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Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment through an Integrated Simulation Approach

Continental-Naroa Zaldua-Moreno, Lorenzo Pace
Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48 V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further improve fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. The results presented in this paper are from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48 V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module. The novel simulation approach undertaken uses an integrated toolchain capturing thermal, electrical and mechanical energy usage across all powertrain sub-systems. Through integrating 0-D and 1-D sub-models into a single modelling environment, the operating strategy of the technologies can be optimised while capturing the synergies that exist between them. This approach enables improved and more informed cost/benefit ratios for…
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Statistical Approach on Visualizing Multi-Variable Interactions in a Hybrid Breakup Model under ECN Spray Conditions

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ricardo UK Ltd-Kenan Mustafa, Andrew Ward
Univ of Brighton-Robert Morgan, David Mason, Morgan Heikal
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-24-0104
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach to solving the fundamental transport equations down to the smallest scales of motion is favorable should the requirement be a truly predictive solution of fluid dynamic problems, but the simulation run times are unacceptable for most practical industrial applications. Despite the steadily increasing computational capabilities, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based frameworks remain the most commercially viable option for high volume sectors, like automotive. The sub models within RANS simplify the description of key physical phenomena and include several numerical constants. These so-called “tuning constants” introduce multivariable dependencies that are almost impossible to untangle with local sensitivity studies. This paper addresses the prevailing difficulties in setting up an adequate diesel spray simulation which arise from the mentioned multi-variable interactions of these “tuning constants”, by applying a statistical approach named Design of Experiments (DoE).Often combined with an optimizer, DoE is commonly used to find an optimum set of engine parameters for set criteria at reduced experimental effort. In this case, the methodology was applied to determine an optimal set of “tuning…
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Assessment of Light Duty Diesel After-Treatment Technology Targeting Beyond Euro 6d Emissions Levels

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ricardo UK Ltd.-Andrew Auld, Andrew Ward, Kenan Mustafa, Benjamin Hansen
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0978
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Since previous publications, Ricardo have continued to investigate the development of advanced after-treatment technologies through model based system simulation using an integrated model based development (IMBD) approach. This paper presents the results of the evaluation of after-treatment systems and management strategies for a range of diesel passenger cars. The targets of this study are applicable to Real Driving Emissions (RDE) legislation, but now targeting emissions levels beyond Euro 6d. The work was carried out as part of the EC Horizon 2020 co-funded REWARD (Real World Advanced technologies foR Diesel engines) project. Owing to the wide variation in feed-gas properties expected over an RDE cycle, the results seen for current production system architectures such as Lean NOX traps (LNT) or actively dosed Selective Catalytic Reduction (aSCR) systems highlight the challenge to adhere to emissions limitations for RDE legislation whilst fulfilling stringent CO2 targets. Optimisation of both the after-treatment system configuration and control strategies are required. Vehicle simulation has been performed with a range of after-treatment system specifications and engine-out feed-gas properties. The work includes an assessment…
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The Drive for Minimum Fuel Consumption of Passenger Car Diesels: An Analytical Study to Evaluate Key Architectural Choices

Ricardo UK Ltd.-Richard Cornwell, Huntly Thomas, Joshua Dalby, Phil Carden, Brian Knight, Andrew Ward, Grace Carr
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Fuel consumption, and the physical behaviours behind it, have never been of greater interest to the automotive engineering community. The enormous design, development and infrastructure investment involved with a new engine family which will be in production for many years demands significant review of the base engine fundamental architecture.Future CO2 challenges are pushing car manufacturers to consider alternative engine configurations. As a result, a wide range of diesel engine architectures are available in production, particularly in the 1.4 to 1.6 L passenger car market, including variations in cylinder size, number of valves per cylinder, and bore:stroke (B/S) ratio. In addition, the 3 cylinder engine has entered the market in growing numbers, despite its historic NVH concerns.Ricardo has performed a generic architecture study for a midsize displacement engine in order to assess the pros and cons of each engine configuration. A range of concept engine designs were prepared, drawing heavily on design guidelines and benchmarking information. Friction analysis was used to predict friction levels for each design. 1-D gas dynamics simulation was used for performance and…
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Achieving Diesel Vehicle Appeal Part 2: Powertrain NVH Perspective

Ricardo Inc-Craig Towalski
Ricardo UK-Jason March, Andrew Ward, Colin Bennett
Published 2005-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Diesel vehicle sales in the European passenger car market are rapidly approaching 50% market share. This rise in penetration has been achieved because buyers are attracted by the fuel consumption benefits of diesel powertrains and are now able to select from a wide range of desirable products with excellent performance and levels of refinement competitive with gasoline powered products. In a highly competitive marketplace there is increasing emphasis on the development of appealing diesel products, with the dominant factor being powertrain NVH performance.This paper compliments an earlier paper [1] on the vehicle NVH process required to achieve high ‘diesel appeal’ by providing a more detailed powertrain NVH perspective. It focuses upon: Key powertrain NVH issuesNVH target setting at a powertrain levelCombustion system design & calibration optimizationPowertrain structural optimization Case studies are drawn from a range of relevant powertrain NVH projects to illustrate the application of key supporting tools and technologies: Combustion noise analysis including noise source identification, characterization and monitoring using a novel analyzer systemCombustion noise optimization using a design of experiment approachOptimization using structural…
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Minimising Turbocharger Whoosh Noise for Diesel Powertrains

Ford Motor Company Ltd.-Dominic Evans
Ricardo UK Ltd.-Andrew Ward
Published 2005-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Diesel vehicle buyers in Europe are now able to select from a wide range of desirable products with excellent performance and levels of refinement competitive with gasoline engine products. However, the trend towards higher ratings and increased low speed torque appears to have resulted in increased levels of turbocharger generated flow or ‘whoosh’ noise.This paper discusses the phenomenon of turbocharger whoosh and its impact on powertrain [1] and vehicle level NVH [2] focusing on: Possible mechanisms for whoosh noise occurrenceThe effect of turbocharger compressor selection on whoosh noiseMechanisms for the radiation of whoosh noisePotential countermeasures for reducing turbocharger whoosh Case studies are drawn from a range of relevant powertrain NVH projects to illustrate the turbocharger whoosh noise development process.The paper includes an insight to the future development of predictive tools for the whoosh noise phenomenon.
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