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A Study of Compatibility Test Procedure in Frontal Impact

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Satoshi Takizawa, Tomiji Sugimoto, Hideki Suzuki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-06-0168
Published 2003-05-19 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
The purpose of this study is to examine compatibility test procedures proposed in the IHRA Vehicle Compatibility Working Group. Various crash tests were conducted with different vehicle weights and stiffness in our previous study, and each of the compatibility problems, namely mass; stiffness and geometric incompatibility were identified in these tests. In order to improve the compatibility, it is necessary to evaluate and control relevant vehicle characteristics of compatibility in test procedures.According to the IHRA study, relevant aspects for compatibility in frontal impact are: Good structural interaction; Frontal stiffness matching; Maintaining passenger compartment integrity; Control the deceleration time histories of impacting cars.Possible candidate test procedures to evaluate four items given above are as follows:1) A full-width Load Cell Barrier test in which the load cell data was analyzed to evaluate structural interaction of vehicles, and some geometric indices such as Average Height Of Force, interaction area, and stiffness indices were measured. It was found from the analysis that several candidate metrics could be identified given their high correlation with laboratory vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests.2) An MDB-to-vehicle…

Evaluation of Pedestrian Protection Structures Using Impactors and Full-Scale Dummy Tests

Mazda Motor Corp.-Toshihiro Ishikawa, Haruhisa Kore, Arihiro Furumoto, Susumu Kuroda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-06-0090
Published 2003-05-19 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Pedestrian protection technology has drawn considerable affection. Three sub-system tests have been proposed by EEVC/WG17 to evaluate car front aggressiveness: 1) legform to bumper test, 2) upper legform to bonnet leading edge test and 3) headform to bonnet top test. In addition, a pedestrian full-scale dummy has been developed to evaluate the kinematics of a pedestrian. However, the differences between the sub-system tests and the full-scale dummy test have not been clarified yet.The object of this study is to clarify the differences by comparing the results of sub-system tests and full-scale dummy tests on the same impact condition in a compact car.A typical compact car was selected and several kinds of car front specifications were implemented. A series of tests with combination of two impact speeds, 25 and 40 km/h and several car front specifications was conducted using three impactors proposed by EEVC/WG17 and a full-scale dummy. A POLAR dummy developed by Honda R&D Co., Ltd., and GESAC was used.The kinematics was compared by video analysis. The head accelerations, the accelerations and loads of femur,…

Designing the Front Frame Rail for Increased Energy Absorption in a Front Offset CAE Analysis

Honda R&D Americas, Inc.-Sameer Guptaj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-06-0094
Published 2003-05-19 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
This paper follows the process of development of a front frame rail sub-assembly design structure to improve energy absorption in a front offset impact. Static crush analysis using LS-DYNA was conducted for this evaluation. The front section of the white body was crushed to determine the initial performance of the frame rail in the area located near the lower dashboard and front floor. The mode of the frame rail deformation in an impact was determined to be the cause of the weak performance of the initial structure. The critical parts of the frame rail were studied and several design ideas were proposed. A final structure evolved after evaluating multiple designs using CAE analyses. The new design structure improved the mode of deformation of the frame rail reducing the lower dashboard intrusion while absorbing more energy and was considered to be acceptable for improved offset performance of the vehicle.

Development of ASV in Japan~ASV Promotion Project, Phase 3

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MLIT)-Katsutoshi Ishida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-06-0237
Published 2003-05-19 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Japan has been promoting the development and spread of Advanced Safety Vehicles (ASVs), which feature a high level of intelligence and remarkably improved safety thanks to electronic and other new technologies that have been rapidly developing in recent years. The ASV Promotion Project, Third Phase, has been in place since 2001 for the further development and spread of ASV technologies. As one of activities of spread of ASV technologies, we defined the safety guideline of driver assistant systems as "Concept of Driver Assistance" on the base of the ASV design principles.ASV technologies help improve safety, yet there is a new risk of accidents. For example, the driver may rely to much on the technology and neglect to pay attention to safety, thus possibly becoming an unsafe driver. Therefore, it is very important to make an effort to define common understandings among Japan, the U.S. and Europe.

Whiplash Injuries, Not Only a Problem in Rear-End Impact

Chalmers University of Technology-Mats Svensson
German Institute for Vehicle Safety (GDV)-Wolf Hell, Dina Lang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-06-0057
Published 2003-05-19 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Even though the risk of whiplash injury is the highest in rear-end impact, there is an increased focus on frontal and frontal-oblique impact during recent years. The amount of injuries in these directions may be larger than in rear-end impact. Therefore, a European project was initiated to investigate causes and countermeasures in this area, as was previously done for rear-end impact.Accident studies showed that the amount of whiplash cases was generally higher in frontal impact compared to rear-end. In all impact directions, the injury risk for female occupants was about twice the risk of male occupants. Given these results, there is a need for occupant protection against whiplash in frontal impact as well. Since there is no omni-directional whiplash dummy on the market, one of the aims was also to develop such a device. As a start several existing dummies, like THOR, Hybrid III, BioRID and RID2 were evaluated for this purpose. So far none of these dummies seemed fit to handle all the directions wished. The first start of more detailed development was to…

Simulation of Driver, Vehicle and Environmental Aspects of Crash Initiation, a New Method to Improve Integrated Safety Effectiveness

Loughborough Univ.-R. L. Wood, A. D. Dumbuya, J. Zhao, J. Hill, P. D. Thomas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-06-0130
Published 2003-05-19 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
New technologies are becoming available to reduce the frequency of crashes. They may be vehicle based or road based and will involve a variety of levels of information provision to drivers and increasing levels of control over the vehicle. Vehicle systems under development include Intelligent Speed Control, Lane keeping, Adaptive Cruise Control, night vision, driver drowsiness detection while road-based systems include information services and signaling. Systems development is made on the basis of technological factors, experimental studies and human factors approaches. While improved safety is a prime objective of a number of these systems, there are currently few methods available to systematically assess the in-depth application of the technologies in specific accident situations.The paper reports on a new methodology for vehicle and traffic simulation that reproduces the drivers' and vehicles' actions in the period leading to a crash. Autonomous driver agents are used to simulate the observations, behavior and decision making of the driver while vehicle dynamics modules and road modules place the driver within the traffic and road context. To enable virtual drivers to…

The Strain-Rate Dependence of Mechanical Properties of Rabbit Knee Ligaments

Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.-Masaki Kabayama
Nagoya Univ.-Sota Yamamoto, Akinori Saito, Kei Nagasaka, Satoshi Sugimoto, Koji Mizuno, Eiichi Tanaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-06-0020
Published 2003-05-19 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
This study is concerned with the mechanical properties of knee joint ligaments, which are frequently injured in car-to-pedestrian collisions. Because of the lack of knowledge of the dynamic properties of these ligaments, there are some difficulties in finite element simulations of a car-to-pedestrian accident. Thus, we conducted tensile tests on the rabbit medial collateral ligament (MCL) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to evaluate the strain-rate dependence of their mechanical properties. The failure stress of the MCL increased with the strain rate. The avulsion load of the MCL tibial insertion was lower than the failure load of the MCL in all conditions tested. Three types of failure patterns were observed in the femur-ACL-tibia complex. The tangent modulus and the maximum stress of the ACL complex increased with the strain rate. The strain-rate dependence of the mechanical properties of knee ligaments was evaluated quantitatively. The results are expected to be useful for discussion of the injury criteria for the knee joint and its protection.

Vehicle Incompatibility Affects Occupant Extrication After Motor Vehicle Crashes

Medical College of Wisconsin and VA Medical Center-Frank A. Pintar, Narayan Yoganandan
Safe and Fast Extrication Inc.-John Olshanski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-06-0203
Published 2003-05-19 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Improvements in occupant extrication techniques are required due to enhanced safety features in modern vehicles. The research questions were focused on what force directions and what vehicle types, were most highly associated with an extricated occupant. Two national databases, FARS and CIREN were queried. Principal direction of force for the occupant vehicle and vehicle weight were used as delineating variables. From FARS data, the percentage of extricated occupants increased between 1993 and 2000. Left-sided crashes account for the highest percentage of occupants requiring extrication (18.8%) compared to occupants in rear crashes (lowest at 8.6%). Occupants in vehicles less than 2500 pounds were most often extricated (19.1%) compared to vehicles greater than 3500 pounds (lowest at 11.3%). From the CIREN database, for left-sided crashes, occupants required extrication 33.0% of the time when involved in truck-into-car crashes whereas car-into-car crash victims were extricated only 27.3%. These results imply an increased risk for extrication need for those occupants struck by a vehicle that is mismatched.

Spanish CRS Use and Effectiveness Survey Results

Royal Automobile Club of Spain-Jesus Monclus-Gonzalez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-06-0024
Published 2003-05-19 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
The main findings of a recent survey conducted in Spain (totaling 1011 questionnaires) analyzing within the crash environment in rural areas the use and effectiveness of Child Restraint Systems (CRS) are described in this paper. A total of 15 items of information were included in the questionnaire covering information about the crash, vehicle and road type, Principal Direction Of Force (PDOF), seating position, injury outcome (severity and injured body region), injury source and airbag interaction, other occupants' morbidity and CRS use. The survey showed that almost one out of four crashes was a rollover and that head-on collisions are still the most frequent crash mode (44 percent). Overall CRS use rate in the sample was very low, around 37%, meaning that non-use of child restraints is still a major issue for concern in Spain. Only 21% of the children where uninjured while 59% suffered from minor injuries. The survey includes seven cases with airbag interaction, whose particularities are discussed with some detail, though neither major concerns nor new findings are raised with this regard.

Study on Fuel Leakage Measurement System of Fuel Cell Vehicles

Japan Automobile Research Institute-Hiroyuki Mitsuishi, Yohsuke Tamura, Jinji Suzuki, Koichi Oshino, Shogo Watanabe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-06-0207
Published 2003-05-19 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Recently, the fuel cell vehicles (FCV) were actively developed in the world. JARI has been done and examined the basic data for FCV standardization as the entrustment of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) from 2000. We have examined the safety evaluation methods of fuel leakage at the normal usage condition and the collision condition, so that FCV use the compressed hydrogen gas as the fuel source.We have done the crash test using the moving barrier as simulated FCV to examine the fuel leakage measuring method as one of the safety evaluation methods of FCV. We examined the fuel leakage detection using the flow meter measurement method, as one of the fuel leakage measurement methods.The result is as follows: Sample fuel cell stack is not scattered; In the measurement with the flow meter, the gas leakage was undetectable.