and resolution of structure borne in-cab noise due to powertrain excitations. During NVH testing of SUV vehicle, boom noise is observed at low frequency. Detailed full vehicle level simulation model consisting of Vibro-acoustic Trimmed BIW, Front and Rear Suspension and Driveline with Powertrain modal model is build. Powertrain forces due to Inertia and Combustion are applied at CG of Powertrain Modal model and in-cab noise at driver ear location (DEL) is predicted. Predicted 2EO in-cab noise shows good correlation with test. Root cause analysis carried out using various techniques such…

Wheel Durability and Life Improvement - Valve Hole Position Optimization in Commercial Vehicle Wheel Using Segmental Loading Conditions - FEA Approach

  • Wheels India Ltd-Muthuraj Ramasamy, Sundararajan Thiyagarajan, Srinivas Ragothaman, Hariprasad Ananda, Deepa Praphu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0316
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
In Automotive, Steel wheels are exponentially replaced by Aluminum wheels because of its feather light, agile performance and better acceleration. One such widely used size is 11.75 x 22.5 wheels for trucks and trailer segment. During the design stage of 11.75 x 22.5 wheel, the valve hole was placed away from the stress concentration zone to reduce the stress on the holes and also the design was validated through all conventional wheel rim testing methodology’s (Like CFT, RFT and Bi-axial) and the wheel passed all the test requirements. During the field trials, failures were observed as noticed on the valve holes, despite of this hole was away from stress concentration region. Understood from the field trials that, the regular testing was not able to simulate the real field conditions for this particular size and changed the boundary condition in our FEA to simulate the actual conditions. After changing the boundary conditions, we could able to observe more stress in valve hole and to strengthened the hole,moved the hole close to stress concentration region and observed…

Evaluation of Slow Speed Off-Tracking of Steerable Axle Tractor Trailer Combinations

  • Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-S P Singh
  • VRDE Ahmednagar-Vikram Saini, Sanjay Chaudhuri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0069
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Steerable multi axle trailers are deployed for transportation due to their cost effectiveness and improved manoeuvrability then non-steered trailers. High speed manoeuvres of steerable axle trailer are considered dangerous for stability due to complex dynamic behaviour and researched for decades. Off-Tracking is an important parameter which influences the dynamic behaviour of steerable axle trailer at both low and high speed. Off-tracking is defined as maximum radial offset between path of the tractor’s front axle centre and trailer’s rearmost axle centre during a specific manoeuvre. Off-tracking, being a slow speed phenomenon becomes major concern for safe and accident free movement even at slow speeds. A linear 3-DOF yaw plane model of steerable axle tractor trailer combination is developed using Lagrangian approach, which requires steering angles of truck’s front axle and all trailer axles to simulate the system. Trailer steering follows Command steering law hence, mathematical equations based on analytical Ackerman’s theory developed to evaluate ideal trailer steering angles. Further, actual steering angles by physical trailer steering mechanism are evaluated and optimised by MBD model prepared in…

Modal Model Correlation of Commercial Vehicle Frame

  • Ashok Leyland Technical Center-Sivasankaran Sadasivam, Ekambaram Loganathan, Karalmarx Rajamohan, Saisankaranarayana Kuppili
  • Ashok Leyland, Ltd.-Aditya Palsule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0212
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Design decisions based on the virtual simulations leads to reduced number of prototype testing. Demonstrated correlation between the computer simulations and experimental test results is vital for designers to confidently take simulation driven design decisions. For the virtual design evaluation of durability, ride, handling and NVH performance, demonstration of correlation of structural dynamic characteristics is critical. Modal correlation between CAE and physical testing validates the stiffness and mass distribution used in the FE model by correlating mode shape and mode frequency in the desired frequency range. The objective of this study is to arrive at a method for establishing modal correlation between CAE and experimental test for a bare frame and thereby enabling evaluation of design iterations in virtual environment to achieve modal targets. In modal model correlation of frame, virtual simulation of the finite element (FE) model is carried out in free-free condition to extract the modal frequencies up to 100Hz. Based on the mode shape information of modes in this range, the optimum number of response and excitation locations for experimental test setup…

Electrification and Automation of Manual Gearbox Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and CO2-Emissions of Passenger Cars

  • IAV GmbH-Andre Uhle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0140
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
To meet the targets of Indian future emission legislation, an electrification and automation of today’s manual transmission technology is necessary. For this reason IAV invented an electrified automated transmission family, based on well-known manual transmission technology. This low cost AMT approach is equipped with a 48V electric motor and can be used as pure electric or hybrid drivetrain. Furthermore it is possible to realize power shifts by using just one dry friction element. A low number of standard components combined with a low voltage electric motor and an electro mechanic actuation system is sufficient to create a maximum of flexibility to meet the emission fleet targets of the future, without having the disadvantageous high costs for a high-voltage electric system. Beside this low cost drivetrain approach, IAV has developed an electro mechanic AMT-kit to convert current manual transmissions easily into automated transmissions. Only this small technology change can cause a fuel consumption benefit of up to 5%. The advantage of an electro mechanic AMT-kit compared to today’s well-known hydraulic actuation systems is the easy-to-mount and…

Stabilizer Foot Optimization for Backhoe Loader

  • John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Sandeep D Dhotre, Gurwinder Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0104
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Continuous improvement and weight reduction are key contributors to success of most of the Product Engineering Organizations. This helps to keep the product competitive in market from cost, weight and performance stand point. It needs to be ensured to have enough strength in the structures to support the external loads along with quality requirements. This can be ensured by removing material from redundant zones and provide it at necessary areas carrying loads. In current paper, author covers information about utilization of topology optimization tool to achieve the weight reduction and in turn cost reduction to contribute in the organizations Value Improvement efforts. Stabilizer foot optimization is an opportunity explored in construction vehicle (Backhoe). Current stabilizer foot is a common design across multiple models that range in performance and weight capability. The stabilizer foot functions to stabilize the machine transferring the load from the backhoe through to the ground surface. The foot is also used as a primary vehicle lifting point. Machine performance varies 40% from the largest to smallest models which presents an opportunity to…