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Development of a Vehicle-Level Simulation Model for Evaluating the Trade-Off between Various Advanced On-Board Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Michael Veenstra
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Thornton, Aaron Brooker, Jonathon Cosgrove
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
One of the most critical elements in engineering a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is the design of the on-board hydrogen storage system. Because the current compressed-gas hydrogen storage technology has several key challenges, including cost, volume and capacity, materials-based storage technologies are being evaluated as an alternative approach. These materials-based hydrogen storage technologies include metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and adsorbent materials, all of which have drawbacks of their own. To optimize the engineering of storage systems based on these materials, it is critical to understand the impacts these systems will have on the overall vehicle system performance and what trade-offs between the hydrogen storage systems and the vehicle systems might exist that allow these alternative storage approaches to be viable.To gain a better understanding of the interactions that exist between various materials-based hydrogen storage systems and the vehicle system as well as the engineering challenges that exist when integrating one of these systems with a vehicle, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a vehicle-level model designed to be sensitive to these issues. The Hydrogen…
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Technology Improvement Pathways to Cost-effective Vehicle Electrification

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Aaron Brooker, Matthew Thornton, John Rugh
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Electrifying transportation can reduce or eliminate dependence on foreign fuels, emission of green house gases, and emission of pollutants. One challenge is finding a pathway for vehicles that gains wide market acceptance to achieve a meaningful benefit. This paper evaluates several approaches aimed at making plug-in electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) cost-effective including opportunity charging, replacing the battery over the vehicle life, improving battery life, reducing battery cost, and providing electric power directly to the vehicle during a portion of its travel. Many combinations of PHEV electric range and battery power are included. For each case, the model accounts for battery cycle life and the national distribution of driving distances to size the battery optimally. Using the current estimates of battery life and cost, only the dynamically plugged-in pathway was cost-effective to the consumer. Significant improvements in battery life and battery cost also made PHEVs more cost-effective than today's hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (CVs).
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Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management for Advanced Vehicle Propulsion Technologies

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Kevin Bennion, Matthew Thornton
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A critical element to the success of new propulsion technologies that enable reductions in fuel use is the integration of component thermal management technologies within a viable vehicle package. Vehicle operation requires vehicle thermal management systems capable of balancing the needs of multiple vehicle systems that may require heat for operation, require cooling to reject heat, or require operation within specified temperature ranges. As vehicle propulsion transitions away from a single form of vehicle propulsion based solely on conventional internal combustion engines (ICEs) toward a wider array of choices including more electrically dominant systems such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), new challenges arise associated with vehicle thermal management. As the number of components that require active thermal management increase, so do the costs in terms of dollars, weight, and size. Integrated vehicle thermal management is one pathway to address the cost, weight, and size challenges. The integration of the power electronics and electric machine (PEEM) thermal management with other existing vehicle systems is one path for reducing the cost of electric drive systems. This…
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Biodiesel Effects on U.S. Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Emission Control Systems - Part 2

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

FEV Inc.-Marek Tatur, Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Dean Tomazic
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Thornton, Robert L. McCormick
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0281
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Raising interest in Diesel powered passenger cars in the United States in combination with the government mandated policy to reduce dependency of foreign oil, leads to the desire of operating Diesel vehicles with Biodiesel fuel blends.There is only limited information related to the impact of Biodiesel fuels on the performance of advanced emission control systems. In this project the implementation of a NOx storage and a SCR emission control system and the development for optimal performance are evaluated. The main focus remains on the discussion of the differences between the fuels which is done for the development as well as useful life aged components.From emission control standpoint only marginal effects could be observed as a result of the Biodiesel operation. The NOx storage catalyst results showed lower tailpipe emissions which were attributed to the lower exhaust temperature profile during the test cycle. The SCR catalyst tailpipe results were fuel neutral. The engine-out emissions formation showed increased NOx and decreased HC emissions with the Biodiesel blend. The observed effect specifically on NOx was up to 10%…
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Effects of Biodiesel Operation on Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Emission Control Systems

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

FEV Inc.-Marek Tatur, Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Dean Tomazic
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Thornton
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0080
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to raising interest in diesel powered passenger cars in the U.S. in combination with a desire to reduce dependency on imported petroleum, there has been increased attention to the operation of diesel vehicles on fuels blended with biodiesel. One of several factors to be considered when operating a vehicle on biodiesel blends is understanding the impact and performance of the fuel on the emission control system.This paper documents the impact of the biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions as well as the overall system performance in terms of emission control system calibration and the overall system efficiency.The testing platform is a light-duty HSDI diesel engine with a Euro 4 base calibration in a 1700 kg sedan vehicle. It employs 2nd generation common-rail injection system with peak pressure of 1600 bar as well as cooled high-pressure EGR. The study includes 3 different fuels (U.S. ULSD -base fuel; and B5 and B20 prepared from soy-derived biodiesel) with two different emission control systems (ECS) (NOx adsorber catalyst (NAC) with a diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction…
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Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System

FEV Engine Technology, Inc.-Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic, Heather Tyrer
Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association-Joseph Kubsh
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The U.S. Tier 2 emission regulations require sophisticated exhaust aftertreatment technologies for diesel engines. One of the projects under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Controls (APBF-DEC) activity focused on the development of a light-duty passenger car with an integrated NOx (oxides of nitrogen) adsorber catalyst (NAC) and diesel particle filter (DPF) technology. Vehicle emissions tests on this platform showed the great potential of the system, achieving the Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards with new, but degreened emission control systems. The platform development and control strategies for this project were presented in 2004-01-0581 [1].The main disadvantage of the NOx adsorber technology is its susceptibility to sulfur poisoning. The fuel- and lubrication oil-borne sulfur is converted into sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the combustion process and is adsorbed by the active sites of the NAC. As a result, they are unavailable for NOx storage. This leads to a drop in system performance. In order to recover the active sites, the bound sulfates need to be released. The necessary conditions…
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Tier 2 Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

Battelle Memorial Institute-John Orban, Elizabeth Slone
FEV Engine Technology-Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability, the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the United States is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies-such as high-pressure, common-rail fuel systems; low-sulfur diesel fuel; oxides of nitrogen (NOx) adsorber catalysts or NACs; and diesel particle filters (DPFs)-allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) teamed with industry to engage in several testing projects under the Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Controls (APBF-DEC) activity [1; 2; 5; 6; 7; 8]. Three…
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Fuel Sulfur Effects on a Medium-Duty Diesel Pick-Up with a NOX Adsorber, Diesel Particle Filter Emissions Control System: 2000-Hour Aging Results

Battelle Memorial Institute-John Orban, Elizabeth Slone
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Thornton
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Increasing fuel costs and the desire for reduced dependence on foreign oil have brought the diesel engine to the forefront of future medium-duty vehicle applications in the United States due to its higher thermal efficiency and superior durability. One of the obstacles to the increased use of diesel engines in this platform is the Tier 2 emission standards. In order to succeed, diesel vehicles must comply with emissions standards while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies-such as common rail fuel injection systems, low-sulfur diesel fuel, oxides of nitrogen (NOX) adsorber catalysts or NACs, and diesel particle filters (DPFs)-allows for the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with these future requirements. In support of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has engaged in several test projects under the Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control (APBF-DEC) activity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. Three of the APBF-DEC projects evaluated the sulfur tolerance of a NAC/DPF system and the full useful life implications of NAC desulferization. The test bed for one…
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Tier 2 Intermediate Useful Life (50,000 Miles) and 4000 Mile Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) Exhaust Emission Results for a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

FEV Engine Technology-Marek Tatur, Heather Tyrer, Dean Tomazic
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Thornton
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Due to its high efficiency and superior durability the diesel engine is again becoming a prime candidate for future light-duty vehicle applications within the United States. While in Europe the overall diesel share exceeds 40%, the current diesel share in the U.S. is 1%. Despite the current situation and the very stringent Tier 2 emission standards, efforts are being made to introduce the diesel engine back into the U.S. market. In order to succeed, these vehicles have to comply with emissions standards over a 120,000 miles distance while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as high-pressure common-rail fuel systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with the light-duty Tier 2 emission requirements. In support of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has engaged in several test projects under the Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Controls (APBF-DEC) activity [1; 2; 5; 6]. The primary technology being addressed by these projects…
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Achieving Tier 2 Bin 5 Emission Levels with a Medium Duty Diesel Pick-Up and a NOX Adsorber, Diesel Particulate Filter Emissions System-Exhaust Gas Temperature Management

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Thornton
Southwest Research Institute-Cynthia C. Webb, Phillip A. Weber
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
Increasing fuel costs and the desire for reduced dependence on foreign oil has brought the diesel engine to the forefront of future medium-duty vehicle applications in the United States due to its higher thermal efficiency and superior durability. The main obstacle to the increased use of diesel engines in this platform is the upcoming extremely stringent, Tier 2 emission standard. In order to succeed, diesel vehicles must comply with emissions standards while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as common rail fuel injection systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOX adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with these future requirements. In meeting the Tier 2 emissions standards, the heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. In support of this, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has engaged in several test projects under the Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control (APBF-DEC) activity. The primary technology being addressed by these projects is…
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