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Effect of Octane on the Performance of Two Gasoline Direct Injection Passenger Cars

BP International Ltd-John Williams
Concawe-David Rickeard, Heather Hamje
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The performance aspect of gasoline combustion has traditionally been measured using Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance, while also helping refiners in the production of gasoline. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. It has also been suggested that there could be fuel efficiency benefits (on a tank to wheels basis) for specially adapted engines, for example, operating at higher compression ratio, on very high RON (100+). Other workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both RON and MON to give an indication of octane quality.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline vehicles under full throttle acceleration conditions. Fifteen fuels…
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Evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel Performance in Advanced Diesel Common Rail FIE

Delphi Diesel Systems-Paul Lacey, Jean Marc Kientz, Sandro Gail, Nebojsa Milovanovic
Shell Global Solutions Maylasia-Ratchatapong Boonwatsakul
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
An increasing range of conventional and unconventional feed stocks will be used to produce fuel of varying chemical and physical properties for use in compression ignition engines. Fischer-Tropsh (F-T) technology can be used to produce fuels of consistent quality from a wide range of feed stocks. The present study evaluates the performance of F-T fuel in advanced common rail fuel injection systems. Laboratory scale tests are combined with proprietary engine and electrically driven common rail pump hydraulic rig tests to predict long-term performance. The results obtained indicate that the performance of F-T fuel is at least comparable to conventional hydrocarbon fuels and superior in a number of areas. In particular, the lubricity of F-T fuel was improved by addition of lubricity additives or FAME, with minimal wear under a wide range of operating conditions and temperatures. No deposits or lacquer was produced on fuel injection system components; even under relatively severe operating conditions.
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Fuel Effects on Emissions from Gasoline Vehicles for the Asian Market

Shell Global Solutions (Malaysia) Sdn.Bhd.-Ean-Bee Loke, Colin Chin
Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Richard Stradling, Peter J Zemroch
Published 2008-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the influence of gasoline composition on exhaust emissions has been evaluated using three gasoline vehicles. Although the vehicles were obtained within Europe, each is representative of models to be found in Asian markets. Two of the vehicles were current Euro 4 certification, while the third was of Euro 2 certification equivalent to that available in specific Asian markets.Fuel effects studied included aromatics, olefins and benzene content. Other fuel properties were held constant within the normal constraints of blending when using realistic gasoline components. An orthogonal matrix of eight fuels was blended to evaluate these properties over the ranges: Aromatics (excluding benzene) 34% to 49%, olefins 18% to 25% and benzene 1% to 5%.All fuels were tested in all three cars driving the current legislative NEDC cycle, using a randomised block design with at least 3 repeats on each fuel/vehicle combination. This paper will describe the results obtained and compare the fuel effects in context with similar test programmes, demonstrating the low sensitivity of exhaust emissions from modern vehicles to these fuel properties.
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Fuel Effects on Regulated Emissions From Advanced Diesel Engines and Vehicles

AVL List GmbH, Graz Austria-Theodor Sams, Alexandra Neunteufel
CONCAWE-Neville Thompson
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of sulphur-free fuels will enable advanced engine and exhaust after-treatment technologies to meet increasingly stringent exhaust emissions regulations. As these cleaner fuels and vehicles are introduced, the potential for further improvements in air quality through changes to fuel properties can be expected to diminish. Nevertheless, CONCAWE has continued to update knowledge by evaluating fuel effects on emissions from new engine/vehicle technologies as they approach the market.In this work, carried out as part of CONCAWE's contribution to the EU “PARTICULATES” consortium [1], two advanced light-duty diesel vehicles and three heavy-duty diesel engines covering Euro-3 to Euro-5 technologies, were tested. The fuels tested covered a range of sulphur content and compared conventional fuels with extreme fuel compositions such as Swedish Class 1 and Fischer Tropsch diesel fuels.The emissions benefits from the advanced engine/vehicle technologies operating on sulphur-free fuels are impressive and likely to bring substantial improvements in European air quality as the vehicle fleet is replaced. Particulate filters have the potential to reduce diesel particulate mass (PM) emissions by more than an order of magnitude.…
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Fuel Effects on Regulated Emissions from Modern Gasoline Vehicles

BP Global Fuels Technology-Roberto Bazzani
CONCAWE-Neville Thompson
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
The influence of gasoline quality on exhaust emissions has been evaluated using four modern European gasoline cars with advanced features designed to improve fuel economy and CO2 emissions, including stoichiometric direct injection, lean direct injection and MPI with variable valve actuation.Fuel effects studied included sulphur content, evaluated over a range from 4 to 148 mg/kg, and other gasoline properties, including aromatics content, olefins content, volatility and final boiling point (FBP).All four cars achieved very low emissions levels, with some clear differences between the vehicle technologies. Even at these low emissions levels, all four cars showed very little short-term sensitivity to gasoline sulphur content. The measured effects of the other gasoline properties were small and often conflicting, with differing directional responses for different vehicles and emissions.
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Overview of the European “Particulates” Project on the Characterization of Exhaust Particulate Emissions From Road Vehicles: Results for Light-Duty Vehicles

AVL MTC-Claes de Serves
CONCAWE-Neville Thompson
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an overview of the results on light duty vehicles collected in the “PARTICULATES” project which aimed at the characterization of exhaust particle emissions from road vehicles. A novel measurement protocol, developed to promote the production of nucleation mode particles over transient cycles, has been successfully employed in several labs to evaluate a wide range of particulate properties with a range of light duty vehicles and fuels. The measured properties included particle number, with focus separately on nucleation mode and solid particles, particle active surface and total mass. The vehicle sample consisted of 22 cars, including conventional diesels, particle filter equipped diesels, port fuel injected and direct injection spark ignition cars. Four diesel and three gasoline fuels were used, mainly differentiated with respect to their sulfur content which was ranging from 300 to below 10 mg/kg. All data (both real time and integrated) were collected in a common data base and centrally analyzed using common formats and methodologies, in order to eliminate inconsistencies and optimize comparability. Results show that particulate emissions are dramatically…
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DETR/SMMT/CONCAWE Particulate Research Programme: Light Duty Results

CONCAWE, BP; CONCAWE, Shell-Diane Hall, Richard Stradling
Ricardo Consulting Engineers-Jon D Andersson, Barbara G. A. Wedekind
Published 2001-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The DETR/SMMT/CONCAWE Particulate Research Programme was designed to investigate the effects of vehicle/engine technology level, fuel specification and various operating conditions on emissions of particle mass, number and size. Results from the heavy duty part of the programme and details of the measuring protocols have already been published. This paper gives the results of the light duty study. This consisted of six vehicles and eight fuels covering gasoline, Diesel and LPG technologies.These six vehicles represented Euro II (1996) and Euro III (2000) technologies. Diesel fuels included EN590 (1996), EN590 (2000), UK ultra low sulphur Diesel (UK ULSD) and Swedish Class I Diesel, while gasoline fuels comprised EN228 (1996), EN228 (1999) and UK ultra low sulphur gasoline (UK ULSG).Particle mass measurements were undertaken via the regulated method while the mass weighted size distribution was determined with a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) covering a size range from <56nm to 10μm. Particle number measurements and number-size distributions were performed with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). In addition to the particulate mass, the other regulated emissions…
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DETR/SMMT/ CONCAWE Particle Research Programme: Heavy Duty Results

CONCAWE, BP-Diane Hall
CONCAWE, Shell-Richard Stradling
Published 2000-10-16 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in mass and number based heavy duty diesel engine particle emissions with respect to various test conditions, engine technologies and fuel specifications. Comparative particle size data and regulated particulate matter are presented from three heavy duty engines and three fuels.This paper describes results from the DETR/CONCAWE/SMMT Particle Research Programme. Three heavy duty diesel (HDD) engines representing Euro I, II and III technologies were tested with a range of fuels. These fuels included UK ultra low sulphur diesel (UK-ULSD), EN590 (EU2000) specification and Swedish Class I fuels.Continuing research suggests that when changes in regulated particulate mass emissions are compared to both individual mode and total cycle mass and number weighted particle size distributions there is often no significant correlation. In an attempt to provide further data in this area the following measurement methodology was adopted.Two Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) instruments measuring number weighted particle size distribution were employed in order to cover a measurement range from ∼7nm to ∼710nm. The different configurations used with these…
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DETR/SMMT/CONCAWE Particle Research Programme: Sampling and Measurement Experiences

CONCAWE, BP-Diane Hall
CONCAWE, Shell-Richard Stradling
Published 2000-10-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the observed effects of parameters such as tunnel dilution ratio, test procedures and measurement methods on particle emissions. Attention is drawn to the transient behavior of nanoparticles within real legislated cycle conditions using conventional dilution systems. The aim of the paper is to communicate the limitations of widely used measurement equipment to enable a more confident interpretation of the particle size data.The paper describes the information obtained during the DETR/CONCAWE/SMMT Particle Research Programme with regard to the sampling and measurement of particles emitted from light duty vehicles and heavy duty engines. Light duty vehicles were tested on gasoline, diesel and LPG, while heavy duty engines were tested on both diesel and compressed gaseous fuels. Two Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) instruments were employed in order to cover a measurement range from a lower limit of ∼7nm up to ∼710nm. Particle mass measurements were undertaken with a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) covering a size range from <56nm to >10μm. Regulated Particulate matter measurements were also taken.The two SMPS systems performed well…
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The Influence of Fuel Properties and Injection Timing on the Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption of an Iveco Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Iveco Motorenforschung AG-Meinrad Signer
Iveco SpA-Claudio Operti
Published 1997-05-01 by SAE International in United States
Iveco and Shell have collaborated in a test programme on diesel emissions, which has investigated the effect of diesel fuel properties, in conjunction with the effect of fuel injection timing, on the regulated emissions from an advanced heavy-duty diesel engine. This study has contributed complementary information to that generated in the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine technology (EPEFE). Tests were performed over the R49 (13-mode) European cycle. The experimental programme covered a range of fuel properties, similar to those investigated by EPEFE (density, cetane number, polyaromatics and back-end distillation (T90)), but also included total aromatics. Fuel sulphur content, being relatively well understood with respect to particulate emissions, and in the absence of an oxidation catalyst, was not investigated. Care was taken in the preparation of the fuels to maximise the decorrelation of the selected properties.The selected engine was an Iveco 9.5 litre 6 cylinder 8460.41 prototype Euro. 2 truck engine. This was operated under both the standard injection timing setting, and under adjusted timing conditions for fixed NOx emissions. This timing compensation allowed…
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