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A Time-Saving Methodology for Optimizing a Compression Ignition Engine to Reduce Fuel Consumption through Machine Learning

SAE International Journal of Engines

Iran University of Science and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran-Majid Arab
Islamic Republic of Iran-Pourya Rahnama
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0019
Published 2020-02-07 by SAE International in United States
Applying a suitable design optimization technique is a crucial task for optimizing compression ignition engines because of the time-consuming process of optimization even with advanced supercomputers. Traditional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) used in conjunction with design of experiment (DOE) methods requires executing the CFD model several times. A response surface is usually fitted to relate the inputs to the outputs, which is often created based on linear regression. This method is not well suited to capture interaction effects between inputs and nonlinearities existing during engine combustion. A combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and CFD tools usually eventuates better optimum results. However, the CFD simulations must be executed sequentially, resulting in extremely high computational times, which makes it impossible to apply an optimization study using a single desktop computer. The current study examines a novel approach, which combines CFD, GA, and a type of machine learning approach, namely artificial neural networks (ANNs), in order to optimize a compression ignition engine to achieve its minimum indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC). Start of injection (SOI) timing and input…
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Finite Element Modeling of an Energy-Absorbing Guardrail End Terminal

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, USA-Wen Hu
Virginia Tech, USA-Yunzhu Meng, Costin Daniel Untaroiu
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-04-0021
Published 2020-02-07 by SAE International in United States
Guardrail end terminals are specifically designed to decelerate vehicles during impact and protect vehicle occupants from severe injuries. The main objective of this research was to develop and validate a Finite Element (FE) model of the ET-Plus, a commonly used energy-absorbing guardrail end terminal. The ET-Plus FE model was created based on publicly available data on ET-Plus dimensions and material properties. The model was validated against the NCHRP-350 crash tests 27-30 and 31-30 by performing crash simulations with a vehicle model at 100 km/h (62 mph) pre-impact velocity. To check the model robustness, crash simulations with vehicle pre-impact velocities from 97 km/h (60 mph) to 113 km/h (70 mph) were also performed. The developed ET-Plus FE model has a high-quality mesh and can replicate the energy-absorbing mechanism. The time histories of the vehicle yaw angle predicted in the FE simulations of the two NCHRP 350 crash tests showed good agreement with the corresponding test data. Additionally, the model was stable in crash simulations with the investigated range of pre-impact velocities, and both post-impact velocities and…
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A Technique of Estimating Particulate Matter Emission in Non-Road Engine Transient Cycle

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Tafe Motors and Tractor Ltd., India-Ajay Nain
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-04-0019
Published 2020-02-07 by SAE International in United States
Particulates are a major source of emission from diesel engine. They consist of particles of carbon, sulfates, oil, fuel, and water. These constituents are measured by filtering a sample diluted in a partial- or full-flow tunnel and weighing them. It is a general trend for measuring particulate matter (PM) on cycle basis. But 1-D simulation needs complete PM 3-D contour map considering all engine operating region. It is very tedious work for generating PM on each steady-state point on engine test bed. Hence, Filter smoke meter or opacimeter measurements can be used for estimating PM. Filter smoke meters measured the light reflected from a filter paper through which a known volume of exhaust gas was passed. Opacity meters measure light absorbed by a standard column of exhaust. Both equipments measure visible black smoke comparatively at lower expenditure cost. They are designed to control measurement noise, resolution and repeatability with acceptable accuracy level. Oil consumption and contribution of fuel sulfates are also considered in ISO 8178 R49, D2 and C1, India CEV Stage IIIA, India CPCB…
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Study on Multivariable Control for Air and Charging System of Gasoline Engine

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

BAIC Motor Corporation Powertrain Center, China-Fei Liu Shao
He Bei Agriculture University, China-Jiang Cai Zhen
  • Journal Article
  • 07-12-02-0006
Published 2020-02-07 by SAE International in United States
This study explores the multivariable multi-input–multi-output technique based on nonlinear models to decouple actuator interaction and to reduce the calibration workload, as well as to increase control performances, under transient conditions, and also explores the robustness on model uncertainties and system parameter variations. The development of a nonlinear dynamic physical model of air in gasoline engine and its charging system provides the for the control technology. The model uses feedback linearization control to decouple the interaction between actuators and compensate the nonlinearity. A new set of inputs was defined through inversing the differential equation of the system. The relationship between the new inputs and the output is linear and decoupled. In addition, a linear control module is used to ensure transient and steady-state performance as well as closed-loop robustness. The control method has been confirmed on the bench test with a three-cylinder gasoline engine prototype for hybrid electric vehicles. Transient test results show that the controller is able to coordinate the actuator to achieve the targets.
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Implementation and Optimization of a Variable-Speed Coolant Pump in a Powertrain Cooling System

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Navistar International Corp., USA-Michael C. Keblusek
Northern Illinois University, USA-Kyu Taek Cho
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-04-0020
Published 2020-02-07 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates methods to precisely control a coolant pump in an internal combustion engine. The goal of this research is to minimize power consumption while still meeting optimal performance, reliability and durability requirements for an engine at all engine-operating conditions. This investigation achieves reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions, and improved powertrain performance. Secondary impacts include cleaner air for the earth, reduced operating costs for the owner, and compliance with US regulatory requirements. The study utilizes mathematical modeling of the cooling system using heat transfer, pump laws, and boiling analysis to set limits to the cooling system and predict performance changes. The models are correlated with physical test data of one internal combustion engine, and a map is generated for allowable pump-speed reductions over all the conditions of engine speeds and torques, which provides insight into thermal behavior in the cooling loop and critical information to conduct optimal thermal design. It is found that speed-variable coolant pump could reduce the pump power up to 97%, and it could save the overall engine power consumption by…
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Infrared Camera for ADAS and Autonomous Sensing

  • Professional Development
  • C1934
Published 2020-02-06

Advanced Driver Assist System (ADAS) and autonomous vehicle technologies have disrupted the traditional automotive industry with potential to increase safety and optimize the cost of car ownership. Among the challenges are those of sensing the environment in and around the vehicle. Infrared Camera sensing is seeing a rapid growth and adoption in the industry. The applications and illumination architecture options continue to evolve. This course will provide the foundation on which to build near infrared camera technologies for automotive applications.

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Optimal Design for Maximum Fundamental Frequency and Minimum Intermediate Support Stiffness for Uniform and Stepped Beams Composed of Different Materials

Helwan University-Elsawaf Ahmed, Elsayed Tamer, Farghaly Said
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5014
Published 2020-02-06 by SAE International in United States
The minimum support stiffness that achieves the maximum modal frequencies or critical speed is very important in the design of mechanical systems. The optimal values of the intermediate support stiffness and geometrical parameters of uniform and stepped Timoshenko beams composed of single or two materials are studied in order to maximize the modal frequency and minimize the intermediate support stiffness. Dynamic stiffness matrix (DSM) method and multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm are used together to evaluate new optimal parameters. For single material, the results show that for uniform thick beams, the optimal maximum fundamental frequency and minimum intermediate support stiffness are lower than those of Bernoulli-Euler beams. In addition, the optimal design for stepped beams made of two metallic materials is investigated. For three different metallic combinations, gain factors of 1.561 to 2.745 are obtained for a beam without intermediate support. Comparison with experimental results is carried out. The current study and its results can be applied to improve the dynamic performance of many of industrial applications, such as guyed masts derricks, vertical tube…
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LIDAR for ADAS and Autonomous Sensing

  • Professional Development
  • C1935
Published 2020-02-06

Advanced Driver Assist System (ADAS) and autonomous vehicle technologies have disrupted the traditional automotive industry with potential to increase safety and optimize the cost of car ownership. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) sensing, a sensing method that detects objects and maps their distances, is seeing rapid growth and adoption in the industry. However, the sensor requirements and system architecture options continue to evolve. This course will provide the foundation on which to build LIDAR technologies in automotive applications.

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Root Cause Problem Solving: Methods and Tools

  • Professional Development
  • C1053
Published 2020-02-06
2 Days 1.3 CEUs
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Automotive Engineering: January/February 2020

  • Magazine Issue
  • 20AUTP02
Published 2020-02-06 by SAE International in United States
Heat seekers While engineers debate the use of thermal-imaging sensors for ADAS, their capability and value are being proven for AVs of all levels.EV battery-materials testing gets physical Reliable materials-testing methodologies are vital for progress in electric-vehicle battery development. A leader in the field explains.Engineered in plastic SPE's annual awards highlight new and interesting materials and their applications.Tremec's supercar DCT To polish the 2020 mid-engine Corvette's driving prowess, GM and Tremec engineers joined forces to create a new and better auto-mated transaxle.Editorial GM goes 'all in' on EVsSAE Standards News SAE publishes On-Route Mechanized Conductive EV Charging Systems Recommended PracticesSupplier Eye Sustaining business in the 2020sWhat We're DrivingTier 1s tout newest mobility tech at CES 2020'Laxatives' may ease challenge of lithium-ion alternativeMercedes Vision AVTR concept a beacon for sustainabilityBosch unveils electronic sun visorHyundai brings brave new tech to 2020 SonataVolvo's Polestar: powerhouse plug-in hybridQ&A Talking lidar with IBEO Automotive's Paula Jones