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Diminishing Benefits of Federal Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) Compared to Conventional Gasoline (CG)

Denver University, USA-Gary Bishop
Desert Research Institute, USA-Steven Kent Hoekman, Amber Leland
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-01-0001
To be published on 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
The Federal reformulated gasoline (RFG) program originated with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments to address high ozone and air toxics levels in major urban areas. These areas include portions of 17 states and represent approximately 30% of the total U.S. gasoline volume. Initially, formulation changes were limited to addition of oxygen and reductions in benzene and fuel Reid vapor pressure (RVP) levels. These reformulations were intended to meet minimum emissions reduction targets for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) when compared to a 1990 baseline gasoline in a “1990’s technology” vehicle fleet. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) developed two computational models, the Simple Model in 1995 and the Complex Model in 1998, for use in demonstrating compliance with the regulations. This article reviews the derivation and evolution of the RFG program. Initially, RFG’s emissions reduction benefits compared to conventional gasoline (CG) resulted primarily from differences in fuel sulfur levels, benzene content, and RVP. However, due to other regulatory changes over the past two decades, the compositions…
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The Road to the Top is Not on the Map: Conversations with Top Women of the Automotive Industry

Terry Barclay
Center For Automotive Research-Carla Bailo
  • Book
  • R-491
To be published on 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Carla Bailo, CEO of the Center for Automotive Research, and Terry Barclay, CEO of Inforum, bring together over 30 of the most influential women in the automotive industry to share their insight and advice. From suppliers to OEMs, they hail from every corner of the industry.

SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

  • Journal
  • V128-11EJ
To be published on 2019-06-28 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal.

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

  • Journal
  • V128-1EJ
To be published on 2019-06-28 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

  • Journal
  • V128-9EJ
To be published on 2019-05-31 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

  • Journal
  • V128-8EJ
To be published on 2019-04-30 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the journal.

Methods of Pegging Cylinder Pressure to Maximize Data Quality

Michigan Tech APS LABS-Jeremy Worm
Michigan Technological Univ-Darrell Robinette
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0721
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Engine cylinder pressure measured with piezo-electric pressure transducers must be referenced or pegged to a known pressure at some point in the engine cycle. Traditionally, the pressure has been pegged to the pressure in the intake manifold plenum at Bottom Dead Center (BDC) at the end of the intake stroke. However, an error in pegging induces an error in the cylinder pressure trace, which has an adverse effect on the entire combustion analysis. This research is focused on assessing the pegging error for several pegging methods across a wide range of engine operating conditions, and ultimately determining best practices to minimize error in pegging and its propagation to calculated combustion metrics. The study was conducted through 1D simulations run in the commercially available GT-Power. The points studied included variations of speed, load, intake runner length and intake valve timing (including Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC) and Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC)). Five different pegging locations were compared (intake manifold plenum, intake port, intake valve, exhaust valve, and exhaust manifold runner). For each of the five…

Cooling Fan Selection in Power Car Application: CFD/FEA Coupled Approach

Cummins Inc.-Mukesh Kumar, Vitthal Khandagale, Prashant Kelkar, Rohit Saha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0900
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the methodology used to select application based fan that has optimum operating characteristics in terms of cooling air flow rate, fan power, noise and structural strength. The process uses 1D one-way CFD-FEA coupling approach in highly non-uniform actual flow field inside application. As part of different fan evaluation, full rail coach Underhood simulations were carried out using steady state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. For each fan option fan power, air flow rate and surface acoustic power is evaluated. Pressure profiles on fan blades are studied to assess effect of non-uniform downstream air passage designs. Surface acoustic power is calculated using Broadband noise source model in Fluent. Finite Element Analysis simulation is done in Ansys. Surface pressure profiles over fan blades are imported from 3D CFD are used in finite element analysis (FEA) simulations. Analyses are carried out blade linear and non-linear properties. Equivalent fully reversed stress is calculated based on Goodman program. It can be concluded from simulation study that, CFD-FEA coupled approach can be used to predict and optimize…

An Interactive Vehicle Recommender System Based on Decision Trees and Multi-Armed Bandits

Carnegie Mellon University-Tong Yu, Ole Mengshoel
Ford Motor Company-Dominique Meroux, Zhen Jiang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1079
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recommender systems guide a user to useful objects in a large space of possible options in a personalized way. In this paper, we study how to make recommendations for vehicle purchases. This can effectively reduce the human labor in the traditional setting, where customers get recommended vehicles through conversations with the salesmen in dealerships. Comparing a vehicle recommender system to one in other application domains (movies, music, etc.), we identify two major challenges. First, customers usually only purchase a limited number of vehicles, compared to the number of movies or songs. Thus, it is difficult to obtain rich information about a user's purchase history. Second, the content information obtained about the users (demographic, vehicle preference, etc.) is also very limited during their short stay in the dealership. To address these two challenges, we propose an interactive vehicle recommender system based on the methods of decision tree classification and multi-armed bandit. The decision tree effectively selects important questions for the user and understands the user's preference. With these preference as prior information, the multi-armed bandit algorithm…

A Study on Control Logic Design for Power Seat

Hyundai Motor Company-Misun Kwon, Taehoon Lee, Sangdo Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0466
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The large luxury sedan seats have a maximum movement of 22 way, each of which offers wide moving ranges from 30mm to 260mm. Although the mechanism provides a wide range of adjustments to enhance passenger comfort performance, the seat’s operating range is the largest and widest out of all moving parts of the interior components, facing many constraints on its movement in the constrained interior space. In addition, the power seat is operated by a motor, which makes it difficult for users to determine the amount of adjustment, unlike the manual seat adjustment that allows users to decide the adjustment scope according to their power and feeling. IMS, one-touch mode, is also constrained by parameters such as indoor space package, user's lifestyle, etc. during function playback. In this regard, this paper aims to design the seat control logic to achieve the best seat comfort while satisfying each constraint. This paper discusses constraints of power seat movement through seat control logic and methods to devise robust design of control logic. The results of this study are…