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An Innovative Solution for Safety Fastening System with Assured Tensile Stress and Prevailing Torque

Neumayer Tekfor Tech Center Brazil-Paulo César Sigoli, Mauro Moraes de Souza, Juliano Savoy, Hamilton Correa
Published 2011-10-04 by SAE International in United States
The guarantee of fastening on assembled joint is still a challenge for the designers, especially regarding the torque loss and consequent loosening of the fastening elements. Among the main reasons of accidents caused by the loosening of these elements, there is the incorrect way to apply the torque on the assembly line (too high or too low) and the possibility of jeopardizing the joint fastening due to vibration acting on the system.This paper presents a solution of fastening where the resistance of the joint loosening is given by the simultaneous application of tensile effort and prevailing torque on the elastic field of the component, which decreases the possibility of self-loosening.
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Challenges to Develop a Global Beam Pattern for ECE Markets Around the World

Ford Motor Co.-Luciano P. Lukacs, Mahendra Dassanayake
Published 2011-10-04 by SAE International in United States
The vehicular illumination system has undergone considerable technological advances in recent decades such as the use of a Light Emitting Diode (LED) and HID (high intensity discharge) lamps. However, the challenges to develop a global beam pattern for ECE markets have been quite difficult due to different needs in different regions. Global programs have to deal with the differences among costumer needs and desires. This paper shows the challenges to understand the different needs and highlights the opportunities for the future to improve road illumination and the driver's safety adopting simulations and different road scenarios.
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Influence of Agitation Rate on Residual Stresses and Distortion on Quenched AISI 5160 Steel

Rassini-NHK Autopeças-Cleber M. Chiqueti
Universidade de Sao Paulo-Renata Neves Penha, Lauralice C. F. Canale
Published 2011-10-04 by SAE International in United States
The rapid cooling in quenching heat treatment results in thermal stresses due to high thermal gradients. Thermal residual stresses can potentially affect the martensitic transformation as well the distortions. Distortion is one of the main problems of manufacturing and heat treatment is the main cause of this phenomena. It is known, that the quenchant agitation is a parameter that influences the cooling rates and consequently the residual stresses and distortions. In this way this work proposes to quench an AISI 5160 steel in three different levels of agitation, a conventional mineral oil at the same temperature. Cooling curves analysis, finite element simulation and metallographic observation support the obtained conclusions. It is found that a moderate agitation rate produces better results in terms of distortion and thermal residual stresses.
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Experimental and Numerical Modal Analysis of 6 Cylinders Diesel Crankshaft

ThyssenKrupp Metalúrgica Campo Limpo Ltda.-Alex Rodrigues, Rafael Lima e Silva, Robson Cruz
Universidade Estadual de Campinas-Milton Dias Júnior, Sergio Villalva
Published 2011-10-04 by SAE International in United States
The crankshaft dynamic behavior of internal combustion engines are deeply influenced by its geometry and modal parameters. The modal density of a 6 cylinder crankshaft is high and, therefore, it is necessary the evaluation of its several modal parameters during the crankshaft development. This paper presents the calculation of modal parameters such as: natural frequencies, modal shapes and damping factors; of a 6 cylinder in line crankshaft from a Diesel engine. Two approaches are conducted, firstly, a numeric calculation based on finite element method to collect the free body shape modes and its natural frequencies, respectively. Successively, an experiment is realized by the use of an electro-dynamic shaker to excite the structure, and accelerometers to measure the acceleration in 21 interest points of crankshaft geometry. The 3 directions FRFs are presented for each point, and also, the estimation of modal parameters obtained by tools like CMIF, Stabilization Diagram and Polymax. Gathering the results, it is possible to correlate experimental and numerical shape modes and natural frequencies, and at last, the estimated damping factors are used…
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Automatic Verification of Embedded Software of Automotive Electronic Modules based on Program Traces Executions

Federal University of Alagoas-Leandro Dias da Silva
Federal University of Campina Grande-Angelo Perkusic
Published 2011-10-04 by SAE International in United States
The development of embedded systems in automotive environment has brought a strong expansion in the number of applications dependent of programmable devices. A failure in any of these systems may cause different types of damages. Therefore, it requires a high confidence in their operation. Many of these faults are inserted during the coding process. A tool for formal verification of the implemented code could allow the detection of possible errors that could not be encountered during the testing phase. In this paper, we propose a method for verifying software from the reduced model of the software built automatically with information from multiple traces of program executions. To illustrate the application of the proposed method a case study for an automotive electronic module that controls the windshield wiper is presented.
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Definition of Engine Belt Length using the Statistic Dimensional Variation Analysis and Assembly Variation of Front Engine Accessories Drive

Cummins Brasil Ltda.-David Santos Baiao
Sigmetrix, LLC-Dan Lange
Published 2011-10-04 by SAE International in United States
This is a strong and solid methodology to define and/or verify how the dimensional schema of the parts and their statistical variation affect the assembly variation.This study has been done to fix an issue in the assembly line of a Cummins' customer. This is a problem that occurs during the assembly of the Linear Belt Tensioner.The voice of customer says “Many times it is too hard to assemble the Belt Tensioner!”The paper shows the analysis performed at Cummins Brazil. The analysis process utilized the Dimensional Variation Analysis methodology, statistical software - Minitab, Pro/Engineer and CETOL 6 Sigma to verify the length of the FEAD (Front Engine Drive Accessories) belt path., The results were compared with the variation of the Belt length.The voice of customer was proved by the three-dimensional DVA analysis. The design shows up to 16% of the FEADs could have problems during the assembly. The improvement in the assembly line and in the design has been defined based on these results and methodology.
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Emissions from Light Vehicles Adapted with CNG kit the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro

PETROBRAS/CENPES-Kenyo Colnago, Pedro Caffaro Vicentini
Published 2011-10-04 by SAE International in United States
The use of CNG in light-duty vehicles is well known and widespread in Brazil, mainly in the state of Rio de Janeiro. In theory, the application of this technology could provide greater energy efficiency and lower emissions of pollutants. However, it is known that the majority of CNG kits installed do not meet the environmental requirements established by the Brazilian legislation.This work quantifies the average emissions from light-duty vehicles converted to CNG use in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro, where 47% of the Brazilian CNG fleet runs. For this purpose, initially a field survey of gas stations was performed in this Region, in order to define the representativeness of CNG kits in terms of technology generation and brand, as well as manufacturer, model, displacement, original fuel and manufacture year of vehicles in which such kits were installed.Based on the results of this survey, six vehicles adapted with CNG kits were selected for FTP-75 tests of emissions and fuel economy in the Vehicle Testing Laboratory of PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES). Then it was calculated…
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Kinematic Constraints to Make Front and Rear Slip Angles Compatibles

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina-Rodrigo de Souza Vieira, Lauro Cesar Nicolazzi, Nestor Roqueiro
Published 2011-10-04 by SAE International in United States
Tires have been taking an important role in vehicle safety in the last years. A lot of efforts have been taken in the way that we can understand, predict and follow its behavior, in the way that this could be useful for vehicle safety increasing. In this direction, several models describe the tire interaction with ground, considering the steering angle, pressure, temperature, friction coefficient and thread as well. Inside this analysis, there is the tire slip angle value, that is consequence of lateral forces acting over the tire. This characteristic is predicted in some cases, and evaluated on another ones. This paper brings to community another point of view of slip angle. We propose a mathematical model that describes a constraint linking slip angles and steering angle, in the way that makes the vehicle turns. We present the kinematic model that makes all three angles compatibles each other, function of the radius' corner. This model was simulated under two different scenarios, for an udersteering and an oversteering vehicles. At the end we show the results…
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On the Influence of Housing Stiffness on Bearings Life for Manual Automotive Transmissions through Coupled Simulations

Schaeffler Brasil Ltda.-Alan Esteves de Morgensztern, Fábio Nonato
Published 2011-10-04 by SAE International in United States
One of the vital parts in the modern motor vehicle is the transmission. Any fault on the system can hazard the usage of the vehicle, especially if the fault occurs during the operation, in that case safety will be an issue. Thus, in order to improve reliability and durability of transmissions systems and its components, virtual simulations can help the designer to overcome faulty conditions during the design conception. However, many times the simulations do not relate to the real world application, due to simplification and assumptions that were formally known as appropriate. For that reason, during the process of designing a transmission bearing, it would be important to take into account the housing stiffness effects on the bearings. In this work, three different cases will be evaluated. In first case, bearings life will be simulated on an analytical software with a rigid housing. Second, bearings will be simulated with a flexible housing and, finally, a simulation with a reinforced housing will be made. Hence, the effects of the housing can be seen on the…
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The Evolution of Microelectronics in Automotive Modules

General Motors-Rafael Navarenho de Souza, Leonardo Navarenho de Souza Fino
Published 2011-10-04 by SAE International in United States
It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.Electronic systems are related with some automotive technologies such as fuel economy, lower emissions, battery management, electromagnetic compatibility, high temperature management and others, so that new devices are needed in order to support developments.
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